Skip to main content

Full text of "Bushman dictionary"

See other formats



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 







Associate Editors 

Editor for this Volume: ZELLIG S. HARRIS 






Dorothea F. Bleek 



This volume has been published with the aid of the Unrversity 
of Ca-petown and the Council for Educational^ Sociological and 
Humanistic Research of the Government of the Union of South 


Copyright 1956 
By American Oriental Society 


This publication marks the culminating point of a ' family' research which extended over almost an 
entire century, for it was in 1857 or thereabouts that Dr. W. H. Bleek, eminent philologist and father of 
the late author, began to apply himself to the study of Bushman. At that period so little was yet known 
about these languages that the importance of this new step did not become manifest until much later; at 
first, therefore, it implied that Dr. Bleek would, as before, devote himself to Bantu and Hottentot, 
only interrupting his studies whenever fresh information on Bushman came to hand. 

Bleek' s philological interests covered a far wider field than would be indicated by the study of 
any particular language or group of languages. When, therefore, it came to Bushman it was purely through 
circumstance and not from choice that his initial research had to do with members of the later-named 
Southern Group, and that very soon this research narrowed down to |xam or the language of the Cape 

His earliest sources of information consisted mainly of vocabularies and phrases obtained from the 
writings of Arbousset and Lichtenstein. As a starting point Arbousset's material held no advantage since 
it referred to Seroa, a remotely situated dialect; what is more, the author had made no attempt to re- 
present the clicks, which were to prove one of the first stumbling-blocks, according to any preconceived 
system. Lichtenstein' s work claimed priority on the grounds that it indicated not only basic clicks, but 
also various click releases; moreover his work was in |xain, which gave Bleek the twofold opportunity of 
trying it out with Bushman convicts in the Cape Peninsula, and simultaneously of carrying forward his 
investigations into that language. His comparative vocabulary of Bushman and Hottentot which resulted 
from these earliest investigations formed a useful preliminary to the Bushman dictionary which soon was 
to engage his attention. 

In distinguishing difficult sounds peculiar to Bushman Bleek was at an early stage assisted by men 
who were working in the neighbouring field of Nama; those that have been mentioned were Hahn, Tindall 
and Kronlein. The last-named had in 1861 sent in a short manuscript on the Kalahari dialect of the 
|nusan'^ which shows a distinct advance on the work of predecessors. Apart from the labial click which is 
also noted here, the manuscript presents a singularly modern appearance, for Kronlein was of the Lepsius 
school and the orthography he employs for the clicks is basically the same as that in use today. 

As time wore on Dr. Bleek became increasingly conscious of the exigencies of this new field of 
study, so that Bushman from being a mere diversion from his main occupations became the primary object 
of research. In 1866 he examined the speech of two other Cape Bushmen one of whom was of mixed parentage, 
and although a substantial amount of material was collected —this also included a vocabulary of words 
without clicks - Bleek' s assiduity and painstaking nature had clearly not yet reaped its reward. The 
matter of adequately distinguishing between the clicks and other difficult sounds still proved a great 

In the year 1870 Bleek came to a momentous decision. It is today common knowledge how, after pilot- 
ing the first portion of the second part of his Comparative Gramniar through the press, he magnanimously 
laid aside his main work in order to retrieve for science what he could, before it might be too late . 

I am indebted to Dr. K.M.F. Scott, a niece of the late author, through whom I could draw on Miss 
Bleek's correspondence and other papers relating to the dictionary. Especially valuable were a few type- 
script pages dealing with the classification and distribution of the Bushman languages plus an index of 
references. These have been included here without substantial alterations. 

The correspondence also reveals what assistance Miss Bleek received from different quarters for which 
grateful acknowledgement is hereby made. This applies more especially to Professors Doke and Maingard for 
their expert advice, to Professor Lestrade and Mr. A.J.H. Goodwin for various helpful suggestions, and to 
Professor I. Schapera for the part he played in obtaining financial help and a suitable publisher. A word 
of thanks is also due to Dr. Helen Hause of Chicago, U.S.A. who prepared the typed copy of the dictionary 
for photostatic reproduction. 

For further material collected on this dialect vide Bleek, A Brief Account of Bushman Folklore and 
other Texts, p. JO; and , Lloyd, A Short Account of further Material collected, p. 27. 

W.H.I. Bleek, " Scientific Reasons for the Study of the Bushman Language" (Cape Monthly Maaazine 
Sept. 1873). 6 F / y , 

An unusual opportunity came in the above year when the presence of a fairly large number of Bushman con- 
victs at the Breakwater at Cape Town offered improved facilities for studying the language at first-hand. 
It was at this stage that the assistance of his sister-in-law and helpmate, Miss L. C. Lloyd, was of prime 
importance, and the part she played has perhaps never received adequate recognition. The progress, at 
first slow, gradually produced almost stupendous results, and as the text material piled up these two 
workers must at times have been sorely tried while attempting to keep pace with translations and word- 
indexing. The rate of progress can be gauged from the reports issued from time to time; thus in 1871 
their joint efforts had already produced several hundreds of pages of script, while for 1873 it was put 
down at " more than four thousand columns (half-pages quarto) ... besides a dozen genealogical tables, 
and other genealogical, geographical and astrological etc. notices. " By February 1875 this had further 
increased to about " 6,699 half-pages or columns (in seventy-seven volumes quarto)", and in May of the 
same year to 7,200 half-pages, contained in 84 volumes. In the light of improved knowledge two earlier 
vocabularies, a Bushman- English and an English- Bushman one, both based on work done before 1870, were 
revised. At the same time Bleek set about compiling a Bushman-English dictionary with an English index. 
He had practically completed sorting the card-entries when death took him away in August 1875. 

The loss at this juncture of a leader whose superior knowledge gave soul and motive to the undertak- 
ing was a severe one, but the family spirit of loyalty to a cause prevailed, and the research went on In 
the course of this unknown fields were opened up, for between 1879 and 1882 Miss Lloyd also carried the 
research to !kur], where the absence of the labial click and the appearance of another, the retroflex, was 
observed. In 1889 Miss Lloyd was able to report that since May 1875 a further collection of 4534 half- 
pages contained in 54 volumes had been made and that ! kug accounted for 1233 pages. A small additional 
amount supplied by other collectors further increased the total. It was also due to Miss Lloyd's untir- 
ing efforts and perseverance that eventually a portion of the texts was published under the title Speci- 
mens of Bushman Folklore (1911). From the purely lexicographical viewpoint, however, the two important 
achievements of the period, the outcome of all the research that had gone before, were a large manu- 
script dictionary of |xan) by Dr. Bleek and another of jxara and ! kuq by Miss Lloyd. 

By virtue of an overseas training'* and a practical knowledge of Bushman, which she had acquired 
from her aunt, Dorothea Bleek was well qualified to take over where her predecessors had left off. On 
her now devolved the self-imposed task of arranging and setting out what material had been handed down 
to her, and of implementing this material by further field research. She fulfilled the one without ne- 
glecting the other. Her actions at first were dictated by the need of field experience and a consider- 
able time passed before she ventured into print. Trips to different parts thus became the order of the 
day. In 1910 and 1911 Miss Bleek visited the Prieska and Kenhardt districts and this was followed by a 
sojourn in the Langeberg beyond Postmasburg to study the Language of the ||r) Bushmen. Another journey took 
took her up the Molopo to the Auhoup and Nossop where she collected . specimens of the speech of the 
launi^- ^"^ also travelled to Bechuanaland by ox-waggon and delved into the language oi the Masarwa; 
thereafter she visited Lake Chrissie in the eastern Transvaal to sample that of the Batwa. After a con- 
siderable break caused by the First World War, a fresh opportunity of conducting investigations with 
living Bushmen occurred in 1920 so that twice during the following year we find her at Sandfontein on 
the border of Bechuanaland. This produced an authoritative monograph dealing with the customs, folklore 
and speech of the Naron (or ||aikwe) together with a grammatical sketch of the tongue spoken by the 
||k"au— ||en ( Auen) . In the interval following she drew on information collected by her father and aunt and 
published a number of tales under the title The Mantis and His Friends (1923). A trip in 1925 took her 
to Angola where she concentrated on an area between the Rhodesian border and halfway to the coast. The 
knowledge so gained inspired her to write two articles on the Bushman inhabitants of that territory. Her 
investigations were to take her yet farther afield for in 1930 she visited Mkalama in Tanganyika where 
she obtained first-hand information on the speech of the Hadzapi, described as a semi-Bushman tribe. 

In spite of a certain continuity there was one respect in which Miss Bleek' s work differed from that 
of her father. The aims of the latter had been as much philological as linguistic, so that questions relat- 
ing to language types, or to the evolution and development of language in general, often formed the sub- 
ject of his discourse. It was in pursuance of these aims that he had been wont to compare Bantu with 
Hottentot, or again Hottentot with Bushman. In that special sense therefore a knowledge of Bushman to 
him also was a means to an end. Miss Bleek, on the other hand, directed her efforts exclusively to Bush- 
man itself with the object of determining the linguistic affinity and relationship between the languages 
or language groups concerned. Lack of opportunity would be the only reason why Dr. Bleek did not include 
this aspect in his research. Ill this respect his early observation that the dialects of the Cape Bushmen 
constituted a single language is significant; this was in fact the first step towards a classification, 
which he left to his suceessor to proceed with. Progressively, therefore, remarks on grouping and distri- 

This included a Teacher's Diploma obtained at Berlin in Germany. Miss Bleek also took a course at the 
the School of Oriental Studies, and after returning to South Africa she held a teacher's post at Cradock. 
This post she relinquished in order to be able to assist Miss Lloyd in preparing the book Specimens of 
Bushman Folklore for the press. Later she declined the degree of Ph.D. honoris causa from the University 
of Cape Town on the grounds that there could be only one Dr. Bleek. 

^A further opportunity of studying | aunio'ccurred in 1937 {Bantu Studies. Vol. XI, pp. 253-78). 

bution begin to appear in Miss Bleek's work; generally they are brief, whereas in Festschrift Meinhof 
(l927) they are given with much more detail. Shortly after, namely in 1929, she published her Comparative 
Vocabularies of Bushman Languages . It is a work of limited scope in that the author drew only on her own 
material and on that of Dr. Bleek, Miss Lloyd and S.S. Dornan, and the equivalents for the English voca- 
bulary are taken from eleven Bushman languages only. A classification into three groups is given once 
more, namely (a) a Northern Group stretching from north of Gobabis and Oas into Angola, comprising three 
languages referred to as NI, Nil and NIII; (b) a Southern Group with members in different parts of south- 
ern Africa, referred to as SI, SII, SIII, SIV, SV and SVI; finally (c) a Central Group with two languages 
CI and CII, lying east of the Northern Group and stretching across the Kalahari into Southern Rhodesia. 
The method of enumeration followed there has been retained in the present work, but in view of fresh 
knowledge it has been extended as the following survey shows. 


No. • 







!ku, !kur) 



Northern Kalahari, from the Oas- 
Ngami road in Bechuanaland to 
19' E. Long., S.W.A. 

Omurambu-Epikuro and the Nauk- 

luft, S.W.A. 
North of the Auen, i.e. from 

Grootfontein to the Okavango, 



hei ||kum 

Near Etosha Pan, S.W.A. 


a dialect 

Near Ukuambi, Ovamboland, 


a dialect 

Near Ukualuthu, S.W.A. 


! o ! kuq 

Eastern half of Central 


Bleek, D. F. 
Passarge, S. 
Schinz, H. 
Shortridge, C. 
Lebzelter, C. 

Doke, CM. 
Lloyd, L.C. 
Passarge, S. 
Schinz, H. 
Seiner, F. 
Shortridge, C. 
Vedder, H. 
Lebzelter, V. 
Seiner, F. 

Lebzelter, V. 

Lebzelter, V. 
Bleek, D. F. 












|xam Northern part of Cape south 
of Orange River east and 

a dialect Oudtshoorn 
||r) Langebergen in Griqualand 

West and southern Gordonia 

fkhomani Northern Gordonia 

|)kxau Near Kimberley 

||ku||e Near Theunissen 

Beroa Southern part of Orange 

Free State, near Bethany 
! ga ! ne Transkei 
batwa Lake Chrissie, eastern 

jauni Country between Nossop and 
(| auni) Auhoup, S. Kalahari 
khatia East of Nossop, S. Kalahari 

ki|hazi West of Auhoup, S. Kalahari 
masarwa Kakia in the south of 

Bechuanaland Protectorate 
|nu Ijen Upper Nossop and Auhoup, 

|nusan South of Auhoup, S.W.A. 

Bleek, W.H.I. 
Lichtenstein, M.H.C. 
Lloyd, L.C. 
Lloyd, L.C. 
Bleek, D. F. 

Doke, C. M. 
Kirby, P. R. 
Maingard, L. F. 
Meinhof, C. 
Bleek, D.F. 
Wuras, C. F. 
Arbousset, T. 
Anders, H. 
Bleek, D.F. 

Bleek, D.F. 

Bleek, D.F. 

Story, R. 
Bleek, D.F. 
Schultze, L. 
Bleek, D.F. 

Kronlein, J.G. 


CI hie or Near Tati, Southern Rhodesia Bryden, H. A. 

hiet/ware Dornan, S. S. 

(Masarwa) Selous, F. C. 

CIA sehura South-east of Ngami, Passarge, S. 


Clb mohissa East of Ngami, Bechuanaland Passarge, S. 

CII naron Near Sandfontein, on border Bleek, D. F. 

( ||aikwe) of S.W. A. and Bechuana- Passarge, S. 

land; West of Oas Schint, H. 

Shortridge, C. 

Clla tsaukwe West of Ngami, Bechuanaland Passarge, S. 

and north-east of Naron 

Cllb hukwe Caprivi region; north of Balme, F.N. 

the tsaukwe Zukowsky, L. 

cm hadza or At Lake Eyassi north of Bleek, D. F. 

hadzapi Mkalama, Tanganyika 

It will thus be seen that the dictionary deals with twenty-nine languages and dialects. Some are 
represented by a few words only, others by moderate, and a small number by fairly extensive or even full 
vocabularies, the latter being especially true of |xam. 

On the relationship existing between the three linguistic groups Miss Bleek expresses herself as 
follows. ^There is an underlying similarity, but this has partly become effaced through the circumstance 
that the development of the Central and Southern groups proceeded at a faster pace than that of the other. 
In the case of the Southern Group this development followed along specifically Bushman lines, whereas 
the Central became subjected to influence from either Hottentot or Bantu or from Both. In Hadza there 
is probably also a third influence, but this has not yet been determined. In spite of its greater sim- 
plicity of style the Northern Group nevertheless stands close to the Southern than to the Central; this 
simplicity is shared by members of the southern Group living in the Kalahari. She further comments on 
the characteristic variation of sound which may express itself in the speech of the same individual, and 
she quotes Maingard who considers this a powerful factor in the shaping of dialects. 

Miss Bleek' s success as a student and research worker is reflected in the many publications, sever- 
al of them major ones, which stand to her credit. It is therefore satisfying to know that, although the 
present work, begun in 1934 at the request of Professor Westermann, is being published posthumously, she 
lived to see the manuscript entrusted to the publishers. In compiling it she had made it her aim to in- 
clude every list of Bushman words that had ever been recorded - a most laborious undertaking, in that it 
meant scrutinizing whatever sources were known or presumed to have such lists. It further meant that 
larger vocabularies , representing different languages and dialects, had to be assembled. The desire to 
include as much as possible had its advantages even though it implied that unsupported data also had to 
find a place in what purports to be a comparative dictionary. 

In putting to use all this word material ivliss Bleek adopted the following general procedure. To the 
left or in the alphabetical sequence are placed, as would only be proper, the construed form of the en- 
tries, the entries themselves appearing to the right of the vertical alignment and in an unaltered form. 
Tliis statement has to be qualified by saying that circumstances and the author decide whether an entry 
is to be transcribed at all, and if so, whether partly or in full. Where a form lies beyond the know- 
ledge and control of the compiler, and is yet changed, the transcription of necessity is mechanical and 
pro forma. Renderings of known and unknown or presumed values thus occur side by side. This could only 
have been avoided at the cost of excluding all material about which there is any doubt. Sentences used 
for illustration are given in the compiler's orthography only. Most data are from Miss Bleek' s own re- 
researches and from that of her two immediate predecessors; a small quantity is provided by contempo- 
raries whose training and status entitle them to an honorary place. The rest is made up of material much 
of which lacks precision and which strictly speaking has an historical value only.' 

The phonetic script used by Miss Bleek is that of the I. P. A., with certain additions. From Pro- 
fessor Doke' s studies on fkhomani and ! kur) she adopted the symbols for the flapped retroflex consonant 
(j^) the flapped lateral consonant (J") and, in the typescript, the diacritic indicating pressed vowels. 
The latter was eventually abandoned in favour of I owing to difficulties in the printing which could 
only have been met at increased cost. Tlie clicks corresponding to those of Hottentot are indicated in the 
accepted manner, and most of Miss Bleek' s references do the same. Exceptions are a group including 
Lichtenstein, Passarge and Seiner, which uses numerals only, or else numerals combined with letter-sym- 

D.F. Bleek, " A Short Survey of the Bushman Languages" {Zeitschri ft fur Eingeborenen-Sprachen , Vol. 
XXX, pp. 52-72). 

For a summary of linguistic work done on Bushman languages cf. Bantu Studies, Vol. VII, no. 1, and 

the index of references appended to this introduction. 

bols; further there is Anderson, who employs the c, q, x of the Nguni languages. With Wuras open geo- 
metrical figures serve a like purpose. Doke devised a special set of symbols, but he uses them only in 
his phonetic study of !kur). Miss Bleek finds herself at variance with other writers on the form of a word, there would be 
diverse reasons why this is so. Sometimes the differences could be merely orthographical, or else due to 
the fact that different languages or dialects are involved. It is, however, equally true that there are 
differences which are fundamental and based on differing conceptions of the nature of the sound in ques- 
tion. Students of Bushman who are not informed will always regret that the compiler's life had run its 
course before she could clarify her attitude in regard to uncertainties arising from her transcription. 
The question may for instance be put why Meinhof's !°, which he himself equates with the voiced form 
(!g) of other sources, has been transcribed with !k. To ascribe this to a difference of opinion, or to 
say that here Miss Bleek' s transcription is purely formal, does not yet put the matter beyond conjecture. 
Especially noticeable, because of frequent occurrence, are those instances where her own click does not 
show glottal release, thus ! for I*^, !h for Doke' s !'^h. In writing the voiced and the unvoiced labial 
click, Miss Bleek does not subscribe to recent usage, preferring to perpetuate the family tradition of 
using 8b and 0p respectively. It is in keeping with this same tradition that she employs ! ! for the re- 
troflex flick, although Miss Lloyd, having been the first to use it, did not preserve the distinction be- 
tween this and the lateral click. On a different level are cases where the compiler attempts to improve 
on an orthography which quite obviously had become outdated. An example is her use of !k" for Bleek and 
Lloyd's \^ , ! "k, or even !vk; corresponding to this she uses k", by her named ejeqtivelcor a glottal 
croak'^, for an earlier JT and "k. Where the same two sources employ double consonants to indicate, as the 
compiler explains, emphatic pronunciation, these may or my not be reduced to the single symbol. TTiis 
practice covers a wide range of emitted consonants, being, for example, found with explosive (kk, kkh, tt, 
pp, dd) , nasals (nn) fricatives (ss, zz, ssh) and affricates (dzz, tss, ttss, ttch) . From the script Miss 
Bleek employs, it follows that the diacritics of earlier sources, or as applied by adherents of the 
Meinhof-Lepsius school, are done away with or are replaced; this would include the diaresis, the breve and 
and the macron. For the inferior diacritic r> used by Bleek, Lloyd and Meinhof with pressed vowels, she sub- 
stitutes % . The superior diacritic c of her two predecessors, which appears with clicks having affricate 
or fricative release, further with velar x and in composites with x (sx, tx, tsx) , is dropped altogether. 
The dash used by Passarge with certain sounds is interpreted as implying ejective articulation, hence ta"? 
for ts-, ts'^x for ts-ch. 

With these few observations, wRich supplement rather than replace explanations already given in the 
dictionary, our review has reached its conclusion. 

Of man's cultural assets none is in itself more adequate and more complete than his language, for 
in its vocal or its graphic expression it can also provide the key to other of these assets, and so to 
man himself. In so far as records of such expression have been preserved for the Bushmen, they niainly 
take the form of mythology, folklore and art. In this respect this very brief sketch, which primarily 
conceived as a tribute to the pioneer work of a distinguished family, is one-sided and therefore incom- 
plete. It is incomplete because it does no more than give a passing thought to the great mass of text 
material collected by Bkeek and Lloyd^ , which is of such value is assessing the mental and spiritual 
make-up of a primitive folk. As for Miss Bleek, her positive contributions to the subject of rockpaint- 
irigs in South Africa are in no way even mentioned here^^. Tliis outline is furthermore incomplete in 
that it omits practically all reference to other co-workers who since about 1910 have been taking part, 
in several instances by studying the Bushmen or their language from some particular and sometimes new 
aspect. All this and more will have to be borne in mind by anyone who at some time in the remote future 
tells the full story of Bushman research. What this will have to say of the efforts of particular auth- 
ors we may possibly surmise, but never fully predict. Much can, however, be inferred from what is al- 
ready known. With his reputation firmly established, nothing could now or afterwards detract from the 
value of Dr. Bleek' s achievements, which assure him of a lasting place in the world of philological 
science. To Miss Lloyd, his faithful collaborator, who proved her worth in so many ways, will be accord- 

^For the sake of brevity and to simplify comparison, only the pala to-alveolar click is used in this 
discussion. The phenomena described, however, would in a like manner apply to clicks other than the 
labial and, to some extent, the retroflex. 

^Previously Miss Bleek had distinguished k" with kx*?, cf. the compiler's remarks under the appro- 
priate heading in the dictionary. In the Theunissen district, where Bushmen and Koran^^ formerly lived 
side by side, the articulation of two old Kora men induced me to distinguish between X and X. 

l^That which has been published includes Specimens of Bushman Folklore and The Mantis and his Friends 
already mentioned; in addition " Customs and Beliefs of the | xam Bushmen" (Bantu Studies, Vols. V-VII, 
IX-X), " ! Kun Mythology" (Zeitschrift fur Eingeborener -Sprachen , Vol. XXV). 

^■'^D.F. Bleek, Introduction and Notes to Rockpaintings in South Africa (London, 1930); idem, " A Sur- 
vey of our Present Knowledge of Rockpainting in South Africa" {S.A.J.S., 1936), idem. Introduction and 
Notes to More Rockpaintings in South Africa (London, 1940). 

ed the honour of having her name mentioned whenever his is remembered. For Dorothea Bleek, finally, will 
be reserved a special niche for signal service to Bushman linguistics in general, and more particularly 
for service in establishing the relationship between the Bushman languages of Southern Africa. 

University of Pretoria 


November, 1952 

J. A. Engelbrecht 


(An.) Anders, H., "A note on a South-Eastern Bushman dialect" ( Zeitschrift fur 

Eingeborenen-Sprachen , Vol. XXV, No. 2). 

(Arb.) Arbousset & Daumas, Narrative of an exploratory Tour to the North- East of the 
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town, 1846). 

(A-son.) Anderson, G. J., MS List in letter to Miss Lloyd, 1878. 

(Bal.) Balme, F. N., "Caprivi Field Notes and Native Names" (in litt.), quoted from 

Shortridge's Mammals of South West Africa . 

(B.) Bleek, W. H. I., MS Collection (1870-1875). 

(B. early) Bleek, W. H. I., MS Collection in Grey Collection at S. A. Public Library, Cape 

Town, entitled: Hottentot Dialects, A Vocabulary of the Dialects of the Hottentot 
and Bushmen (1857). 

(D.B.) Bleek, D. F., MS Collections. 

(Dk.) Doke, C. M., "An outline of the phonetics of the language of the Ohu) Bushmen of the 

North-west Kalahari" ( Bantu Studies, Vol II, No. 3, 1925); ditto "An outline of 
;^khomani Bushman phonetics" ( Bantu Studies , Vol. X, No. 4, 1936). 

(Do.) Dornan, S. S., "The Tati Bushmen (Masarwas) and their language" (Journal of the 

Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. XLVII, 1917). 

(Ka.) Kaufmann, H. L., "Die ;^Auin. Ein Beitrag zur Buschmannforschung" ( Mitteilungen 

aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten, Vol. XXni, 1910). 

(Ki.) Kirby, P. R., "The musical practices of the /auni and /khomani Bushmen" (Bantu 

Studies, Vol. X, No: 4, 1936). 

(Kr.) Kronlein, J. G., MS List of the language of the /nusan (1861). 

(Leb.) Lebzelter, V., Rassen und Kulturen in Sudafrika . Band II: Eingeborenenkulturen in 
Siidwest- und Sudafrika (Leipzig, 1934). 

(Lich.) Lichtenstein, M. H. C, Reisen in sttdlichen Afrika in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 
und 1806. (2 vis. Berlin, 1812). 

(Liv.) Livingstone, D., Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (London). 

(LI.) Lloyd, L. C, MS Collection (1870-1882). 

(Mh.) Meinhof, C. "Versuch einer grammatischen Skizze einer Buschmannsprache" 

(Zeitschrift fur Eingeborenen-Sprachen, Vol. XIX No. 3, 1929). 

(Mg.) Maingard, L. F., "The /khomani dialect of Bushman: its morphology and other 

characteristics" in Bushmen of the Southern Kalahari (Johannesburg, 1937). 

(O.) Obst, E., "Von Mkalama ins Land der Wakindiga" ( Mitteilungen der 

geographischen Gesellschaft , Hamburg, 1912). 

(Pa.) Passarge, S., Die Buschmanner der Kalahari (Berlin, 1907). 

(Sche.) Schebesta, (Title not known). 

(Schi.) Schinz, H., Deutsch-Sudwest-Afrika (Oldenburg & Leipzig, 1891). 

(Sei.) Seiner, F., "Ergebnisse einer Bereisung des Gebiets zwischen Okawango und Sambesi 

in den Jahren 1905 und 1906" ( Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten , 
Vol. XXII, 1909); ditto "Ergebnisse einer Bereisung der Omaheke in den Jahren 
1910-1912" (Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten, Vol. XXVI, 1913). 

(Sel.) Selous, F. C, The Great and small Game of Africa . Lydekker (contribution) 1899; 

ditto A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa (1890), quoted from Shortridge, see below. 

(Sh.) Shortridge, G. C, The Mammals of South West Africa . (London 1934). 

(St.) Story, R., MS Collections of the Ki/hazi dialect of Bushman (1937). 

(V.) Vedder, H., "Grundriss einer Grammatik der Buschmannsprache vom Stamm der 

!Ku-Buschmanner" ( Zeitschrift fiir Kolonial-Sprachen, Vol. I, 1910). 

(Wer.) Werner, H., "Anthropologische, ethnologische und ethnographische Beobachtungen iiber 
die Heikum- und Kungbuschleute nebst einem Anhang uber die Sprachen dieser 
Buschmannst'amme" (Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie , 1906). 

(Wil.) Wilhelm, J, H., "Aus dem Wortschatz der !Kun- und der Hukwe-Buschmannsprache" 
( Zeitschrift fur Eingeborenen-Sprachen, Vol. XII, 1921-1922). 

(Wu.) Wuras, C. F., An Outline of the Bushman Language. MS in Grey Collection of the 

S. A. Public Library, Cape Town. Edited by W. Bourquin in Zeitschrift fiir 
Eingeborenen-Sprachen, Vol. X, 1920. 

(Zuk.) Zukowsky, L., "Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Saugetiere Deutsch Siidwest Afrikas unter 
besonderer Beriicksichtigung des Rotwildes" (Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, 90ster 
Jahrgang, Berlin 1924, Abt. A, Heft 1.) Quoted from Shortridge, see above. 



The Bushman a is pronounced both short and long. In his work " An Outline of the Phonetics of 
the phu: Bushmen of North-West Kalahari" on page 132 Doke writes: " this vowel is approximately midway 
between Cardinal Vowels No. 4 and 5 in tongue - pos i tion . " In " An Outline of fkhomani Phonetics" on page 
63 he writes: " This is the low vowel, and in fkhomani is distinctly a front vowel, being much nearer 
in tongue position to cardinal 4 than to cardinal 5." 

There occurs in some Bushman tongues a rough deep pronunciation of vowels, especially of a. 
Meinhof in his paper " Versuch einer grammatischen Skizze einer Buschmannsprache " writes on page 164: 
" In manchen Worten werden die Vokale stark gepresst." Bleek, Lloyd and Meinhof have indicated this by 
a diacritic under the vowel, as a. On page 67 of" his work on the fkhomani, s. above, Doke writes of 
" Pressed Vowels, or Vowels with Pharyngal Roughening." This he indicates by the symbol ^ after the 
vowel, as a^, which I have adopted for the dictionary. 

a forms the dipthongs ai^ ao^ au. The short a sometimes glides into the back open mixed neutral 
A, bjut that is not at the beginning of a word. 

The number of words of different meanings expressed by a is surprising. Some variations in tone 
and length have been noted, doubtless others have not been heard and recorded. Still the number of mean- 
ings attached to the same sound is remarkable. That the pronoun 'thou' and the verb 'to give' are iden- 
tical may have its explanation in the fact that giving is a transference from me to thee, or from thee 
to me. Perhaps the similarity of the a and e of the verb 'to be' with the relative pronouns and demon- 
stratives may arise from their expressing one idea to the Bushman. 

a, V. to be, s. e. [Na. a, fromi, to be.] SI. (B. ) a, is. Ex.: ! kwi a | xara ha ||koa a a person who 

is different she seems to be. (LI.) a. Ex. r) k"auki t®'^ri akka, ti e:, !kwir) a I do not know well 

whether it is a dog. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha a ! xe he is ugly. Ikigki a: it is evening. SIIc. (D. 

B. ; sing. & pi. Ex.: nie a yku te I am a Bushman. ~si a ||ku ||e we are Bushmen. Slid. (Arb.) 

Ex.: gnu a e e — look, the gnus (the gnus are there D.B.). (Wu.) Ex.: karkn a |au, karkn a Ijeikje 

the horse is male, the horse is female. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: | kaba a a dish it is. a 6pa:ri 

is a little one. SIV. (D.B.) sing. & plj_Ex.: ||kabe a "use jjkabe is big. m 0pwa ||na a si |kam 

my children are two. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: bi a it is a man. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |a !k"ati a the fire 

is far away. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: e a a: te he is with father. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: me a 3U !na: I am 

a grown-up person. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: Tamme tai tai a ~||ke, ha dammi e ta |xoa Tamme's mother's 

mother is dead, her children are those who live.NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m txia ki a _!nabe my grand- 
father is !nabe. | xu a ma | xu is the little one. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe ||gsiua a, tai ko ko ""mi, 

~wen kwena ||o-kona ||gaua a a man is a spirit, so they told me, all dead people are spirits. CIII. 

(D.B.) Ex.: tseti a a tree it is. 

S,, a, a:, a:, v. to give, let, allow. [Na. a, particle forming optative , let. J SI. (B. ) &, a. Ex.: 

a ki pa:ra ko: give me another horse, ha k"auki ka ! hamm a hi fkakka ha he would not at first 

let us talk to him. (B. early) aldce ble give me bread. (LI.) a., a, a, a-a, a-a. Ex.: ha e !kwi-|a 

||ka: Iq, ha sir) a: Ik'^e a: ~sa: she is a new maiden, she should give the people some buchu. hag 

|ne a: ha a hi — he gave to him of them, he k"auki a: !khwa: ka xoro se |e: !khwa: they do not 

allow the water bull to enter the water. |kaggsn ha: I oa a-a ! khwai : a hi the mantis formerly 

gave (used to give) to the gemsbok of it. hi se-g | ne a-a hi |ka:gan hi they will be giving it to 

their companions. (Lich.) Ex.: a ke twakka give me tobacco. SII: (D.B.) Ex.: a ke ||xegan give 

me milk. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: haijo, | ne _||kam a ke, n se k'^ ho there, quickly give me, that I may 

drink. SVIa. (Kr.) Ex.: a ge give me. 

a, V. to cry, sound of crying. SI. (LI.) a, a. Ex.: |xabbiar)ar) |ne !kha ke |ola epwa, he r) a |ne sa: 

^ ^'^.v' ■'^ Ixabbiagar) killed for me a leveret, and I came crying to her. hi XOaksn-gU | ne ta, 

"a, a, a,", wai ta Ikauka |ne ta, ""ms:, "ms:, "ms:" --- their mothers say, "a, a, a,", the spring- 
bok children say, "mS: , mS: , mS: ". 

a, V. to lift up. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'a. 

a-ta, n. person, Nil. (Dk.) ata. 
a:ta, yes. Na. a: SV. (D.B. ) 

'ata, and^also. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ita t/okwe SO atonen, ata |ki fimbalako hamana ko Ijata — they follow 
there, and see that the arrowhead here has fallen. 

dtabe, n. bloodvessels, s. atama. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta atabe ina tisiuni pi a ku/e atamabe — in its 
bloodvessels flows red blood. 

^tama. n. blood, pi. atamabe, s. atabe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ita t/okwe sa, ita |ki se atama so hama — they 

follow, they see its blood there, a haipi tisiunipi, tieipi J& atamabe a its wings are red, red 

like blood. 

_atama, n. shield. CIII. (D.B.) 

~ate, s. ati, water. 

ate, about. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ||gauwar-di yaij" kwe ko ! ko ate in the spirit's house he walks about. 

atha, V. to increase. CI. (Do.) 

atha si teme, nevertheless. CI. (Do.) 

athee thama, v. to say to. CI. (Do. ) 

athe oo, instead of. CI. (Do.) 

ati, ate, ati:je, n. water, rain, pi. atebi, atevi, atibi, s. tu. [Na.tu, to rain.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

kweso irid^ ati, se l|ka||ka — when pours the rain, (it) will run away, fuata on atevi I drink 

water, ha ka _dzane atebi — he brings water, /a atibi — fetch water, habe ati:je that is 


ati, an-d, then, s. ata. CIII. (D.B.) 

atitsi, n. pi. brother and sister, s. asi, tsi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: atitsi Ja Opi brother and sister 

they are. 

ato, and, s. ata, ati. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pisi _dzamo, ato t/i:ta seme, ato ha~kha ni, m --- the cook came 

and took food, and went away. 

atonen, there, again. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tan ||aija atonen — throw it away there, kamo hn fe atonen 

! ko:gga han !a tinOt then arose the hare again on a stone.. 

atsd^pe, n. book, s. hatsape. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pukuta ats^pe shut the book. 

at/ega, n. cattle. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: at/egako, cow. at/ega komi, --- calf. 

at/io kham, n. lion's hair. CI. (Do.) a chio kham. 

at/o, V. to cut up. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: unu bonepi ||ke dtjo wami manako four men have cut up the meat. 

4t/u, n. thread, sinew. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: boku 4t/u aldrko --- rub the thread with gum. dtju. ko i tl'?a: 
atonen a sinew cuts then. 

au, general prep. and conj . , s. O. [, because.] SI. (B. ) Ex.: ha !k'?wa: hag a: si |u: ha au 
||kuttan||kuttan — that hartebeest was the one we cut up with stone knives, a: xau daindainja s'^a: 

au !k'?wa:-g |na: ? dost thou not come deceiving about the hartebeest's head? hir) |kAn akksn ||ko 

hi au 9ho — it placed itself nicely on a bush, jkaggsn tuwSq ! katrrokan! katrrokan suttan I'^hig hi 

au !kaukan |k'«.|k'a the mantis' skin quickly snatched itself out of the children's hands. ! k'^Wa 

|na: |ne fkakka ke, r) jkAm oa ha !hau: au ha ts'^axdu — the hartebeest's head told me, I should take 
away for him the thong from his eye. au har) ka, ! kaukan se | a ha au ||kurru, au !kaukakan k'auki |ki 

! gwattan because he thought, the children would cut him up with a stone knife, as the children 

had no metal knives. (LI.) Ex.: hi sir) | ku |ku:wa /o-|6a au ||neil] they had put away the /o- | oa 

plant at home. /o:-|6ar) !ko:r) |hig au §ho |u the /o-!&a plant grows out of the bush's stem, ta 

!na: e, ha a:, whai:-ta |ka:gan |ku-g |ne a:kan au hahS — for it is winter, that is (the time) when 
the springbok ewes are handsome in it. au swa:-ka ! kwi !k'wainja !kuko:, hig e:, ha ka, "|nu: !kwi" 

au !kuko: |ke if a Flat's Bushman is angry with another man, then he says, "cursed man" to the 

other man's name, hi | ku |ku: ||ho: tsorokan au /o— |oa they keep the old bag 'for the /o- | oa plant. 

ha |ku e toi !kerri, au ti e:, ha siq |hir) !kaui, i:, au har) e toi 0pwa — he becomes a grown-up os- 
trich at the place where he came out of the egg, when he was a little ostrich. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: q 

kieir) au ||ga e — I sleep when it is night. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: r) | ga xoro gwai, au q se I will 

take packoxen, that I may come. 

au, ~au, V. to give, s.a. SI. (LI.) au, Ex.:. |ne dofa au ||kha: a: !kwi-|a ye must give the lion a 

girl. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ~tia ku ~t/i kusi, ~|ka au mi alone (he) drank milk, did not give me (any). 

mihi ku au a mei dama ! goma o si --- I give food to this boy. Nil. (Dk.) au. (V.) &A. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: 
xataxa rako '^U te" teme, "ne na |ka" --- therefore I "give to me" said, "that I may plant". 

au, V. to be, s. a NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi ~te au ~toe my mother is Toe. 

au, V. to fear, scream, shout, make a noise, a. auo. [Na. au, to be afraid.] CI. (Do.). 

a, a:, a, al, v. to eat, s. ~a:, flesh. [Na. am, to roast.] SI. (B. ) S". Ex.:.r| a: I eat. SII. (D. 

B. ) Ex.: har) a Qpvraiki, hag se |ko:r) — he eats game, he will dance, hag ~|ke:r) myri, ha a — he 

catches the goat, he eats (it). Slla. (Mg.) a £i . Ex.: a a lekersi you eat a sweet, kia ai i 

!koi we eat each other. Slle. (An.) S-a, al-al . SIII. (D.B. ) a. Ex.: he a ti epwe: he eats 

some meat. SIVb. (St.) _a: . Ex.: tsi _a: ki /fhwi we eat tsama. SV. (D.B.) a, a:, Ex.: basalaxa- 

rite wa /a a the Bakalahari women are going to eat. n | ka a: I am eating, a a: thou hast 

eaten. SVI. (D.B.) _a. Ex.: si |kwa _a --'- we do not eat. 

a, V. particle. SI. mostly perf. or plup., sometimes joined to preceding n. by j. (B. ) a. Ex.: ha 

egerjjar) taiH Phir) !khwa:, au |a a:, ha a ||koa ha --- his body walked out of the water, on account 

of the fight, which he had made. (LI.) -ja. Ex.: i se tali, au ||koig-ja |e: ta we will go, when 

the sun has set. SII. pres. (D.B.) Ex.: emersi a ! ko ! goe the bucket is standing there. Slla. 

(Mg. ) a kind of resumptive at the beginning of a sentence, which might be rendered by and. Ex.:ko|''o 

kia ku, r| kie 0'^w'^i; a ||gai' ku, sija g ! "^aba jackal say, I (am) ill; wolf say, come, I carry you. 

Sllb. (Mh.) perf. 'a, s. ha. Ex.: hi a: ||a gen hasi? who has stolen the horse? Slid. (Arb.) pres. 

& perf. Ex.: kuu a see the locusts are coming, tloatloa a koar| the arrow has hit. SIII. (D. 

B. ) pres. Ex.: kati a /o the cat sits down, n a sbensai tig I am not working. SIV. (D.B.) 

pres. Ex.: |gs:ki a Ikoeke women are clapping, si a ha: ti su te ~fo we live in one place. SV. 

(D.B.) pres. or perf. Ex.: 0pwe a J|xaba ke /aa the meat is cooking in fat. ||gabe a /a ||na the 

Kafirs are going away, pu/o a ||k'B,ba |a: ga 0mwa Pu/o has brought firewood. SVI. (D.B.) pres. g^. 

U a e ||kamate? do you eat ants? e a fxom he returns. NI. (D.B.) repet. of tense in preceding 

clause, may be and. Ex.: | amama a !_gwi:a, a ts'^o, a ~amaje:si the cobra turns its head, erects 

(it), glides into the grass. | huxa ta _!nu, a ~!khi; a fkobbi, re O ~!khi the white man is there, 

dies, is buried, for is dead. Nil. (LI.) perf., often joined to pron. Ex.:. r) a guwa ! nanni ka ! kau — I 

have pulled away from ! nanni the stick, ma guwa ha ka ! kau thou hast, pulled away from him the 

stick. NIII. (D.B.) pres. Ex.: ! xe a t/i ||gu the dog is drinking water. CII. (D.B.) repet. of 

tense. Ex.: t/au ra ko k'B,nni/a, a doe, a ||k"iim J"i, a fu /i — I dig ants, pick up, sift them," eat 

them. (Schi.) Ex.: xam a ga |ku ||gu the lion will kill us. CIII. (D.B.) repet. of tense. Ex.: 

manako, a xleta, a tonina — meat, cut it, put it down. 

_a, _a, V. ending, SI. (LI.) denoting repet. or duration of action, or abbr. of iha, him, her, it. Ex.: 
|hu|hu a: karj ha:-a ||xi: hoa — a baboon who feeding went past him. k'obbo tar)tar)-a, o ha ha: whai: 

k'»obbo was ill, when he had eaten the springbok, ha ||kwalr) a: siq ||gaue-a sa: O si she had 

been the one who had come seeking for us. har) ka ||nau:, o ha: ||khabbo-a:, harj ka |ku !holm ha ka 

||khabbo he is used, when he has been dreaming, to believe his dream. ! kwi k"auki ||kwaq dola 

|har|-a a man has not married her. SII. (D.B.) a66r. o/' ha. Ex.: hg ||xai-a they sift it. NI. 

(D.B.) abbr^_of ha. Ex.: | ho ~t/i, ka 3U \\ei , ka | ge -a, ! koma ka | ge-a — the steenbok comes 

and people catch (it), and carry it, on the shoulder carry it. Nil. (V.) duration. Ex.: n ti _|gje:— a 

a I am going to thee. 

a, pron. thou, thee, thy. SI. (B. ) a, a, emph. aken, pass. akka. Ex.: a: kaq |ku a:, |ki|kija ||gArri, a 
si k"aukidi akksn |a:, he e: a li sa toa:i~i, aksn |ku a: ||kau xu o:a |a: — thou art he who dost 
get feathers, thou shalt not fight well, so that thy heart shall be sweet; thou art he who dost fly a- 

way from the fight, aksn |ku: a: s'^O s'^a: fi: akka tsuitsui: thou art one who appearest to come 

thinking of thy things. (B. early) a, ak, a:je, poss. ake. Ex.: ake |kei thy name. a:ke ! ka thy 

hand. (LI.) a, a-a, emph. aken, poss. ar-ka. Ex.: a karL [|kwai) |ku se xu: thou shalt let it alone. 

se tu kumm, o whai: a: a, ha-gjne |kwe|i |kwar) di o a we shall hear something because the springbok 

acted thus to thee, /o | oa we, a oaksn e r)-g, r) |ke: ||ke:n Jo au a, g |ke: aksn fenna g, aksn di a oa 

au q o Jo |oa, thy father am I, I am here sitting digging at thee, I am here; thou knowest me, thou 

dost make thy father of me. koro we : , a kar) 8*^0 kar) t^'^0 ^' si^ t®i^''^a,ti e:,a-a e a: sir) || lea ta: gwai: 

ko:, r) siq se |kha |kam tu a o jackal, thou seemest to think, that if I knew that thou wert the 

one who didst put the other hyena into the fire, I should quite kill thee. (Lich.) a, aa.Ex.: a xa sig 

|au Ikwaiti? hast thou seen game? aa | koar) teteini thou good man. aa ka ts'^oir) thy things. 

SII. (D.B.) a, poss. a-ka. Ex.: a |waka rj a-ka |k'e. --- thou dost soften it with thy hand, a epwanu 

di e ? where is thy daughter-in-law ? Slla. (Mg. ) a, a, "^a. Ex.: a fkai r) you see me. g si 

_tna: ^a --- I shall kick you. a !k5: --- your grandfather, a ka |khu --- your hair, "^n si \kh'^§, a, 
k'^ankiei "^a --- I shall dig you in, follow you. Sllb. (Mh.) 'a. SIIc. (D.B.) a.SSIId. (Arb.) a. Ex.: 

a te koa ? who are you? a tie a see, si kooko come thou, let us dance together. (Wu.) a. Ex.: 

a eku thy self, a fhowa- thy child, n tar) a I love thee, a tar) tooi ? thou wilt what ? 

Slle. (An) a. (?) Ex.: a thu, a tu, mouth (prob. thy mouth). SIII. (D.B.) a, emph. an, poss. a-ka. 

Ex.: a e thou dost eat. a kwa si gji thou wilt come to-morrow, an ||ke m thou dost run. a 

xu: thy face, a-ka |na — thy head. SIV. (D.B.) a, poss. a, a-sn. Ex.: a naunko 0pwa:ai — thou 
shalt sleep. | ne ka e a^sn ||An ? --- where is thy- hut ? SV. (D.B.) a, poss. a-ka, a^a. Ex.: a J& ||nai 

thou goest home, a l|gon, t/u: ki a-ka ||kolete thou kneelest, sittest on thy knees, turu e, 

ar-a t/wa: Ja |ke: --- a hat it is, thine that one is. SIVb. (St.) a. Ex.: k"U a Qpxwa take your 

child. SVI. a, a-a. Ex.: a sa fkai fno Ugaike ? dost thou use that ? a Qpwa: kei e: — thy child it 

is. a-a sa --- thou goest. ||koa, a-a ga ||koa --- a spoon, thy spoon. SVIa. (Kr.) a, emph. aggen, be- 
fore negatives, an. Ex.: ! gui |gwai, a |a ||uia a, an k'Txou ha sa ga an --- little man, thou diest to- 
day, thou wilt not eat eland's flesh, dae jja, aggsn ||o: ["^hoggan --- go away, and thou chop wood. 
||ai Iga |i:, aq |gi:si ha --- run catch fire, thou bring it here. NI. (D.B. ) pass. Ex.: a tsi --- thy 
mouth", s. ahi. Nil (Dk. ) la:. (V.) a. (LI.) I, a. Ex.: ha ti t/u a --- she blows at thee, ma sir) a 
--- thou look at thyself, a |lk'&-sir) --- thy ribs. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ti sa mi --- thou dost ask me. 

a /ule thy arrows, s.ahi. 

a, pron., abbr. of ha, he, his. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ba wa mihi --- his father am I. 

a:, a, rel. pron. who, which, the one who, that which, where, when. [Na. ia. ] SI. (B. ) a, pi. e. Ex.: 

Ikaggsn |ku a: |korruwa ! kauksn the mantis is one who cheated the children, hag ||kei||kei: !k'?wa: 

a: |ku:ka --- he resembled a hartebeest which had died, hir) s'?oe:r) 0ho: a: f^ain --- it sat upon a bus 
bush which was soft. (LI.) a:. Ex.: Ikukogsn |ne |k'^m: !kuko: a: sa: --- one man feels the other who 
comes. Ilkabbowaksn a ||khwai:ja, ha a: jkerru --- a dream speaks softly, it is that which deceives. (In 
many cases the rel. pron. and the sing, of the v. to be seen to melt into one.) SII. (D.B.) Ex.: q 
xeru ke i sag a |k"ai-i --- I rub myself with buchu which scents. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: kolui a ! hAnte 

lihutitu wa /a !na kie kanje the wagon which came from Lihutitu has gone on to Kanye. CII. (D.B») 

Ex.: kweba ko ||ai, a kwesa _ha^naha — the man visits where th.e woman lives, a |k"eri k"au re i:, 
namani ko _ha^ when I was a boy, the Nama came. 

&, interrog. which? what? Nil. (V.) Ex.: a dsu: _/e ua? what person is it then? (LI.) a d3u da~a e? 

what person's fire is it ?a d5u e? who? sing.; a d3U e sa? who? dual, a d3U sig? who? 

pi. a tji n a ||ko ok"wi !kur) ok"wi? -why (what thing) am I speaking the Bushman language? 

a, ciem. this, that, here, there. SI. (B.) a, a. Ex.: l|na: a, har) |ku a: !korfir) ("^hiq si-ta ||neir| --- thia 

Krieboom, it is the one which grew out at our house, har) ka si se ta:— a ||'^u: e: a he desired that 

we should feel this fatigue (fatigue which here), au ! kwa a: a, har) sir) |kAmmsnja ha-g |na: for 

this child (child which here), it carried his head. !k'?wa: a:, ha-g |na: kar) dofa fkakksn --- this 

hartebeest, its head is ahie to talk. (LI.) a, a. Ex.: !nwa: kar) ! naur) a an arrow is still here. 

r) Iweitan fku a: a --- I am always^ the one who is here. !ha^: | ku-g |ne ||nau:, ! kwi a:, ha ka "ha ||kho: 
!hau: o !khwa:-ka xoro ||kei||kei :i, !hau: |ku-g |ne !kwa: — the thong did thus when the man wanted to 
pull the thong tight over the water-bull's horns, the thong broke. SII. (D.B.) a, ~a. Ex.: | gwa &, ha 

so: this child, it sits, hq ~||a ||r) "a they run to that house. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'a, there, exclam. 

SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: ku duru e a --- the sheep are there. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i~|ku ! ge sai ki Gmwa a.-- 
the bird sits on this tree. SIVb. (St.) a, here, s. asi. a:, there, SV. (D.B.) Ex.: dau a /a ||na ke 
lerojan this road goes to Leroyan. 

a, general conj . & prep. s. a, au, O. SI. (B. ) a, 5. Ex.: hir) !ka:!ka: |e:ta a xoa they wait inside 

for their mother, har) ) ne !ku!kurruken |hig u:i !a~U a: (ku she shakes the dust out of her hair. 

SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ohskia xn !aua !kha:, a ||xru: ||oe xn |ka ha the lion went to the water because 

the midday sun was killing him. sire !e:, a kaiki se ||e master calls, so Kaiki will go. SHI. (D. 

B. ) Ex.: e /oki a |ki — we sit on the ground, an tean ete a: koloni, a kowe:ni — thou art going 

back to the Colony, to home. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 6 a tabe a kakadje he wanted to shoot. NI. (D.B.) 

Ex.: a ba ~tsi a t/uk"0 (we) came to the hut. tai a ~t/u mother's uncle. Nil. (LI.) ^, some- 
times joined to the preceding word, —a, — wa. Ex.: tJi— sir) | nu ~fxi a me ! nuerre things are numer- 
ous in my country, ha | nir)-a ! kar) ||koha he sat in the tree's sliade. ta | xwe ~/u, Ju-wa k"a, ta ti 

tjir)^ tjirj— a ||gu and | xwe lay, lay on the ground, and was crying, crying for water, ta ||nwai gu 

!kaii Ige fneAm |xwe, ka |xwe t/ir), fneAin !kar)-a |xwe |ne — and the moon took a stick, came to beat 

I xwe , when | xwe cried, beat the stick on |xwe's head. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma | r) ak"a, I sit on the 

ground, a tj"?u at home. CI. (Do.) found in phrases Ex.: a hu with, a hu t/waho from that 

day ever afterwards, a hu ji and. a hu t/wa like, as. a hu ka about concerning. CHI. (D. 

B. ) Ex.: balad3a a ntoga hakhane piepi — Balad3a and Ntoga went, the two. kwami tl'^otl'^oko ts'^oko a 

Ikorjga a udzame then they gathered wood, both the hare and the hyena, txlikwa tena a mama I 

am going away from the lady, zaikuni ba mi na kl'^odzo a qo/aggiri of the south is what is told by 


a:, a, contraction of pron. & prep., often referring back to a rel. some. SI. (B. ) a, 5. Ex.: !kafo-gu 

||kwai] 8*^0 k"wa: a-ka (au ha-ka) swer) — the mierkats seem to cry about its fat. har) \ne ||xa:, har) 
|kau: !a: ti ! gwarra a: (au ka) !kau — he again cutting along puts the knife on his neck, sitsn 

pu:wa i:, au !ku:xe a: ha !ku:xeja si a: we became_tired from it, on account of the running with 

which he chased us (which he chased us with it). (LI.) &, S. Ex.: ha se |kwirri a ! gauokan-ka 

!kui!kui he will writhe with pain from the poison's burns. ! gitan ka |ku f^^^j^ ^ \\9^'' ^- ^^ |kwa: 

a: the sorcerors are accustomed to take him away on a night in which he seeks food (which he 

seeks food in it). ! gitan S'O [|kwar)| !kei ||ougan fxamma hi a: !khwa: the sorcerors seem truly to 

fetch us of the rain (some rain), he fkakka ! k'^e a:, i:, ti e:, !hau: ykwafr) tuko a: !kwa:. they spoke 
to the people about it, that the thong had really broken. 


-a, V. ending, denoting passive, s. -e.CII, (D.B. ) Ex.: |xeani ko |o:, t/a/ kwe | hyru-a, a ||na kwa 
_!nwona— a the leaves are dry, with water are sprinkled, and then are rolled. 

"a, interj . NH. (V.) d of pain. (LI.) k, of assent. CII. (Pa.) a, no. 

a^ n. bride. NIa. (Leb.) w. sp. a. 

a, n. Delalande's fox, s. ||ai. Cllb. (Zuk.) 

a, a: n. father, s. _a^a, aba, awa, oa, auba. SII. (D.B.) only in terms of relationship . Ex.: a: ||kau 

father's brother, uncle, a: ||kaxai father's sister, aunt. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ^ a: my father. 

hag a a he is father. SVI . (D.B.) Ex.: e a a: te he is with (his) father. 

"a:, n. flesh, meat, s. a, a, to eat. SI. (B. ) ■&. Ex.: si se ha: a: Ikerri we shall eat great meat. 

(B. early) aa. (LI.) ^, ^, Ex.: ! ketan |ne ||ko: ||a: ! kwi-ta a:, hiq Jo ko dalrrakan, au a:-ka ti 

ko:ksn dalrraksn |e:ta: ha egeg people set down the man's flesh, it lies quivering, as the Qther 

part of the flesh quivers in his body. (This word takes hi, hig, and e: as pronouns, even m the 
sing.), har) ~a he a:, !kwi-ta~a:, har) fkakka he a:, ti e: , !khwai: 0pwa -ka -a: e — he gave them some 

human flesh, he told them about it, that it was a young gemsbok 's flesh . (Lich.) aa. Ex.: ake aa 

give me meat. 

aa, V. to understand. CI. (Do.) ' 

_ala, n. father, s. a, aba. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: e _a^a tati e: her father it is. SVI. (D.B.)(i«. sp.) 


aa, ri. sky. cm. (D.B.) Ex.: |ki ta na aa — I see the sky. marundipi bahepi aa nina — clouds live 
in the sky. 

aa, den. this, these. SVIa. (Kr.) Ex.: goai aa this man. 

aa, yes, s, a. [Na. a:, yes.] CI. (Do.) 

aba, V. to work, make, s. taba. Nil. (LI.) abba. SV. (.B. ) used to express past. SV. (D.B.) Ex.*. /i aba 
/i IhAnte kakia ||ga ||kaka we have come from Kakia last night. 

aba, V. to carry, bear. [Na. ava.] CI. (Do.) Carry over the shoulder. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ter) |a: si | gwaba 

si a aba have taken the child to carry in the kaross. ti UkunJ" ko jkwane aba, nos ko tira |gi, ||g 

llgeis ko ine (if) my daughter bears a child, then I shall call its name, if it is a girl. 

aba, n. father, s. a, _afa, awa. [Na. eib.] CII. (D.B.) voc. of auba. Clla. (Pa.) 

aba, n. dog. CI. (Do.) Cla. & Clb. (Pa.) 

aba, n. potato. CI. (Do.) 

aba, n. bowstring. ^^. 'aba, gaba. Cla. (Pa. ) 

abaa, ^- to bear a child, s. abae, abaho. CI. (Do.) 

abaa kakho, v. to saddle. CI. (Do.) 

abae, n. birth, s. abaa. CI. (Do.) 

_abaa5i, n. petticoat, kaross, a skin worn by women hanging from their waists over their buttocks. CII. 

(D.B.) Ex.: |ni taxa a _!geid3i kuru, _abad5i ma so many steenbok (skins) works, a petticoat 


abaho, v. to bear, used of cattle, s. abaa. CI. (Do. ) 

abame, n^younger brother, s. aba, father. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bawa abame k"Dmi a it/e father's younger 

brother, younger than he. 

dbami, near by. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: so mudi : ga tambi, so ibami tambi nyambulu when vultures gather, so 

gather near by the nyambulu birds. 

a:ba:si, it is cold. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'abasi. 

abaxu, v. to prepare, s. aba, to work. CII. (Schi.) 

abe, V. to have. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: hadzapi abe auwa the Hadzapi have a wip. 

abe, away. SI. (B. early) abe. 

abe, pron. they, s. be, bi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: abe akwitipe they are women. 

abi, dem. those, s. abe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: abi upukwapi those are legs. 

abikwa, rel. who. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ebi abikwa xlako, ta | iami wainet/a those who were cut all died. 

abita, v. to start with, go with. [Na. avi, to run after.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: abe sabita ||ka||ka abita 
mama kole they load up to start with the lady. 

abo, V, to ride, climb, rear as a horse. CI. (Do.) Ex.: abo tsikho, ladder (something to climb). 

aboba, n. child, boy, uncle, voc . s. bawa. CII. (D.B.) 

abu, n. eggshell. [Wa. avus, ostrich eggshell.] SIV. (D.B.) 

abu t/u, n. skin for carrying s child. [Na. avxi, to carry in a skin.] CI. (Dk.) abu chu. 

adi, n. food, s. a:. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'adi, 

adi, n. guinea fowl, s. ari. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. 

ae, n. home, s. ||ai, ||ei. CI. (Do.) Ex.: ae ka at home, ae kwa not at home. 

aigan, handsome, s. arkan. [Na. exa, beautiful.] SI. (LI.) agfn. Ex.: ha k"auki |xa whai: a: e |kwi-sa, 
O ha kl sa: a:gsn he does not shoot a springbok which is shorthorned, even if it be handsome. 

ah'^aa, v. to eat. s. a. SI. (B. early) ah'aa. 

ahapi, n. teeth, tusks. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ahapi petl'^aipi white tusks, ahapi sai his teeth. 

ahi, pron. thou, thy, s. a. dat. ake. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi m, _ahi ~|ka m I eat, thou dost not eat. 

m ~u |a: ake I go to give to thee, ahi ! nore ||a !num in thy country are rocks. NIII. (D.B.) 

Ex.: na mihi, na ahi a ~u both I and thou are going, ahi t/*^© ~! ni ka m thy hut it is. 

ahg, pron. thou, occasional form of ahi used in isolation. Nil. (Dk.) a:hr|. (LI.) ahii. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 
fi-hr) _|ga sr) thou wilt see them. 

aho, n. cloak. Cla. (Pa. ) 

a hu ||kae, v. to join with, s. a. CI. (Do.) 

~ai, i. to spill (?) SI. (LI.) ai. Ex.: hi k"auki ta ~ai |hir), au hi fko^mm jki !khwa: — they should 
not spill over, when they dip up water. 

ai, V. to eat, s. a. Slla. (Mg. ) 

ai, away, SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a tsuma ai thou must run away. ' 

ai, female, poss. mother, s. below. NI. (Schi.) Ex.: ! go ai female ostrich. 

~ai, a~i, ostrich. 

~ai, n. mother, s. kai, aija, ei/a. [Na. eis] SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: g ai --- my mother. Nil. (Dk. ) "^al. (LI.) 
^i. Ex.: e ti tsema, e ti ok"wi/fa tai", e ti !kar], e ti ok'wi e tai kwe " a~i" — (when-) we are 
little we say "my mother ", (when ) we have grown, we call our mother "a~i". (V.) ai.CII. & Clla. (Pa.) 

ai, dem. those, them. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: |kia na ai I saw them, xlaggaxlagga ai e ta openings be- 
tween the toes are those. 

aie, aio, n. village, kraal. [Na. l|ais, people.] CI. (Do.) Ex.: aio dsube a cow in the kraal. 

aie ||kwa, n. pot lid. CI. (Do.) 

aija, aijako, n. mother, grandmother, aunt, also used for left hand. s. /ai, ei/a.[Na. eis.] CIII. (D.B.) 
Ex.: tss/a obi, tsa aija tina — come have we, come to mother, bawa a aijako mu:a akweteja — father 
and mother cut the child, e aijako mariako (my grandmother is Mariako. ) 

aije, pron. his, their. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsawa aije his name. 

aio, s. aie. 

aiseko, x. to shout, [Na. aisasa, laughable.] SVI. (D.B.) 

J^^^Sf _aif/e, n. hole, burrow , s. aie. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nauba ko m, ko !koa, a ko!xwoi, _aif/ kwe fka: 

a mierkat have seen, running about, it runs away, into the hole disappears. | kau— dl _ai§J i:, 

_ai^J*e ~kei i: a snake's hole it is, many holes there are. 

aka, well, nicely, enough, s. aksn, aksnxa. [Na. exa. ] SI. (B. ) 3kka. Ex.: ha |ne a: a safg fkakkan akka 
hi a: he was the one who came to tell us nicely about it. (LI.) Skka, akk& Ex.: he kie: ! xe: a 

akka, ||kha: ^ k"auki se |ni ha they wanted to hide him well, so that the lion should not get him. 

he k"auki ! naunko |gi: akka they are not strong enough yet. 

a:ka, n. king, (prob. father) SII. (Mh. ) 'aka. 

akai^ n. grandfather, s. akaije. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: buruku akai ja, sisi na si m akai Buruku is (my) 

grandfather, so I call him grandfather. 

akaije, n. uncle, grandchild, s. akai. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: oranakwi akaije nexe bonepi — the children of 
my uncle are four, maturu akaije maruko Maturu is a grandchild of Maruko. 

akana, v. to call. CIII. (D.B.) ^x. : akana bi visi niki hututu they call the birds hututu. 

akanabe, n. name, s. akana. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akanabe modzo — his name is Modzo. 

akasevita, v. to be dark. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsefiajamo tsefi akasevita — at night it is dark. 

a ka uj, n. evening. NIa. (Leb.) «'• sp. 

a^ka-||na, n. arrow, (? thy arrow). Slle. (An.) 

a:ke, n. food, fodder, s. a:, akje. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: hasa e a:ke the horse eats fodder. 

ake, s . ahi, thou . 

akan, s. a, thou. 

aiksn, akksn, v. to be nice, good, comfortable, handsome, beautiful, to do nicely, well, n. beauty, s. 
aka. [Na. exa.] SI. (B. ) akfn, akkfn. Ex.: r) siq |haq ha o:a a: atksn — I married her father who is 
handsome, hiq |ku Hi:, hit] !kAnn!kAnn akkan ||ko: hi au Ghokan e: arkan — it by itself placed itself 
nicely on bushes which were comfortable, sitan ||k'Oen !kwa:-ka akksn --- we see the child's beauty. 
(LI.) akfn, akk§n. Ex.: i se arro:ko Ikiiitan, au !nwa: kuita ! naunko a:ksn — we will return quickly, 
while the other arrows are still good, ti ! hAmm ||koa, q |xa akksn ||koa the thing was really plac- 
ed, (as if) I had shot placing it well. 

a~kha, ^,_ to go, s. haka, harkha. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: misai a~kha mo [etsa tina — Misai has gone to his 
hut. Oianakwe, a~kha mo kela tina children, go to the riverbed. 

akitibe, n. pi. women, occasional form, of akwiH^ive. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akitibe hadzabe akwape a ^laha 
ma:ku, akitibe /amobi elaha ma:ku Hadza women do not make pots, Isanzu women make pots. 

^^j®^ n. food, s. a:ke. Slla. (Mg. ) aoe. Ex.: na !kama akje — I cook food. 

akki, nicely, well, contrac. of akan hi. SI. (B. ) akki. Ex, : hi |ne Une, hir) !kAnn akki --- it o£ itself 
places itself nicely. 

ako, V. is, also used as v. part. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kadiso ako ora, ko burra ti ako Kadiso is the 

child, and Burra is the mother, saako i/i ako, komi a gogogoko the saako bird is thus, smaller 

than the gOgOgOko bird, tseti tina ako a hama in the tree it sits, pisi ako ||k"la;ata the cook 

is singing. 

aku, n. milk, s. ku. Nil. (Pa.) aku. 

aku, n. sassaby, [Birico kakuhu. ] Nil. (Zuk. ) 

akUj interrog. who? CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: aku a kuita hamana? who has done this? aku me ta kwi t/a 

olanakwe ssme? who will give the children food? 

akunte, ^i. child. Slid. (Arb. ) 

akwa:, n. boy, son, brother, grandfather. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: komi akwa: mi tj*i:ja (as) a little boy he 

was caught, manaqgwe e dze ako, maturu akwa: — Manarjgwe is my wife, Maturu my son. e bawa no/arjgiri, 

e akwa: sita my father is r)o/angiri, my grandfather is Sita. akwa: dondu bahe brother lives at 


akwdt, akwe, neg. not. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akwa na ||nae — I do not understand, akwa mo tsaha notana kl 

kl'^odzo he does not know how to talk nicely, akwe ne n ||aia I have not thrown it away. i 

4kwa, interrog. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ^kwa no ||nae? do you understand? akwa dza mo dzaieto? why do 

you come now? 

akwako, n. eye, pi. akwape, akwapi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: jkiieta na akwako — I see with the eye. ha !api 
kwa nabi akwapi dust is in his eyes, akwape piepe two eyes. 

akwe , s . akwa . 

akwe, and, also. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ukuata akwe utumeko, logowa akwe tumeko — he is also carrying a 
spear, shield and spear. 

akwete, akweti, akwiti, n. woman, female, wife, child, pi. akwitibe, akwitive, akweve, akitibe, s. 

nakweti. [Na. khoiti.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i/a akwete kenaqgu nyambulu like a female ostrich is the 

nyambulu bird, gi/ama akwete ja — Gi/ama is his wife, bawa a aijako mu:a akwete ja — father and 

mother cut the child, akweti hama a woman stands there, pasako hako, akwiti bitiko the left 

hand this, the female one. akwe ve, bone pi — four children, /amohi akwitibe _dzana me _daragga — 
the Isanzu women have brought meal, wembe akwiti jaio Wembe is his wife. 

akwiako, n. daughter. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akwiako ma dondu masaiko the daughter of Dondu is Masaiko. 

akwibi, n. pi. young ones. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: betete jako akwibi t/ina saako — cruel to its young ones 
is the saako bird. 

akwinakwi, n. daughter-in-law. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akwinakwi ja ko buruku simako daughter-in-law to 

Buruku is Simako. 

akwinakwite, n. aunt. CIII. (D.B.) 

ala, den. here, there, s. ale. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea t/ale 0pwoin ea 3! ala he sleeps as he lies there. 

na kabe ala 0mwa-ga ||kari --- I have brought here much wood. 

alabu, n. ice. CIII. (D.B. ) 

dlako, n. sheep. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: budakwe a _dzana alako Budakwe has brought a sheep. 

alarja, n. name. SIVb. (St.) 

ale, dem. here, there, s. ala. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: maki a /i ale _|hunte kokor) Maki has come here from 


aliki, y_ to say. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kamo aliki, " sohaja kupela ~kobe" then he said, " go away now". 

ali:ko, n. dog. Cllb. (Wil.) ^liko. 

_a^lo^ V. to scorch, burn a mark. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ! ku _a^lo _daa a man marked by fire. 

~am, V. to run. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: dogsn -am ||a a man runs along, 

am, V. to believe, assent to, n. belief. [Na . ama, true, amaba, to agree.'] CI. (Do.) am chuu, agreement. 

_a^m, first, just, previously, a little. [Na . am, amse, right.] SI. (LI.) amm_, amm. Ex.: g kar) k»'auki se 
!kwi: Ik'^e, ta^-g r) k'Huki fen:na, ti e:, ! k'^e |no e ; ta: r) se a _alm tAm:-0pwa !kar)-a, q se ta:, ti 

e:, ! k'^e kwokwar] |no e I will not call to the people, for I do not know whether they are people; 

for I will first feel about gently, whether real people they be. a se ||k'K3en, ti e:, tsa de | nu dola 
a: Ike di [kija, ta he _alm dofa sii] ka, hirj Ik'^:. ti e:, he k'B-uki se fAm — thou shalt look what 
the men can be doing, for they previously said, that they would not remain long, ha ka, ha 86 _afm 
kwe: tir) he thought he would lie still a little. 

am, pron. I, used before labials, s. m. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: am 0pwe:ni I sleep. 

am, n. wrist. Cllb. (Wil.) am. 

am, n. a tree, Leboana acacia. Cla. (Pa.) 

~ama, J^. to glide, crawl. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |amama a ~ama ||e:si the cobra crawls in the grass. 

ama, n. body, berry, pi. amasi. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: !nu!nuri, ha ama koara, ha ama ~u — the snail, its 

body is not there, its body has gone. |ka m ka kuku _da^rasi, a amasi do not eat the kuku tree's 

roots, but the berries. 

ama, „. dish, pot, plate. CI. (Do.) Ex.: ama | ho a small pot. ama |hwe a water pot. ama |kwa 

a small pot. Cla. & Clb. (:a.) ama. 

ama:ingama, rt. hartebeest. CI. (Sel.) 

amaje:ga, unmarried, cm. (D.B.) Ex.: amajerga mogi — unmarried is Mogi. kwembako amajergako — Kwem- 
bako is unmarried. 

amama, amamako, n. lady, title applied to grandmother, uncle's wife, mother-in-law, and to white women, 
s. mama. [Na. mamas, mother.] CIII. (D.B.) 

amangwe, green. Cla. (Pa.) . 

amarutu, n. cousins, sons of brothers. CIII. (D.B.) 

amba, n. mouth, s. k'Hm/a. [Na. ams.] Nllb. (Leb. ) 

ambe, no. [Ny. ambe] NIII. (D.B.) 

-ame, /. ending to v. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ki-ame seta, akwitibe look at the moon, women. 

ami, there. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: samaka e ami, bone e ami three are there, four are there. 

am tsikho, n. clothes. CI. (Do.) 

amukwe, n. brother-in-law. CIII. (D.B.) 

an, s. to be, s. a, e. Slid. (Wu. ) Ex.: ha an !ku ha xokn ~!xuekn g he is the person who did beat me. 

a:nar), v. to eat, s. a, e. SV. (D.B.) a:na, eaten. Ex.: r) a:n /it-jlkwi l|kwa:ni — I eat fowls' eggs, /i 
a ||kwa a:na we have not eaten, wa ka aq, wa ka e: bupi they are eating, they eat meal. 

an, V. to know, s. fen. [Na. fan.] CI. (Do.) 

an, to ripen, s- ana. [Na. ||an.] CI. (Do.) 

a:q, an, n. flesh, meat, s. a:, eg, flesh, a, a:n, to eat. SI. (B. ) Sg, ar). Ex.: he ti hig e:, a |ku 

da^rrakan, au a:r) tatti e:, a Ikauwa therefore the flesh moves, as the flesh feels that the flesh 

is warm. Sllb. (Mh. ) '5n. SVIa. (Kr.) an. Ex.: sa-ga an --- eland's flesh. 

an, aq, pron. I, s. n, q. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: an |ke:kjhi, my heart. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ag ||eri maxe --- I 
wash clothes, an, SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: an ta ! ke ! numa --- I have no tobacco. 

ar), pron. thou, s. a,. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||eja ar) sake ! hake --- go thou to fetch^wood. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: 
an xa ka ||ku ykwajlkwa --- you must work. SVIa. (Kr.) an, an. Ex.: ar) k"xou ha --- thou wilt not eat. 
||ai I ga |i:, ar| jgi: si ha run get fire, thou bring it here. 

an, and, s. a. cm. (D.B.) Ex.: a mi a |etsa na atonen, an a se they were at home again, and slept. 

ana, t;. to be ripe, s. an. CI. (Do.) 

a:r)a:, pron. thou, (thou standest?) Sllb. (Mh. ) ana. 

ana, dem. these. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAm |kau ana --- hyenas' tails these. 

anaha, n. knowledge, s- an, to know. CI. (Do.) 

anao, i^. to mend a hole. CI. (Do.) 

ane, v. to lead. cm. (D.B.) Ex.: !kogga ma a ane the hare led (them). 

ane, pron. I, s. an, q. Slle. (An.) Ex.: ar)e k'rxa I am drinking. 

ane:e, v. to clothe, dress. LNa. ana.] CI. (Do.) 

ane kakho, v. to dress another. [Na. anagu, to dress each other.] CI. (Do.) 

anexo, n. door. CI. (Do.) anegho. 

ani, V. to paint. CII. (Schi.) 

ani, n. guineafowl, s. adi, ari. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

anite, n. a large bird. Nllb. (Leb. ) 

anji, n. food, s. a:r). SV. (D.B.) Ex.: n |ka |ho:ka anji /i tan I wanted to buy food for it. 

arjkje, n. father, s. einki, enke. Slla. (Mg. ) arjce. Ex.: g arjkje ha:si kje g||gai — my father's horse 
is the wolf. 

ano, V. to take out. CI. (Do.) 

ano, V. to curse. [Na. |ana, to accuse.] CI. (Do.) 

ano, n. a public meeting. CI. (Do.) 

a:ntan, n. sail of wagon. [Na. ano, to dress.] SV. (D.B.) 

~antau_, quickly, soon, at once. SI. (LI.) antau, ^ntau, antau. Ex.: q di si ||kakl >n||kakka l|a:, au rj ka, g 
se ~an:tau ||a |ni: hi, au ti ! naunko ta "serritsn I made haste to go, for I thought I would quick- 
ly go to see them, while it was still cool, ha | ne "antau te:nja ~hi it will soon lie down for us, 

hir) fkakka Ikaukan, Ikaukan koa:f se anitau |ki sa hi !khwa: they tell the children, the children 

must at once bring them water. 

antean, v. to go away. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! khoa antean the cow goes away. 

an||wesa, v. to drink. Sla. (a-son) aiixwesa. 

ao, V. to dodge. CI. (Do.) Ex.: ao t/o, coward, dodging thing. 

ao, V. bo coo as a dove. CI. (Do.) 

ao, n. hippopotamus, !kao. Cllb. (Zuk.) 


ao, dem. there, s. a. Sllb. (Mh.) 'ao. 

aoao, V. to frighten, s. ao, to dodge. CI. (Do.) 

ara, quite, away, altogether, outright, s. are. Nil. (LI.) arra, ara, ara. Ex.: !nu arra --,- to throw a- 
way. ha ti Ikuq ara ha zau --- he altogether kills his wife, d^n tanki ti ok'wi ha, "te !kur) ara a 
zau" --- another man says to him, " do not quite kill thy wife". l|nwai ti ok"ffi, ! kur| ||ke||ke ha dibbi 
|kua ||ke ara the moon said, the Bushman (should) like himself return, not die outright. 

ara, inter j . Oh! CII. (Sch. ) 

a:ras, n. Angolian impala, Aepyceros petersi. Nlla. (Sh.) 

_ar_e, v. to wonder. Nil. (V.) ^r^. ■ ,' 

_a^re, v. to fetch, get. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: henrike gome ku ~tsi di ka _alre ~! gu — Henrike's oxen have 

come to get water, dzo ga tsi _a&re a misis a _da^a the woman is going to fetch for Misis wood. 

CII. (D.B.) Ex.: dor)ked3i ko ^liei , a ko _haf ~te; kweba a_kora d5i _a^re — the donkeys pulling 

came and stopped; a man unharnessed them, they got (water), 
are, n. a little stick. Cla. (Pa.) 

are, arese, much, nicely, s. ara. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |neike are ka fkai --- the children are crying much. 
kee ! ware arese famku — that girl works nicely. 

are jekwa, t;, to work. CI. (Do.) are yekwa. 

ale:/e , almost. Nil. (Dk. ) ale:/e. 

ari, n. guineafowl, s. adi, ani. NI. (D.B.) (Pa.) ^ri . Nil. (LI.) (Wil.) ari. ari, ari . 

arib,, s. _aufku, arugu. [Na. arib.] Nllb. (Leb. ) 

arro, arroko, arruko, quickly. SI. (B. ) arroko, arruko arruko. Ex.: hn k'auki arro:ko |ka wai : — they 

do not quickly kill the springbok, ha ka^-g | ne arruko !u:xe: bafi he quickly comes running up. U 

se arruko soe:g — you must quickly sit down. (LI.) arro, arroko. Ex.: hi k'lauki arro gau wai — 
they do not quickly drive forward the springbok. |ka:ka se arro:ko ha: the woman must eat quickly, 

_alra, v. to get down, fall. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: khau _a?ru toa ke get down and run away (said to a boy 

climbing), gosi ku _afru flowers fall. 

aru, namely, to wit. CI. (Do.) -, . 

arugu, quickly, form of aroko, used by animals in folklore . SI. (LI..) 

arugu, n. dog, s. arib, _au^ko. CII. (Schi.) obj . aruguba. voc. arugu dsche. 

asakala, n. red cat, (wild). CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: asakala ata t/iita lala:ko, ata samsta — a red cat also 

catches a lamb and eats it. 
dse, V. to sleep. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: unu ase ati nina, i ta ||ak'feta, salameta tina ase ta, elata tsetibi 

a man sleeps at the water to shoot it, in a shelter sleeps, made of bushes. 

asetabipi, n. pi. eyelids, s. ase, to sleep. CIII. (D.B.) 

aset/i, n. pi. collarbones. CIII. (D.B.) 

asi, n. sister, s. t/i . CII. (D.B.) Ex.: e daudi asi wako Daudi is his sister. 

aso, Sisu, r». parent, also used in the forms asomo, asowa, father , asoko, asuko, asuti, mother. CIII. (D. 
B, ) Ex.: maruka aso sa malarjgwako — Maruka (is) father of Mala^gwako. asu sa aijako wiriko goku — 

the father of (his) mother Wiriko (is) grandfather, Onene ono asomo calls me father, olanakwe, 

on asowa i children, I am the father, aijako, asuti jako mother, a female parent., isu wako 

burako its mother is Burako. mire asuko sa kitandu Mire (is) the mother of Kitandu. 

aso, much^many, big, tall. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.? teko it/ame, obe aso wepe thou art one, we are many. 

! ape asope many stones, asope tsetiba puhuna aa tall are the trees up in the sky. 

^3U, s. aso, parent. 

asumebi, n. family, CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: asumebi it/a my family is that. 

a:Ji, n. name for the Hadzapi given by the Masai. CIII. (D.B.) 

a/ibiti, n.Lake Eyasi. s.a:/i, CIII. (D.B.) 

a/oko, n. skin, hide. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hadzabi kima /a a/oko se tasa ma:ku zaiko, a/oko ea feleko 

the Hadzabi take a skin to buy a pot in the south, a hartebeest skin. 


time. s. au/e. [Na. aub. time of anxiety.] Si. (LI.) au^ auw. Ex.: o au:-0pwa ka sweg e, hag 

ha:f tu:i ||kha:^ when a little time had elapsed, he heard the lion. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: mihi jkwa au 

ku ge:,te o fheise ~u I will not a (long) time stay, but will quickly go. 

au, n. duiker bok, s.|au, |ou. Nil. (Zuk. ) 

au, pron. occasional form of a,, thou. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: au ! koe ~ka q ||ko: r)tk~o you now say, I am no 

not a man. 

au, another, s. a. Sllb. (Mh.) 'au. 

auba, auma, man, old man, father, s. aba, aureba. [Na. aob.] Nile. (Leb. ) auba. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: aume 
oh father, tire auma ||kugkwe I am an old man. 

au:gur, n. neck. Cllb. (Wil.) agiir. 

ahupe, n. skin of body, s. a/oko. CIII. (D.B.) 

_au^ko, n. dog. s. arib, arugu. CII. (D.B.) 

auma, s. auba. 

aunte, n. pot, calabash. CIII. (D.B.) 

auo, n. fear, s. au. [Na . au, to be afraid.] CI. (Do.) 

iureba, n. man, s. auba. Nllb. (Leb.) 

fiCurukii, n. a fine child. SI. (B. ) Ex.: | ne u sa:, a-g |ne ||k'^en !kwa a: a, duruku epwa — come th^t 
thou mayest see this child, this fine child. 

au/e, n. time, a long time, s. au . CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ok'B.u-l|kwa ko kuru ||xei, au/e ||kei ko kuru e --- 

the sorcerors worked teaching, a long time they were working. 

auu, n. quiver. CI. (Do. ) 

auu, n. tarantula. CI. (Do.). 

auwa, n. whip, CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: aiiwa eta sand^wibe the whip is of the Sandawe. 

~auwi, V. to let, imper. of v. au, "Su, to give. SI. (LI.) auwi. Ex.: ~auwi ! khwe tgo^ let the wind 

be silent. 

~auxu, V. to throw away. [Na. ao, to throw. ]CII. (D.B.) Ex.: We |kaum-di fl^^J* ^O ~auxu every 

snake's head is throw away. 

auxwe, blunt, round, CI. (Do.) aughwe. 

avan, pron. & verb, thou dost perhaps, s. a. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: avan ||on fan ! koa ti e Iguru dost thou 

perhaps know water in the neighbourhood ? 

aw, awa, n. father, s. a:, awa:, aba. Slid. (Wu.) aw. sile. (An.) CII. (D.B.) Ex.: fnu-kem ka ||kxin/a e 

Ikabe ~ke:/a, awa Dabe ~kei --- fnuke's mother is old |kabe, (his) father old Dabe. 
awanikaku, n. beak, mouth. CIII. (D.B.) 

awob !garis khe, n. father's brother's son. Nile. (Leb.) 
a xoron-khe, n. son. Nile. (Leb.) 
ax9n, pron. thou, s.a. Nil. (Wil.) SxSn. 


B . 

B is the ordinary voiced bilabial plosive, not differing much in sound from an English b. In 
the I xam language Bleek and Lloyd have sometimes written a double b at the beginning of words to indi- 
cate a more emphatic pronunciation, not a difference in sound. The doubling of initial consonants is 
often used by these two authors. 

Among the !o ! kur) of Angola b has a tendency to slide into V, as it does among the neighbour- 
ing Bantu tribes, the Luchazi and Mbunda. Elsewhere b in the second syllable often changes into W, as 

baba, bawa. 

It is noticeable that an initial b is not frequent in most Bushman languages, in many it only 
occurs in borrowed words. The two languages that have been most exposed to Bantu influences, those of 
Hiet/ware and the Hadzape have the greatest number of words beginning in b. 

ba, V. particle , interrog. or neg. SI. (B. ) ba, bba. Ex.: ts'^a de b^ a: ? what is it ? a ba: |ku 

lurruwa ha !kwa ? hast thou forgotten this child? U ba |ne fenna you do not know. NI. (D.B. ) 

Ex.: ahi ba a as ~3U kurre ? have you seen the person ? 

ba, V. particle , showing different tenses. SII. (D.B.) Ex . : ha m ba ! naia ||na there I was born, r) 

xeigki ba |a: — my mother has died. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: Ji ba tana — we speak, kapulite a ba~/i — 

the goats are coming. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ba bit/i ko it/u he walks in front, kabita ba |ki:ta 

karimu goes out to look for game. 

ba:, V. to collect. SI. (LI.) bba. Ex.: hi x6akon-gu safr) ba: !hou: their mothers have collected 

locus ts . 

ba, n. father, s. aba. NI. (Pa.) (D.B.) Ex.: m ba a ||kau||e my father is an Auen. anni~u ~ba o t/i 

--- Anniu's father's brother. Nil. (V.) ba. (Dk. ) ba: . Ex.: _m ba: --- my father (Wil.) ba. (LI.) 
bba, ba, pi. ba-ssiri. Ex.: m ba |kua Am ||k''e: my father did not eat monkeys, he respected mon- 
keys, m ba: k"ei goru my father touches the lizard, e ba ba ti Am our father's father eats 

it. ba tsir) — father's brother, uncle. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~||nwi _ba na ~||nwi _de oa |naa — the 

moon's father and the moon's mother are in the sky. CIII. (D.B.) ||asomo a ba dondo ||asomo is 

father of Dondo. baanakwipi, fathers. 

ba, pron. you, interchanges with a in sing., with u, & pa in pi. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: r) fku "^na: na "^a, ba 
I) I gwi |r)al I speak, I (to) you, you springbok doe. 

ba, pron. they, all. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: sia si n ! u, ba se Inwona we are two, they are three, tuku 

_ba SU ! hobati men all shall return. 

ba, pron. we, s. obe, obi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: Ono, te, k"lodzo ba kenena I, thou, we talk together. 

ba niggi bit/i a xlakopi we by other doctors are cut. 

hd, there, then. CIII. D.B.) Ex.: b^ mi dzeto unuwa /amo atibi mo there comes an Isanzu man with 

water, hd tl'^etl'^akaa obe then return we. 

-ba, dim. ending, s. ma, pi. bala. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: kapuriba, kid. /a:, mosarwaba, /a ga 8pwalu — go, 

little Mosarwa, go to the girls. Ilgwe: ||gar-bala little hen ostriches. 

— ba, mas. ending, sing, changes to m before v. to be, pi. s. — dzi. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweba, a man. du:ba, 
male eland. |xobbukeiba, old |xobbu. xaba ko dabi --- he returned. CIIII.(D.B. ) Ex. : jak"amba, male 
person, pi. jak"ambi. 

baala, n. honey, s. bara, _bula. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i:ta baala, dzanni mo olanakwe so sokomi — having 
taken honey, he fetches the children to eat it. 

ba:ba, baba, n. father, s. ba, bawa. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m ba:ba b4 fwa --- my father still lives. CIII. 
(D.B.) Ex.: kot^ga notana ko baba ka siggiri mabe set is the trap by father with a rope. 

baba /ole, n. manage, scab. CI. (Do.) baba shole. 

babaitsn, s.baitan. 

babao, n. bed. [Tsw. bolao.] CI. (Do.) 

_ba bi, n. a plant, Ipomea longipes, Eng. NI. (D.B.) 

bada, badako, n. grave. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: missia mo hadza, kotuate bada nini — dies a Bushman, is 

buried in a grave. 

bae, n. my father, pi. bare, s. bara, baba. CI. (Do.) 

hdhand, v. to finish, s. bahda. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hdhani, mo kuandika ta mo he has finished writing. 

bahe, v. to live, stay, s. baii . CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: marundipi bahdpi aa nina — clouds live in the sky. 
makwa/a bahdja Makwa/a is staying. 


bah^ja, b^hija, baja, v. to be ready, finished, s. bahani, _ba:H. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: i ||k:"eta a i ykoka 
sa b^hija ko — put it in the shaft which is ready, bah^a mo menda — finished is the cloth, ekela 

ota ||ana, baja kwa we are making an arrowhead, it is ready. 

bahukwa, n. bed. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: assebita bahukwa sleep in the bed. 

ba:fi^ v. to race, chase, finish, s. bah^ja. SI. (B. ) bbai, bai, p. pr. bbSya. Ex.: ha te ko:gsn !ku:xe 

d S'^a:, au hir) ba: fi his other thigh came running while it raced, bar) ba:H ! kaukan he chased 

the children. | gwSin | ne ba:i !kuitsn — the hyena finishes the eggs, bar) ! kattan! kattsn ba:ja 

Ikurri ||kaie he ran with all his might into the little riverbed. (LI.) bbat, bbSlya. Ex.: 

koroken |ne |ku hi: ||k"hwi-ta er), |ne ba:?i he the jackal eats the quagga's flesh, finishes it. 

_bai^_bai^, v. to precede, forestall, s. ba:li. SI. (LI.) bbaibb^i . Ex.: wai ||kwara a: a, har) ta? i 

baiJ~bai— 1 wai ||kwara a this springbok ewe walked in front of that springbok ewe. baifbai:f— a 

to get a thing before another who is also running for it. 

bai:fbai:t, n. haste, s. ba:li. SI. (B. ) bb^bb^. Ex.: ha bai:lbai:l harj a:, i) k"auki ka.-g |ne di 
ykabba, q n'?a; se kwar) Ihalm: |ne ||k"oen ||kabba, au ||ka^-ka baiilbail — that haste was why I did 
not take time, that I might look first leisurely, on account of hunger's haste. 

bail, V. to live, be here, s. bahe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kokumepi mutlepi bail pi many grandchildren 

are living, bai je amoso dzeremani^ kaka mo5erra missike kenene were here... the Germans, when 

Mo3erra died long ago. 

baitan, babaitsn, v. to sparkle, flash, lighten, s.battan. SI. (B. ) baitfn-i, (LI.) bbaitfn, bbabait^n, 
bbaiten-i^ p. bbaitya. Ex.:~||khal se |kwei |kwe|kwe, i:^ o ha |na: kun:no a: baitan-i — the lion- 

ness will act like this, when she sees the button which flashes. ~||kha^ ihADiimi ts'^a a: babaitsn 

a lion is afraid of a thing that sparkles, ha talbba ha o:a, i:, o har) ka, !kwa: xa se baiitsn |kha 

ha o:a she treats her father, for she wishes that the rain may not lightening kill her father. 

!khwa: |kwe:i k"o, hag baiHsn-i, i: — the rain does so, it lightens. !khwa: bailtja sa: — the 
rain lightening comes. 

baitanaq, n. the sparkling, flashing, s. baitan. SI. (LI.) bbaiten-an.Ex. : ~||kha^ ha: I e ts'^a a: k'auki 
tAm-se lhAmmi kun:no-ka baitanari --- the lion is a thing which does not a little fear the sparkling 
of a button. 

baja, s. bahea, ba:fi. 

baka /ole, n. nettle. CI. (Do.) baka shole. 

bakalaxarite, n. pi. Bakalahari women. SV. (D.B.) 

bakhalate, n. dagga, wild hemp. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: i ||ga:xa bakhalate --- we smoke dagga. 

ba:ki, n. jacket, coat. [Ned. baadji, Afr. baiki.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: na ka t/u: ba:ki ka ||kum --- I am 
putting the jacket on the ground. CI. (Do.) baki . 

bakle, n. palm. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bakle u_kwako palm of hand. 

bala, fa. to be able, can. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g bala ykai --- I can read, rj | no bala ||kai --- I am not able 
to read. 

_balaj n. rain-time, summer, s. bara. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _bala ~||gu ki t/a: in summer rain falls. 

balako, perhaps. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: balako ||koine ko --- perhaps (I) will kill (you), 
bale, V. to dance. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i /i |ka, /i ke bale --- we will step, will dance, 
balekwa ||ala, n. kafir corn. SV. (D.B.) 
balesa, n. bitch. CI. (Do.) 

bam bam, n. a certain black bird. Nil. (LI.) bambam, bam-bam. Ex.: !ku ti um: bam-bam --- Bushmen eat 
the bambam. tsaba | nu |ne l|a e bam-bam, ti ykAq, "u^m, h^m" --- a large bird is the bambam, it calls, 
"u^m, him". (Wil) bambam, 'Hornrabe' , horned crow. 

bami, rel. pron. what, which. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akwa hadzabiti e, zaikuni, bami na kl^odzo a qo/ar|giri 

not of the Hadzapi it is, of the south, what was told by r)o/ar)giri. 
bana, n. earring. SV. (D.B.) 

bana, n. string, sinew. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bana txla:me --- string at back of shoe (strung through the 
sole ) . 

bant/wa, quite really, of a truth. CI. (Do.) banchwa. 

bafra, V to set upright. SI. (LI.) b|ra. Ex.: ha tsi:nxu~ka !nwa: |uksn|uk9n e "Ikuita, hi |ne tatti 

ha kok6a, ha baira --- its (porcupine's) back's quills' stems are white, they feel that it turns them, 
it sets them upright. 

bara, n. father, pi. ba |kwa, s. bae. CI. (Do.) 

bara, barako, n. bee, honey,^ s. baala, ^_bula. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kita na a bara nakweti --- I have seen 
a small bee (or hive), nubeja owa barako sweet is honey. 


bara, n. harvest, rainy season, s. bala. CI. (Do.) 

barabara, flat, s. battanbattan. SI. (LI.) bbara-bbara. 

baraka, n. autumn, s. bara. CI. (Do.) 

barathi, green. CI. (Do. ) 

baraxam, n. insects of the family Bupres tidae , Sternocere or Julodis , eaten by Bushmen. SI. (B. ) b^rraxam 
(LI. ) bdra xfiCm. 

bari||gaij n. horn. SV. (Schu. ) 

barri, n. twig. SI. (LI.) bb^rri. Ex.: 8ho-0pwa a "fenni, si |ne ta barri — to a little stick which is 

small we say twig, 
basatka, n. ring worn round arm or below knee, pi. basa:kale. SV. (D.B. ) 
basalaxarite, n. pi. Masarwa women, s. basarwa^ bakalaxarite. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: basalaxarite /i ||nai, /i 

||xa the Masarwa women will sing, will dance. 

basarwa, basarwate^ n. pi. Masarwa. [Tsw. masarwa.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: basarsa wa /i — the Masarwa have 

gone, basarwate wa /a ta ||kabe the Masarwa (? women) are going to cook it. 

bastarite, n. pi. Bastaards, a tribe. [Ned. bastaard.] SVI. (D.B.) 

ba/oko, wet, leaky. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ba/oko --- it is wet. 

b^tabiC, V. to climb. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: b^tab^ oma --- it climbs. 

battan^ v. to lighten, s. baitan. SI. (LI.) batten, bbdtt^n. Ex.: ha k"auki ~tAm-9pwa battsn-i, ta q |ku 

||khabbo-r, ti e:, ha hd^ Iku battan ~||k"abbi i it did not a little lighten, for I was dreaming 

that it lightened strongly at us. 

battanbattan, v. to be flat, s. barabara. SI. (B. ) bott^nbottfn. Ex.: hi |ku-g |ne |u:r)qa ! au e: 

bdttanbattan they had slept on ground which was flat. (LI.) battenbattfn. Ex.: hi-ta ! kauokan | ne 

battanbattan, hi |ne |kwe|kwe: ~U its mountains are flat, they are like this (pointing to a sheet 

of paper ) . 

batwa, n. Bushmen. [Zu. (a)bathwa. ]sill . (D.B.) 

bawa, n. father, s. baba, CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bawa a aijako mu:a alcweteja father and mother cut the 

child, buruku bawa a ono Buruku is father to me. 

baxlu, n. fingernail, toenail, pi. buxlupe. CIII. (D.B.) 

be, bs, n. man, male. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: be ma des |kam two men. kauki be ha a ? where is the man? 

be, n. ox (?). Cla. (Pa. ) 

be, n. pi. fathers, sing. ~pa. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: we/e/e a m be jjkau both their fathers died. 

~be, n. a small white shell. Nil. (LI.) be. 

"be, voc. ending, s. we. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: sibohiso-be, a ||k"abo ... o SibOhiso, wake up. 

-be, pi. ending, variant of -pe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||abe, stones. 

bea:-!a:, n. grandfather. Nil. (Wil.) bea-!a. 

be:be:, v. to rush, s. bei:~bei. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||gauwa "fame ko ~!ku, Jwabbata, a ko xum/ kwe ko 

_kafita a, tako be:be:, ako ||num ! nu/ kwe fkarm — the spirit wind comes, blowing, covers with dust, 
rushes and shakes the stones in the house. 

bebekaa, v. to whisk off. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bebekaa ! napati ako --- whisks off the horseflies. 

bee, V. to hiss, to persuade, to burden too much. CI. (Do.) 

beeba, v. to abound. CI. (Do. ) 

beelele, n. goat, s. berri. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: beelele jak"amba — ram. obe hadzabe okwaja beelele kowe 

we Hadzabe have not a ewe goat. 

beha, impossible, s. beja. CI. (Do.) 
behwa, useless. CI. (Do.) 

bei:~bei, v. to blow softly, s. be:be:. SI. (LI.) beibei. Ex.: Ikhwetan |ku-g |ne tAm0pwa bei:~bei !kuq 
Ss"o: the wind gently blows softly from the north. 

heja, unable, s. beha. CI. (Do.) beya. 

bekata, v. to hit. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bekata mo unu ! napako a man hits the horsefly. 

bekesa:, n. jacket, s. ba:ki. [Ned. baadji, Afr. baiki. ] Nil. (LI.) bekesS. Ex.: na ti "||ku bekesa: --- 
I hang up the jacket. 

bekwa, v. to stay, to keep. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bekwa a atonen — he stayed here again, a ka bekwa hee 

hUUna atonen and kept them over there again. 

bela, V. to boil. CI. (Do. ) 


bele, n. the bank of a river. CI. (Do. ) 

bemba, n. reedbuck. CI. (Sel) 

benapi, there, s. ba. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: wainetja kwami dzimalolo, benapi a fua — they are ail at 
Dzimalolo, there to drink. 

bende:^ n. pipe. Cllb. (Wil.) bende. 

betrake, v. to work. [Ned, werk.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ma3winki ea /a ! na ke kanje ke berrake ke missis — 
Ma3winki is going to Kanye to work for Missis. 

berekathi, n. carpenter. [pro6. Ned. werker.] CI. (Do.) 

beresi, n. boy, son. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n {ke'^i bsreaii I have sons. 

berre:, bere/a, n. bread. [Ned. brood.] SI. (B.) berre. Ex.: kwobo a: ~ko:ka berre: ~ha e --- a black 

man who likes bread he is. CII. (D.B.) bere/a. Ex.: _aild3 kuru, ako bere/a ko "f^u made a hole 

in order to bake bread. 

bsrri, berri:, n. goat, s. biri, byri, peri. [Tsw. podi.] SI. (B. ) berri. Ex.: berrf: 9pwa ka !kwa — 
kid's bone (used as a Bushman pipe). Nil. (LI.) berri. Ex.: ta ~! ku gu |nofof, ta ||ko: bsrri l|go 
jnofof and wore a sheep skin, and an apron of a male goat's skin. 

berri-siq, v. to open, p. p. b6rri-sir)ja. SI. (LI.) bberri-ssin^ bb^rfi-ssinya. Ex.: har) Ikuttan tutil: 
||k"e: a: Ugafrraksn-Ikhwaitantu se ||khou bsrri-sir) a: — it sings asking the time at which the 

llgarrakan flower should open. ||gaf rraksn -! khwaitsntu kag ||kwat ||khou bsrri-sir)ja the ||garrakSn 

flower has opened. 

betite, n. grub. CIII. (D.B.) 

be||k"au, n. elephant. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: komi a tl'^akate, pakapaa be||k"au, smaller is the rhinoceros, 

bigger the elephant. 

bi, n. milk, breast, s. biesa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: bi ku m milk to drink. CII. (Pa.) milk. (D.B.) female 

breast, pi. bi/i. Ex.: bi ete, | ge bi/i the breast it is, long breasts. Cllb. (Wil.) bl'am. 

bi, n. quagga, s. bia, bie, bieba.CII. (Schi.) 

— bi, mas. pi. ending to n. , used also as pron. they, s. pi, CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tseti, stick, tsetibi, 
sticks, tsoko bi fetch them. 

bia, n. horse, s. bi, bie, bieba. CII. & Clla. (Pa.) 

biane, n. grasshopper. CI. (Do.) 

biba, n. baggage, skins for houses, pi. bibara, goods, chatties. CI. (Do.) Ex.: biba t/wakko, to be 
naked, biba sehc, a debt, bibara. ||kwakko, to scatter about goods, to plunder. 

bie, n. horse, s. bi, bia, bieba. Cla. (Pa.) CII. (Pa.) bie | gu, horse head. Cllb. bie, quagga, (Bal.) 
bihe, (Zuk.) 

bieba, n. quagga, horse, pi. biene, s. bi, bia, bie. CII. (D.B.) 

bie/a, n. waterroot, Raphionaceme Burkei N. E. Br., used as drink in times of drought. CII. (D.B.) 

bi:he:, n. horse, s. bie. Cllb. (Wil.) bihe. 

bii, CI. V. to bark, howl as a dog. CI. (Do.) 

bilo, n. pot. [ Lu. mbilo.lNIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bilo ki |konu, t/a:te a — the pot boils, pour out. 

biri, n. goat, s. berri, byri, peri. [Tsw. podi.] SII. (D.B.) pi. birir). Ex.: biri ke ama — a goat 
goes there, birir) 0pwone ki e ! ku — kids which are two. NI. (D.B.) pi. birite Ex.: ha gwa Je ~u, a 

ko "iDirite guwa he went yesterday, to fetch the goats. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: "biri ko dsbi ,-- the 

goat is returning. 

biriko, name of a Bushman tribe said to live beyond the Makoba. Nil. (LI.) 

"birikosi:, n. trowsers, s. borokwe, bruksn, buburukenkwe . [Ned. broek.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kwa tenne 
birikosi : this one wore trowsers. 

biriku, v. to talk chatter. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: naro biriku the Naron chatter. 

birwa, n. the Makaranga. CI. (Do.) 

biso, n. wildebeest, Gorgon taurinas, Burchell. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsauwa SO bisoko the tail of a 

wildebeest cow. 

bita, pron. Us. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: haka bita manana — bring us meat. 

-bita, ending used as preposition in. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapinSr-bita onebi _dza in the morning we 

came . 

bo, n. axe, s. boko, boo, bose. NIII. (D.B.) CII. (D.B.) Ex.: boj" ka l|xau /ik"am/akwe --- with an axe 
(he) cut her across the mouth. Clla. (Pa.) bo. Cllb. (Wil.) bo. 

bo:, n. village of chief. NIII. (D.B.) 


bo^ n. side-striped jackal, Canis adustus, Sundevall. Nil. (Zuk.) (Wil.) bo. 

bo:, inter j . boo. SI. (LI.) bbo. Ex.: he |ku-g |ne i: k;"wa: ''bo: " o sisi they used to cry "boo" 

after us. 

bo:, clever, wise. Nil. (V) bo. (Wil.) bo. 

bobo, n. father, prob. a familiar form, s. ibo, bokangu. SI. (B. ) bobbo, bobo. Ex.: g-g-ka bobo my 

father, g-ka bobo: e my father. 

bobo, n. fly, wasp. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: bobo ako --- it is a fly. 

_bogame, v. to play (music). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ehn _bogame t/xane t/xe, _bogame _||nau — we play for 
the dance, play the bow. 

bogo, n. scented wood, s. 0bo. Slid. (Arb.) 

bohotio, n. bread, s. boxotia. [Ned. brood.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ka ||kaba bohotio to bake bread. 

boksn, ~bo:ke, v. to bark, s. borro. SI. (LI.) bbokfn. Ex.: ! khwir]!khwir) k"auki ta 9pwoin, au hi bokan 

||na the dogs do not sleep, for they are barking there. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: !kwir| a ~bo:ke the 

dog barks. 

bo:k8n, bo:ki, v. to make water. SI. (B. ) bokfn, boki. Ex.: |ku si bo:ksn, |ku si bo:ki to make 


bo:k8n, v. to open, be open, s. bukksn. SI. (B. ) boken. Ex.: ||nair)jari |ku bo:kan !khe: — the house 
stood open. (LI.) boken. bboken. Ex.: !kou-g |ne ||xa||xa, hag ||khou ~bo:k9n — the rock again flew 
open. ! gitan |ki bo:k8n ! ho !kau a:, he jku: !kau: ! hoa ha, o ti e:, !hou: ||na he — the sorcerors 
opened by lifting off the stone, with which they had closed up the place where the locusts were. 

bokangu, n. pi. fathers, s. ibo, bobo, okangu. SI. (B. ) bokengu. Ex.: u bokangu. 

bo:ki, s. bo:kan. 

bo:ki, V. to be married, said of women. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bo:ki epe, kwa pe taieta they were married, 

so they stayed. 

boko, V. to be ill. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso boko unu, iso xlaka niggi when a person is ill, then 

cuts the doctor. 
bo:ko, n. metal, s. bo, axe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i xlako, bo:ko it is a knife, metal. 

boko, n. home, CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: boko hama jako lotende its home is the Lotende (river). 

bokobo, tame. [Tsw. bokgwabo.] SI. (Do.) 

bokoni, n. pi. goats. [Ned. bok. ] SIII. (D.B.) 

bokoo, n. worm, s. bokwabe. CI. (Do.) 

boku, V. to rub. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: boku at/u lelako rub thread with gum. 

bokwabe, n. caterpillar, s. bokoo. CIII. (D.B.) 

boleka, bolete, n. bucket, can. [Eng. billy.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: !kha: ke boleka water is in the bucket. 

ea ka ||gwa:la bolete he has opened the can. 

boloo, n. ball of hair in the stomach of an animal. CI. (Do.) 

bone, num. four, can take mas. & fern, endings. [Swa. nne. ] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bone e ami four there 

are. tsufijipi bonepi kwami xlaka a tseabi — in four days they finished cutting, akwave bonepe — 
four girls. 

boggoggo, v. to thunder. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: boggoggo a me ati thundering is the rain. 

bonug 'oa, n. pestle. Cla. (Pa.) bonung »o^. 

boo, n. axe, s. bo. [Tsw. podi . ] CI. (Do.) Ex.: boo ||ka axe handle. 

boobi, n. spider's web. CI. (Do.) 

boori, n. word, tale, legend, conversation, s. byri. CI. (Do.) 

bore, gentle. CI. (Do.) 

borethe, flat, slippery. CI. (Do.) 

bori, n. strife. CI. (Do.) 

boriako, n. quagga, s. bieba. Slid. (Arb.) 

_boro, V. to paint, s. boru. Nl. (D.B.) Ex.: JU o |e: jnatsi ~|ne ka _boro a person mixes it (with 

fat) and paints. Cll. (D.B.) Ex.:k'eme ko _boro the face is painted. 

borokwe, n. trowsers, s. "birikosi. [Ned. broek.] SV. (D.B.) 

borro, v. to bark, s. bokan. SI. (LI.) bbSrro. Ex.: ha s'^'o ko borro kui Ixwag koro — he sits and barks 
like a jackal. 

borro, _boro, v. to be stupid. Nil. (V.) b9ro. (Wil.) b6ro. (LI.) bdrro. Ex.: 3U tig ti kwonna, 3U ti 


borro (when) a person's thoughts are wanting, the person is stupid. (Dk.) bcjo, a dumb person. 

boru, V. to rub, s._boro. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 5U ku boru tsa a person rubs with buchu. 

bo/, s. bo, axe. 

bot/ose, bot/ote, quickly, cm. (D.B.) i tl'^'ikwa bot/ose — it runs quickly, bot/ote missi amo 

quickly it is killed. 

boxotia, n. bread, s. bohotio. [Ned. brood.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: boxotia |kwi ka ! go bread is scraped 

with a knife. 

bre, n. bread. [Eng. bread. J Sla. (Anson.) 

bruksn, n. trowsers, s. "birikosi, borokwe. [Ned. broek.] SII. (D.B.) Ex.: bruksn !kwe:r)! kwe:r|je ka 
||kallaa the trowsers are yellow. 

~bu, V. to light, make (fire), s. bu:|e. SI. (LI.) bbu. Ex.: hi |ku-g | ne ~bu |i qwai they make a 

big fire. 

bu:, V. to bring. CIII. (D.B.) ise bu: atonen akwitive then bring there the women. 

bu, inter] . ho. SI. (LI.) bu. Ex.: | ni ©pwa hal-g |ne kui, "bu !khe, bu !khe, !khe" the young 

ichneumon cried out, "ho stand, ho stand, stand! " 

bu:, n. rietbok, Cllb. (Wil.) bu. 

bubu:ru, v. to have rough or thin hair. SI. (LI.) buburu, bbubburu. Ex.: hi ta, bara 0pwa buburu 

they say, a foal is rough-haired, har) | ne bubu:ru, au harj tatti, ha |ku ||kwalr) k"auki !kwi!kwita 

it is thin-haired, for it feels that its hair is not thick. 

buburuksnkwe , n. trowsers, s. borokwe. [Ned. broek. ]SI. (LI.) bbubburukenkwe . Ex.: si ta sir) |ku 

ebo:fo:?kan au ||xauk9n, au si xau oa |kalmmainja buburuksnkwe, au si )kuxe |ki !xo: au ||ga: — we 
used to be covered with blood, if we did not wear trowsers, when we ran after the porcupine by night. 

bu:e, budij n. hole^ burrow. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~!kor]ga teeja bu:e the hare covered the hole, kamo 

~!kor)ga ! noo budi nina then the hare popped into the hole. 

buite, buitse, v. to blow the nose. CIII. (D.B.) 

bukkan, v. to scratch open, s. boiksn. SI. (B. ) bbukken. Ex.: ha se bukksn hi, au ha !noa!noa, ha se 

bukksn |nig |k"weitan erjerj he (jackal) will scratch them (holes) open with his feet, that he may 

scratch out the mouse's body. 

_bula, n. hive, honey box, s. baala, baraka. NIII. (D.B.) 

buli, n. goat, s. berri, biri. [Tsw. podi.] Cla. (Pa.) 

~bulu, n. fetish-stick. [Lu. mbulu.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a txa ~||kha, a gu jalo, a t/o ~bulu shoot 

game, take blood, mark the fetish-stick. 

bumbo, n. a certain tree. Nil. (LI.) 

bunduki, n. gun. [Swa. bunduki.] CIII. (D.B.) 

bu:pi, n. meal, bread. [Tsw. boupe.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: wa ka e: bu:pi — they eat meal, madsenki ka kabbe 
bu:pi Mad3enki kneads bread. 

bure 'kau, n. cloth for carrying ostrich eggs, s. buri |kau. Clb. (Pa.) 

buri |kau, n. net for ostrich eggs, s. bure 'kau. CI. (Do.) 

burko, n. trowsers, s. borokwe. [Ned. broek.] NI. (Pa.) 

burruikan, v. to resound. SI. (B. ) bburrukfn. Ex.: |kaulk9n|kau&ksn kwa>^ |ne burru:kan, au ha: k"wa: 
!khe:, au |xam-ka !e:ja the hills will resound, as he (lion) stands roaring at the Bushmen. 

buru, n. Boer. [Afr. bur.] NI. (D.B.) 

buruku, n. trowsers, s. burko. [Ned. broek.] Cla. (Pa.) 

buruta, n. baboon. Cllb. (Bal.) 

butu, n. flour, s. bu:pi. [Tsw. boupe.] Cla. (Pa.) 

bu:|e:, bu:bu:|e:, v. to burn, set on fire, catch fire, pro6. contrac. of ""bu |i, to light a fire. SI. 

(B. ) bbu|e. Ex.: ||o:ir) ka |ku !ka:g8n kau bu:|e: r| ! aokan the sun did early burn my body. (LI.) 

bbuje. Ex.: ||kha: I sir) se |ka he, o !khwa: xa sir) bu:|e:ja ||kha:f o |khe: — the lion would have 

killed them, if the child had not set the lion on fire with grass. Ghokakan | ne tuko bu:bu:|e: 

the bushes caught fire. 

byri, n. goat, s. berri, biri. [Tsw. podi.] Sla. (A-Son. ) bri. Nil. (LI.) buri. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: byriba, 
he-goat, byri/a, she-goat, byri |kwane, kids. 

byri, v. to say, speak, tell, s. boori . CII. (D.B.) Ex.: byri mi tell him. xan ||kur) kwerx"*- a ko byri 

taA those old people told me. || gauwam-di/a byri ||kei tama of the spirit they did not speak. 

ko ~kum, kwena ko byri ~te I have heard what the people said. 


byri/i, n. mealiemeal. CII. (D.B.) 

byttanxa, byttanbyttan, v. to jog. SI. (B. ) bb^ttenxa, buttfnbutten. Ex.: ha |ku-g jne byttanxa au ha 

||gai:l --- he jogged with his shoulder blade, hag byttsnbytl^sn kui !gwaif au ! kwirri he jogging 

descended into the riverbed. 

bzela, V. to sow. CI. (Do. ) 

bzelathi, n. sower. CI. (Do.) 


The voiced alveolar plosive d is an original Bushman sound. It occurs far more frequently than 
b, and is found in roots running through many languages. Sometimes it is a variant of t. 

In the |xam language Bleek and Lloyd write dd at the beginning of words to express a very em- 
phatic pronunciation of the ordinary d. In the hietj*ware language Dornon uses dh at the beginning of 
r, any words, explaining that it is "a dental sound approaching the provincial pronunciation of dd in' lad- 
der'." (The Tati Bushmen and their Language, p. 62) Not being sure what that pronunciation is, I leave 
his orthography. 

d combines with other sounds, giving d j , dz, and dj. The latter sound Bleek writes dzh, while 
Lloyd varies between dsh, dzh, and d j , all standing, I believe, for the same sound. Dornon writes this 
sound j. Passarge and Vedder use ds for dz, the German s being voiced. 

da:, V. to work for, act towards, give, make, happen, affect, usually past tense of di. SI. (B. ) da. Ex.: 
r) a: (kaggan, r) |ne da: i ||karri, i ||karri s'^e ||xAm ||k"oer) r)-ka taba — I who am the Mantis, I did 

work for our friends, that our friends might also behold my work, ts'^a de | nu a: da: ke ! kwa dom ? 

what is it that has affected for me the child's throat ? hi ! halm da: I ke !kwa:l-ka tikantikan 

they first gave me anger's actions. (LI.) dda. Ex.: ha ka: a ||ke||keja hi a:, ti e:, ha o:a da: i 

!ko:ite a he, hig e:, ha ka: ||xAin: da: hi: e: he wanted to do to us, as he had done to our aunt, 

that was how he wanted to act towards us. har) |kammeinja hi au ha !xa:-ga |kukan, he ha da: |ui i 

he carries them with his mane's hair, which he has made into a net. da: |a:, made a fight, fought. 
[Na. da:, to be hostile, quarrel.] (B. ) da |a, da-a |a. Ex.: |kakaggan Ukwar) ||k6a da: |a: — the 

Mantis seems to have fought. ! ku ko: da-a |a:, au har) |ne ||ka: ! ho ! kau the other one was fighting 

him, while he heated a stone. 

da:, V. to conquer. Nil. (V.) da. (Dk.) da:. 

-da, ending used in phrases, te:— da, what, [kwei-da, like this, s. interrog. de. SI. (B. ) —da. Ex.: ha 
|keg te:-da ? — what is his name ? (LI.) -dda. ddakan. Ex.: | ne !kwi:ja ki a: |xam-ka a |ke, g |ne 

tu:, ti s:, a |ke |kwei— da call for me thy Bushman name, that I may hear if thy name is like this. 

u xa te:-dakan fi: ? what do you think? 

da, V. to lie, s. ta. Sllb. (Mh.) 

da, then, so, s. ta. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: na ti siq !xo, da ti ! kabba ~!kau I saw an elephant, then I 

climbed a tree, ta sa ~fkhi, da Am, Am, Am and they are many, so eat, eat, eat. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

da t/iqkwe pembe then cries a goat. 

da, of, [Na. di.J CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: da dagweko it/ameko of Dagweko (is) only one (story). 

da, n. person, s. dama. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: da naunko Gpwaiai the person will sleep. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 

Ikon da, old man. Ikon dake, old woman. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: da ! oe, du I num one person, two people. 

da, interrog. pron. who ? CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: da ba ||k"e.ia ? who has come ? 

da, _da, n. kaross, cloth. Nil. (Wil.) da, .blanket. (LI.) Ex.: ha zau sir) ha, ta Ige guwa, ta |uwa kwe 

da, I ou |no:o his wife saw him and went to take hold of him, and put him into her kaross, a duiker 

skin, da d30 black cloth. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku de ||kabeja _da a Bushman woman slings on a 

kaross. mi ~! go: me _da 1 strap on my loincloth. 


da, da:f, n. polecat, Ictonyx kalaharicus, Roberts. Nil. (Sh.) da. (LI.) Ictonyx zorilla, dd^, da. Ex.: 

m ba ti ~!ku da: I my father wore a backdress of polecat, fa ti ma dal~!khu tsema the wind 

blows the little polecat backdress. 

da, _da, d^a, daa, n. fire, firewood, firestick. [Na. dao, to burn, cook.] NI. (Pa.) da. (Sei.) da. (D. 

B. ) \da. Ex.: ji ~kxe. ka kau vda, ko \da ko O ~t/xeri we shiver, and make a fire, and the fire 

flames. ! kai daa, tj'ari daa bring firewood, light a fire, daa ||e:si, matches. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. 

da tali, flame, da schua^ smoke, ch. sp. da sua, smoke, da dowa, ashes. Nil. (Pa.) <ia. (V.) d'a. (Dk. 
da'^a. (LI.) da, dd'a, dSa. Ex.: daba di sir| da: — the child looks at the fire, d'^a ||khoa — reflec 

tion of lamplight (in window), m ba ~|ni, ta ti ~fnu daa, ta daa ||koa my father sat down, and 

rubbed fire, and the firestick broke, da /ure, smoke. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: _da ||nau, ashes. _daa ma tsal 

the fire burns, a ! xa _dani rub the firesticks. tjau ~U |kei —daa a woman goes carrying 

f i rewood. 

daba, v. to tease, vex. CI. (Do.) 

_dalba, v. to start, be frightened. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi _da^ba I started (with fright), ha se a, ha 

_dafba he sees it (ghost), he is frightened. 

_daba, n. quiver. SIIc. (D.B.) 

daba, n. child, s. dama, dava. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi ku tane daba — I carried the child. Nil. (Wil.) 
daba. (LI.) daba, d^ba, pi. ddimml. Ex.: daba karre, infant, daba ||gannema, baby which can sit, crawl 

and walk a little, daba ! numma, baby which crawls, but does not walk, ha ti t/u daba she blows at 

the child, e ti ok"widaba ||goma kwe "m ba" we call a boy "my father". (Wil.) daba S^iuna, daughte 

NIII. (D.B.) pi. debe. Ex.: daba dema, little girl, daba ||gauma, little boy. daba ma, baby. _gole mih 
daba _(jOle is my child, ma debe oku _kwandu my children are at the Kwandu. 

daba, n. salt, s. debe, dimi, diri, dobe. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: daba kama e _kalm — salt like is the _kafm 

dabai, dabaija, n. leather, s. dhabu. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kabatana na dabaija — covered with leather. 

dabara, n. lightning, s. da, fire, dhebe. Nile. (Leb.) 

daba/a !ne, daba/i !nar|, n. armpit. Nil. (LI.) dabasha !ne, dabashi !nan. 

dabba, v. to wink, blink, twinkle, open and shut eyes. SI. (B. ) d^bba, dd^bba. Ex.: ! kuttan ~!khau, 

Ikilttan ~!khau, dabba ||ka llk"oagu — Sirius, Sirius, winks like Canopus. !k'?wa:gsn dabba-i — the 

hartebeest opened and shut hia eyes, har) ||ne: hi au |i, hi se dabba ||l5:e||ke: hi |ka:gsn he pointed 

to them (stars) with fire, that they should twinkle like each other. 

_da*bba_dafbba, n. twinkling, blinking, s. dabba. SI. (LI.) ddabba-ddabba, emph. ddabbar-ddabbaken . Ex.: 
!kwi a: ||kho: [kutka, ha tsaxd.u _dalbba_daibbaksn ykwalrj e: a — a person who seems to be dying, his 
eyes' blinking is there. 

dabe, n. valley, s. dum. CII. (Schil) 

daddHsa, daddlma, n. moth, butterfly, s. tatdiba. SI. (B. ) dad^bussi, (LI.) dadabassl, Ex.: dad^lbas~si 
IlkwaJq. ka |kha |e: i eger) — butterflies kill going into our bodies. NI. (D.B.) dad^mana. Nil. (LI.) 
dad^a . 

dad^raksn, soft. SI. (B. ) dadarraken. Ex.: g |ku-g |ne ||ag tamQpwa ta:e ||a:, au r| ! noar-ka a:g |k^-g |ne 
ta dad^rrakan I did go gently, as the flesh of my feet was soft. 

_dadaro, v. to whisper. Nil. (V.) dadaro. 

dae, dae, v. to go, travel, depart, s. _tae, _tai. [Na. ta ||na.] SVIa. (Kr. ) dae°, dae. Ex.: dae ||a aggan 

l|o: ehoggan — go thou and chop wood, q | oue ||ka-ga !nu, n ts'^oaggan ||k"xou dae ||ga — I have seen 

lion's spoor, therefore I shall not travel at night, r) dae ||a ! goue a a, r) ||a | guin ti |ge: ge — I 
depart this morning, I shall sleep there. 

dae, n. mother, s. tai . Nil. (V.) 

dagweko, n, witch, or proper name. CIII. (D.B.) 

daha, dahm, n. tsama melon. SV. (Schu. ) da-ha. (D.B.) dahm. 

dahwa, v. to be drunk. CI. (Do. ) 

dai, n. thigh, leg. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tan ko dai |na tis |kam those are two legs. 

dai, shoulder, s. daba/a. SV. (D.B.) 

dai, n. light, s. da. Nil. (LI.) d^i. Ex.: siq dai e a look at the light. 

_dai, n. branch. NIa. (Leb.) ch.sp. d^-i . 

daindain, v. to deceive. SI. (B. ) dd^indddlinya. Ex.: a: k"au daindainja s'^a au !k'?wa:-g |na: ? — dost 
thou not deceiving come about the hartebeest's head ? (LI.) dd^indd^in. Ex.: he daindain ||na he 

is deceiving there. 

daintu, n. wood, forest, s . da, _dai. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 


_daiHsn, v. to look back, turn the head. [Na. dawa, to turn round.] SI. (B. ) dd^iten, dd^iten. Ex.: 
!kwag daiHan !k'?wa:-g |na: — the child looked back at the hartebeest's head, q dauko daitandaitsn 

||kau: !ho au r) ||ld3 |na: I go looking back setting (my head) on my shoulder. (LI.) ddaiten-l. Ex.: 

r) k"auki dai:ltsn-i I do not turn my head. 

daka^ v. to be there. SVI. (D.B. ) Ex.: a |k"adaka thy hand is there. 

d^kai kxa, a greeting. Cla. (Pa. ) d^kai kcha. 

da:k8nda:ksn, v. making, s. da. SI. (LI.) ddakf n-ddak§n . Ex.: hag torro, daikendarksn 0mwig o ha — it 
(moth) poured out, making lice out of itself. 

dale:, v. to tell. SV. (D.B.) 

"dam, V. not to know. Nil. (V.) dam. 

dam, n. tongue, s. _dama, dham. CII. (Schi. ) Cllb. (Wil.) dSm. 

da:m, damba, dam/, n. tortoise, com., mas., fem. ; pi. dambii, s. dham. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: da:m a — a tor- 
toise it is. damba ko /e — (he) catches the tortoise, kwe/a ko tjaba ~xei, a t/oro ~|ka: dam/ kwe 
a woman powders buchu and pours it into the tortoise-shell. 

dama, n. Herero, Berg Damara. [Na. damab, damas, Herero. ] SIV. (D.B.) Berg Damara. SVI. (D.B.) guma dama, 

pL. gomaxa damate, Herero. xau dama, pi. xau damate. Berg Damara. NI. (D.B.) pi. damasi, Herero, Berg 

Damara. Nil. Herero. (Dk.) (Wil.) dama. (LI.) Ex.: na ti sa !nabbe, na ti sa d^ma, na ti sa n^ma — 

I understand the Ovambo, I understand the Herero, I understand the Nama. CII. (D.B.) Herero, dual 
damat/ara, pi. damakwena. 

dama, n. little child, contraction of daba ma. NI, (D.B.) Ex.: dama ! go:ma, boy. 'dama dzoma, girl, dama 
ma, baby. |kai dama, grandchild, dama O ~tsa two children, dama t/l the child cries. 

dama, n. woman, wife, girl, pi- dame. s. da, person, ma, dim. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _mihi dama I am a 

woman, dame l|kaj|kari a t/u the old women are at home, dame ! kwa kwasir) -'-- the girls. ! nabe jkwa 

gu dama ! nabe did not take a wife. 

_dafma, n. doorway, s. dham. NIII, (D.B.) 

_dalma, _dalmba, n. tongue, s. dam, dham. CII. (D.B.) pi. _dafm/i. Ex.: |kaiine i a |[kai||kai/i _daJma — 
a cobra is wagging its tongue, ti _dafmba fxe: tame my tongue does not get it. 

damako, n. young man, s. dama, child. NI. (Pa.) 

damma, hidden, s. debbi, to cover, dimmidimmi. SI. (LI.) d^mma. Ex.: whai: ta tai damma ||koeta ehokan --- 
the springbok go hidden in the trees' midst. 

dammi, n. pi. children, s. daba, dama. Nil. (LI.) ddmmi. 

dar), n. root, bottom^ seat. Nil. (LI.) Mn, dd^n, pi. ddan-ssin. Ex.: ||ka||k^ro-ga dar) the plant's root. 

ga dagsig e: a its roots are here, ta |xu ti llga ! nwe dar) and the divining pieces lay at the 

bag's bottom. (V.) dan. 

dar), n. thigh. Nil. (Wil.) dSn. 

dana, n. childhood, s. dama. CI. (Do.) 

dana, n. firewood, firesticks, s. da, dani. Nil. (LI.) dana, ddana. Ex.: me ||ha, ~^nu dana — my son, 
rub firesticks. ! kar) ti |u daa, ti e daria the tree which has fire (in it) is firewood. 

_da:na, around. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: wa kaa _da:na you look around. 

danat/o, n. girl, unmarried woman, s. dama, dana. CI. (Do.) danacho . 

dane:, n.- honey, s. denee. Cllb. (Wil.) dane. 

dani, n. tinderbox, firesticks, s. da, dana. NI. (D.B.) tinderbox. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _dani ki kwe |nali 
firesticks are so rubbed. 

dani, v. to carry, walk with a load. Nil. (Wil.) dani. 

dani, black, dark, possibly from charcoal. SV. (D.B.) 

dafni, n. a plant, tragia duoica, Lond., of which the berries are eaten. NI. (D.B.) 

dani, n. insect. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: toO dani ke, ta dso dani ke the too is an insect, the bee is an in- 

>dani/a, n. honey, s. denee, deni. [Na. danib. ] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: go_gwaf/i/a hi/ dumkwe ||ei/a kuru, a ko 
\dani/a kuru the black and white bee among the bushes builds its home, and makes honey. 

dano, V. to atone. CI. (Do.) 

dag-zen, n. buttocks. Nil. (Wil.) dai-zen. 

daoo, V. to dry up. CI. (Do.) 

dappam-t'^'appam, n. snow, flock-wool. SI. (B. ) dabben-tthappen. (LI.) dappem tt'appem. 

_dara, v. & n. to lighten, lightning, s. da. Nil. (V.) d^ra. 


dararjga, n. meal, flour. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ukuwa daragga — there is no meal. J*amobi akwitibe _dzaname 
_aarar)ga Isanzu women bring flour. 

daroha, v. to have stomach ache. CI. (Do.) 

dafrraksn, v. & n. to move, quiver, shake, tap, movement, stirring. LNa. da:, to step. J SI. (B. ) 

ddjirraken. Ex.: !k'?wa a: a, ha egeg dola^-g |ne dafrrakan — this hartebeest's flesh does move. (LI.) 
dd^rraken, dd^rraka. Ex.: Ikwitan |ku ||koak3n kwe:, au hag tatti e:, ha eger) dalrraksn — a man is 
altogether still, when he feels that his body is quivering. |khabbaka: !gau:; ! k'^au-ka ku: gwai, hir) 

dafrraksn, O ha ! gau:wa the earthquake makes a rumbling noise*, all the ground shakes, when it has 

made a rumbling noise, ha |ki | ku !gau:, dalrrakandalrraksn Ik'^au it makes a rumbling noise, shak 

ing the ground, ha a:, |xam-ka !_kwi ta | ni a: &, au ha: a dafrraka it is that by means of which a 

Bushman gets meat, when it has tapped. ||kaue k"auki se !halmini: ha, he ti hir) e:, ha ka, da^rrakan 

k"auki se ||na||ndi the leopard will not be afraid of her, therefore she says, stijrring will not be 


dasi, n. rib. NIa. (Leb. ) ch.sp. 

da-sii, easy. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

\dasi-||nara, n. Southern Cross, prob. fire's shoe, s. da. NI. (D.B.) 

dattan, datta, v. to deceive, soothe, distract. SI. (LI.) d^tten, dd^tten. Ex.: ||kha: f |k'^bbe, ti e:, 

he se dofa dattan to:i the lions agreed together, that they would deceive the ostrich, he | ne 

kukuitan |k'«, "i ka:lse te: |ki, i datta" (dattan ha) ? — they said, "what shall we do to deceive 
him ?" ha: |ku k'wa: ||na ; ha ||kaxai k'auki !kau:ogan |hir) o !ku:i-se, o ha ||kaxaija dofa dattan |ki 

ha he continued to cry there ; his elder sister could not finish putting !ku:i-se to bake, for 

his elder sister had to soothe him. 

dattandattan, dadatta, v. to hang down, to descend. SI. (LI.) ddattenddatten, dda-ddat-ta. Ex.: he 
xwerri-k"au |ku ||nau:, o ||kha: Ig ka ha tsi:-a xu:wa, harj |ku durru !ku:itan, o ha ||gal ||gai: Itan-ka 
!kwa:kakan |ku dadatta, hs: ||kha:l tsi: !kwa!kwabba ka hs — and Xwerrik"au did this, when the lion 
had biting left him alone, he slowly returned, while his shoulder bones were hanging down, those 
which the lion had biting broken. |kwagan | ku-g | ne ||ar) kar| dattandattan ~||kao sir) har-ka ||neir) — 

the clouds' descended upon his house. 

dau:, V. to spring. SI. (LI.) ddau. Ex.: t6i ||kwalr) |ku-g |ne dau: u:i, ti e:, ha sir) ||kwalr) dofa !khe- 
kau— tai : f hs the ostrich sprang out from the place where, he had meant to stand. 

_dau, V. to burn, s. da, dhau. [Na. dau, dao.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ga:ba _^dau |e:s kwe, /aume ko _dauwe, 
keijl ku _dau --- burn the grass with fire, in winter we burn, much we burn. 

dau, broad. CII. (Schi. ) 

\dau, young, s. daba, dava. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |huma sdau — a young white man. I huma !go: o~k"wi^ a vdau 
the little master plays, is young. 

_dau, ? day. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ken su _dau the day after to-morrow, fkaika de _dau yesterday. 

_dau, n. fungus, red polyporus. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _dau a ~t/u the fungus is bad. 

dau, n. root, s. dar). Nil. (LI.) Ex.:~||e dau grass root. 

dau, daul, dauiag, daufba, dau§/a, n. spoor, path, road, s. dhau, [Na. daob.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: dau t/ike 

Secome ta ti e the path to Secome it is. dau [[xwe ta ti, ||xau ta ti a a new road it is, the 

old one is that. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: henrike gome ku _tsi, dau sa se Henrick's oxen have come, will 

see the path. CII. (Pa.) dau. (D.B.) Ex.: f^a: kwe/ | garo/a Nha, daular) ko ~mu on the plain are 

the ostriches, I have seen the spoor, daufba e it is the path. _! geiba t/amri, a ||xau, a ||k"um, a 

! uh^ /i tane ! koxo daufwa a steenbok stalk, shoot it, sleep, at dawn take up the game's spoor. 

Ilgwe |kwa /ii, dauf/a i it is a young tortoise, its spoor it is. (The fen. ending is prob. used, 

because the spoor is very small.) Clla. (Pa.) dau. Cllb. (Wil.) Ex.: dau ge:ama:, to seek spoor. 

dauddlu, V. to feign, deceive, lie, be mistaken, s. dattan. SI. (B. ) ddaudd^u. Ex.: hag di Ik'^'wa:, hag 
||kei||k^i: !k'?wa: a: |ku|ka; han Jkukan daud^u ! uhi tig Ikaukan — he became a hartebeest, he re- w 
sembled a hartebeest that has died; he feigning death lay in front of the children. (LI.) ddau-ddau. 
Ex.: a ofa dofa |ku sig dau:ddu g — thou hast lied to me. ha sig kan fi:, ha a ||k"um: !ko^ kwokkw^g 

han |ku daud^u: he had thought that he was a strong man, he was mistaken. daudilU-ka ! k'^etan 

deceiving people, hunters. 

dauko, daufko, v. to go to do something, to go along, prob. dau, to go, [Na. da, to step.] and ko, par- 
ticle joining verbs. SI. (B. ) d^uko, ddaukko. Ex.: !khwija k»H,:o, hi se dauko ta:a k"a:o — the wind' 
is cold, they will going along feel the cold, ha se dauko fnai--a !gwai, ! gwai se d^\iko suttansuttan 

0ho:gan he will go to kick the hyena, that the hyena may go to spring into the. bushes. (LI.) 

dd^uko. Ex.: !kwa: kau jkAm toa ||goa, he whai sig dauiko hi: hi, au whai ||gu: ||a: — the rain falls 
taking away the flower of the driedoorn tree, which the springbok have gone along eating, when the 
springbok travelled in the hot sun. 

dau:fokan, v. to shut the eyes. SI. (LI.) dd^oken. Ex.: Ikwara gwai: a:, ha dofa ||k"oeg ta: au ha, ha 

haf |ne "epwoin, han Iku-g |ne dau: fokan that Kora man, who should have been looking about him, 

went to sleep, he snut his eyes. 


dau-tsi, n. fear. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

dau xarasi, n. banded mongoose. CI I. (Sh. ) 

_da_va, n. child, s. daba, dama. Nil. (D.B) d^v^. (V.) dawa. 

dava ~Jn ||na, n. armpit, s. dai, dova vin. Nil. (Dk. ) dava Jh r^. 

dawi, n. hunger. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

de, V. to step upon, press down, s. _ta, _te, [Na . da.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | geridsi ~keid3i !kAm/ kwe ko 

Je, ku de a _!num many jackals with a trap (we) catch, stepping upon it (it) is held. _ailj'a 

t/aua, ko kuru, ko de ||nare/ kwe a hole dug, made it, pressed it down with the feet. 

de, de:, interrog. what?, where?, who?, sometimes used as dem. this. SI. (B. ) dd^. Ex.: [kaggan | nu dola 

dd ? where is the Mantis ? ts'^a de j nu a: da: ke ! kwa dolm: ? what thing has affected for me 

the child's throat ? (LI.) dde, emph. deken. Ex.: a tsax^i:tan de xa |ne e: ? where are thy eyes ? 
dekan-ta !khum: e ? — whose ball is it ? dd Ikw'^a: |na: k"aukik"wi: — this hartbeest's head is 
not light. Sllb. (Mh. ) de, dfn, den. Ex.: i: xa sn |k"Xoa ||xa de: ? where shall we hunt ? (what place 
?) Nil. (LI.) de. Ex.: |kAm d^ ? |kAiii e: where is the sun ? the sun is here. 

dd, de, there, straight. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nwi-ma de a ~/u the new moon lies there. | kAffl ka de fgi: 

the sun runs straight. 

de:, yes. Sllb. (Mh. ) de. Ex.: U ||a n-|k'Txda ta ? de: are you going hunting now ? yes. 

de, n. man, pi. tutuse, s. da, du. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: de ti fu, tutuse ||k"ani one man, many people. 

de, n. woman, wife, female, s. di. [Na . dei, to suckle.] Nil. (V.) d^. (Dk.) de. (Schi.) de. (Wil.) de, 

female. (LI.) de, pi. d^-ssin. Ex.: e de-sirj |kui t/o, ta !ni: our women are not timid, but are 

brave, tsaba de ! nu — a hen bird's eggs, tsaba de-sig ! nu — hen birds' eggs. ||gau ||go, ||gau de 

right (male) hand, left (female) hand. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ~de ||kabeja _da the Bushman woman 

slings on the kaross. ! ku _desiri ki t/xai Bushman women dance, ma /ove ~de I am /Ove's mother. 

m _de my wife. 

-de, pi. ending of n. s. da, person, de, man, di, thing. SI. (B. ) -de, -d^. Ex.: 0por), Qponde, son, sons. 
[|kari, ||kan~ds, brother, brothers. ||gsrri, feather. ||gerrit8n-ti, feathered thing, bird, pi. Hgsrritsn- 
de. (LI.) dde. Ex.: !xa:, !xa!xa:de, brother-in-law, brothers-in-law. Ukuitsn, ||ku||kui-de, screen of 
bushes, screens of bushes. 

~de, n. ears. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: r)-ka ~de my ears. 

ds, n. bow, s. de/a. Cla. (Pa.) da. 

da'^a, n. fire, firewood, s. da. Nil. (Dk.) (Wil.) d^'a. Ex.: |kai da'^a: to cut wood. !ka: da'^a: 

to make a fire, da'^a: zuru : fire smoke, da'^a: ! ne : , ashes. 

de'^aij, n. food, s. te, ts''a:r). Sllb. (Mh. ) de'an. 

da'^dm, n. bustard. Nil. (Wil.) deiam. 

debbi, v. to cover, close, s. dhabu. SI. (LI.) d^bbi. Ex.: |ni-0pwa ha^ |ne dsbbi ! ho ha |na: the 

young ichneumon covered up his head. Nil. (LI.) d^bbi. Ex.: ||xe dsbbi to close as a knife. 

debbi, ~debi, v. to return, go home, s. dibbi. [Na. daw^, to turn round. ] Nil. (LI.) ddbbi, dfebbi. Ex.: 

!kur) ||ke||k^ hr) debbi, hg |kua ||ke ara the dead Bushmen they return, they do not die outright. 

|kAm tanki na ti "debbi, na ti sir) me ! nwerre another day I (shall) return, I (shall) see my coun- 
try. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: namani ko /i guni/ kwe, a ko _ha^, a ko !kai, a ko ~debi — the Nama came in 

wagons, stayed, hunted, went home, tira ko kobe, a ||e:, a ko ~debi I go visiting, get goods and 

re turn . 

dsbbi, n. castrated animal. [Na . dawi.]si. (LI.) ddebbi. Ex.: mama sig ||k'TDen, ti e:, whai a: e debbi_, 
na I ku e mamma had seen that a springbok that was castrated it was. 

da'^^na, n. sticks for rubbing fire. Nil. (Wil.) de'ana, dc'ani, tinderbox. 

debe, s. daba, child. 

debe, n. salt, s. daba, dobe. CI. (Do.) debee, salt pan. 

debe, n. mark. CI. (Do. ) 

debe debee, v. to enlighten. CI. (Do.) 

debi, n. knife. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: arj ! kamai n debi --- I cut with a knife. - 

dee:, n. bow. Cllb. (Wil.) dee. 

dee, n. duikerbok. Cllb. (Zuk.) 

de:ekan, v. to rise. SI. (B. ) ddeekfn. Ex.: to:itan |ku de:ekan u:i, au kakan !kwe ||a: — the ostrich 
rises up, as I approach. 

dekan, s. de, who. 


dekeri, n. bee, wasp. cm. (D.B. ) Ex.: dekeri jako a bee is there. 

de:ma^ de:me, little, /em.,, woman, & dim. -ma. Nil. (Dk.) de:ma. NIII. (D.B.) de:me. Ex.: dabe 
derme — little girls. 

den, s. de, what. 

dene, v. to lick up the remains of food. CI. (Do.) 

denee, n. bee, honey, s. dani/a. [Na. danib.]CI. (Do.) Ex.: denee Igene, the honey bee. denee khoro, a 
bee's nest in the ground, denee /uru, beeswax. 

deneho, v. to finish. CI. (Do.) 

der|Si], s. do:, man. 

deni, n. bee, s. denee, dani/a. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: dam/a deni t/waj" kwe _t/wa a — the tortoise-shell 
with beeswax stop up. 

"denne, hard. Nil. (LI.) d^nne. Ex.: ! num !kar), ta 3um~m, ta "denne a stone is strong, and tough, 

and hard. 

dere:na, n. beads. SV. (D.B.) 

derimbida, n. wooden stick, ladle. CIII. (D.B.) 

derri, v. to run down, pour down, s. dhiri, dirri. SI. (LI.) dderri. Ex.: rj a |k"um: q |kwe|kweet8n, au 
||xauka se derri hi I feel a tapping in my calves, when the blood will run down them. 

dsrrita, v. to come back ill. SI. (LI.) dd^rrita. Ex.: a |ku dsrrita |hir| !khwa:, au a^g |na: — thou 
shalt come back ill from the water on account of thy head. 

des, particle connecting n. & num., s. dis, dwas, tis. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: be ma des | kam two men. 

de/a, n. bow, s. de. CII. (D.B.) dual, de/ara. pi. de/i. Ex.: de/a ! xai keja (he) carries a bow 

slung on. 

de'^um, n. hunt, V. to hunt. Nil. (Wil.) de'um. 

dhabu, V. to cover, s. dsbbi. CI. (Do.) 

dham, n. opening, s. _dalma. CI. (Do.) 

dham, n. tortoise, s. da:m, _doa. CI. (Do.) Ex.: dham |kwa, a small tortoise. 

dham, n. tongue, s. _dalma, dam. CI. (Do.) Ex.: dham |kwio, larynx. 

dhame, v. to tell lies, s. daudau. CI. (Do.) Ex.: dham t/io, a liar, dhamdham, to tame. 

dhao, V. to pay. CI. (Do.) 

dhau, V. to burn, s. _dau. CI. (Do.) 

dhau, n. path, spoor, s. dau, _daul. CI. (Do.) dhau ||ka ||xati, a guide. 

dhau, n. small hare, Lepus saxatilis. CI. (Do.) 

dhau tsikho, n. wages, pay, s. dhao. CI. (Do.) 

dhauo, V. to set on fire, s. dhau, CI. (Do.) 

dhebe, n. lightning, s. dabara, _dalbba_dalbba. CI. (Do.) 

dhebe dhebe, n. lamp, candle, s. dhebe. CI. (Do.) 

dhiri, v. to pour out as water, s. derri, dirri. CI. (Do.) 

dhoa, n. grass. CI. (Do.) 

dhom, n. neck, s. dom, dolm. [Na. dom, to swallow, domi, throat.] CI. (Do.) i 

d'^hom, n. ring round knee, s. dohum. SV. (D.B.) 

dhuba, V. to try to do a thing. CI. (Do.) ,; 

dhwe, V. to remove. [Na. doe.] to fly, move, travel. CI. (Do.) -; 

di, V. to do, act, work, make, become, happen, and in many phrases, s. da:. [Na. di . ] SI. (B. ) di, dl. 
Ex.: si ta si di si Gpaxai au haha — we thought we would make our daughter of her. jkukkan ©pwaksn 

|ku di: to:i, au jkukkan |e: ta ~!khwa: the little feather becomes an ostrich, while the little 

feather lies in the water, di : a, to fight. ! kwi |ks:i ~ks, ha kaq |ku a di : a g the man yonder 

was the one who fought me. di hi:, give to eat. ha tatti e !ke!kan di hi: ha he thought that the 

ticks would give him to eat. di i, to fight, g | ne di : i ha I fought him. dija tig, to go about. 

|ni: ta-g |ne s'^a: fkakksn, ti e:, g a k"oa |ku dija tig au |a: — the ichneumon will say, that I 
must have gone about fighting, di ku, to become, g ka/-g | ne turn kworrs: g laokan, i:, hi se ! ham di 

ku ta serri:tan 1 scratched up (earth) cooling my body, that it might become cool, di |^:, to mak 

a fight, ha ka fkakka ke, ti e:, ha: ||a: di |a:, he said to me, that he was going to make a figh 

!_ku ko: sag k"auki ||xa: ha s'^a: di |a: ko: the other shall not again come to make another fight. 

di: I gebbitan-di, to act foolishly, a-g |noa |ku kwag |ne ||ka k'orokan, au ti e:, u |ku di: jgebbita 


di, to act foolishly. £i-g | no^ | ku kwar) |ne ||ka k'oroksn, au ti e: , u |ku di: | gebbitan-di — thy 

foot was burnt, because ye did act foolishly, di : |kalmmer), to arrange a burden, hir) di : Ikalmmeg 

they arrange their burdens, di ~||ka:ndi, to act stupidly. Slkkan a: di ~||ka:ndi thou art one who 

acts stupidly, di : ||kwalkk8n, to act wisely, sitsn k"auki di : ||kwa^kk3n we do not act wisely. (LI.) 
ddi, ddt: . Ex.: ||ket8n||ketsnk"auki k"wa! h^nnu:wa, k"auki di ti e: a:k9n — the beasts of prey do 

not behave nicely, do not do that which is good. !hau: ||kwa^ r) | ku-g |ne a: |kwe:i |kwar) di: the 

thong it was that acted like this, a kwor) di akka t/weg o sa: thou shouldst work the things well 

with buchu. ts'^a de |n6 a di: ! heiu, he ! hau ^ue !kwa: ? what can have happened to the thong, that 

the thong broke ? di-a, to beat, nooi | ku dl-a ha au skottel-ka ||erri||erri the mistress has beat- 
en her about the dish washing, di akka, to look after, ha: ka, ha: sir) di akka ha a: |i he wants 

to look after the fire for him. di akksn, to preserve, i ta di akk8n !hou: !nwa!nwd 1: , au i ta:, i 

siq |ne |gom|gom |hir| i: we preserve the locust legs, for we feel, we shall dish them out. di i, 

to do mischief, r) sig kaq ^i:, ha ka: ha sa ! koase i, o hag ofa dola |ku sig ka: ha sa |kwe:i Ikwi, 

ha di i I had thought that he had come to take care of us, but he had only wanted to do mischief. 

di si k'^:nk'^:n, to test, prove, hir) kie sir) di sik"e:nk"e:n,i, i: — they want to prove us. di si 

kwafkwaiHa, to dress up oddly, hir) di si kwalkwai.fta hi they dressed themselves up oddly for us. 

di si ||kak9n||kakan, to make haste, a d6af se di si ||kaksn||kakan, i se ta:li ■'-- thou must make haste, 
that we may go. di ||k"oen, to try, observe, hag se aim di ||k"oen, ha se ||k'Cien, ti e:, ||kha:f |nu 

k"ause xu:ha he would first try, that he might see, whether the lion would not leave him. he 

Ikalmmain t/weg e: ]kwe:i u, 1: , o hig kie sir) di si ||k"oen||k"oen-i: , o i — they put on such things, 
when they want to observe us. (Lich.) ding cha ka ki, to fight. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: ts'^oate r) di u r) ja 

||i3i a a ? — what did I do to you that I must die to-day ? di : Ugaggsn ts''*oa I ge a do quickly 

this thing. 

di, V. to be drunk, intoxicated. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ~d3U ti di~||gu a person is drunk with wine. ! kur) 

zau tl dl maija --- a Bushman woman becomes intoxicated with maija' fruit. (Wil.) dl, mad. 

_di, V. to follow, fly after, s. dhwe. [Na. doe.] NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: ! kau !a:te, "fge a _di — the locusts 
swarm, the storks are following. 

di: V. to ask, s. te, ti. Nil. (V.) di. 

di, V. part., variation of ti . Nil. (LI.) di, ddi. Ex.: ~||goni di Am ! gwa: the caterpillar eats the leaf. 

leaf, me di k»wa:, a di k'wa: — I nod, thou noddest. 

~di, n. woman, female, left (hand), s. de. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: m tai a naro ~di, m ba a ||kau-||e my moth- 
er was a Naron woman, my father an Auen (man). !gwe: ||go:, !gwe: di male steenbok, female steen- 

'bok. ~! gu ! gau, ! gau ~di right hand, left hand. 

~di, n. long horn of rhinoceros, broad-bladed assegai. Nil. (LI.) ddi, di. Ex.: ! nabba ~di oa | ne e:, ta 
~!khi: ~di oa sa --* the one-horned rhinoceros's horn is ope, for the two-horned rhinoceros's horns 
are two. dama dl --- Herero's broad-bladed assegai. 

di, pron. I, my, s. ti. CII. (Schi.) occasionally dira, in nom. die, poss. 

di, part, showing poss. case, may take gender of following n., s. ti . [Na . di . ] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: xa 
~!nu:-dis xuun/a tam ka — that country's earth is like this. | nut /wa/a ! gei fku:/a ni:m kwe |ge, a 
xam— di yaij* kwe _ha: I the hyena carried the lion's head on a stick, to the lion's house came. 

||axa ~keis ko ||ku/arar-di/ era ! nu/era te ha old ||axas'and her two daughters' huts stand there. 

jnis tgobe/a ti-di/a this bag is mine. 

di, in terms of relationship, prob. my. Nile. (Leb. ) di khoaba, father's sister, di khoab khe, father's 
brother, di ! gas khe, sister. 

diaa, v. to delay, tarry. [Tsw. diega.]CI. (Do.) 

diaeho, n. a clever person. CI. (Do.) 

dibbi, V. to return, come back, s. debbi. [Na. daw^, to turn round. ] Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ta zau ~U ~U, ta 

dibbi, ta sig daba and the wife went out, and returned, and saw the child. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: Ijnwe 

||ke:, a dibi the moon dies, and returns. 

dibi, n. ox. SI. (Lich. ) 

dibi, n. salt, s. debe. NI. (Pa.) , , 

didi:, n. doings, actions, s. di . SI. (LI.) ddiddi, emph. ddi-ddit§n. Ex.: i ka ||koaksn |ku:ken tai: I a:, 

!naKl-ka didi: we altogether dying go away on account of the hare's doings. ! nau-ka didi:tsn 

||kwaSr) e:, !ka!karro |ne ||k»au: i, i: the hare's doings were those on account of which the moon 

cursed us. 

didi, n. a small flying insect. CIII. (D.B.) 

dididina, v. to burn up. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kamo dididina tsoko then the firewood burns up. 

die, ~dje, interrog. where ? what ? s. de, di . SII. (D.B.) Ex.: a 0pwog die ? where is thy son ? _l|r) 

||nar dje: ? — where is the house ? r) | na kiena, |na |kauwa ha~dje: — I will lie still to see what 
he will do. 


dimi, interrog. what ? s. de, di, die. CII. (Schi,) Ex.: dimi ts'^a ? what thing ? 

dimi, n. salt, s. daba, debe, dobe. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. 

dimmidimmi^ v. to be hidden, s. debbi. SI. (B. ) Ex.: koro se \\nu:vj ! ho ©ho a ts*??:, ha se !u:xe: ta:e, 

ha se dauko dimmidimmi au 0ho:gan the jackal will stand behind the tree at its back, that he may 

run away, that he may going be hidden by the bushes. 

dig, interrog. what ? s. de, di, dimi. SI. (LI.) ddir). Ex.: ts'^a dir| |ne a:, di : xwerrik"au, he ha pum 

|ne |kwe:ik»'0, ha tail ? what thing can be the matter with Xwerrik"au, that he also walks like 

this ? 

din, interrog. who ? s. dir), dina. CII. (Schi.) dat. din ko, din koe. ace. din, dinba. 

dina, interrog. who ?, s. dir), di^i. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: dina ko |gi ? who dance it ? 

dini, n. honey, s. denee, deni. [Na. danib.] CII, (Schi.) 

dini:, n. tinderbox, s. de'^ani : . Nil. (Wil.) dmi. 

dini kwa na, n. striped hyena. CI. (Do. ) 

digki, early morning. SII. (D.B.) 

dio, n. skin, s. tu. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ki kwa _! gu: i dio we make bags of skin. 

dire, n. grey vervet, Cercopi thecus aethiops. CII. (Bal.) 

diri, n. salt, s. daba, dimi. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

dirib, n. warthog. CII. (Sh. ) 

dirrija, dirridirri, v. to wet, splash, s. derri, dhiri. SI. (B. ) Ex.: ha |kammsr) dirrija i i: --- he 

carried wetting us. har) | ne jkammen dirridirri Inwirj au !kwa he carried wetting the kaross with 


dis, part, used before num., s. des, dwas . SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: dis haka that is four. 

dise, new. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

dither], n. shame. [Tsw.]CI. (Do.) dithong. 

dit/i. black, cm. (D.B.) Ex.: k"Uinbiko tsealolo dit/i --- the k"Umbiko is a black bird. 

djan, V. to ripple. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ~khai-i |ka |ka, ~khai-i ke djan water is running, water is 

rippl ing. 

djane, v. to get into. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: !ko: djane fxe: the smoke gets into the eyes. 

dje, s. die. 

djisi, interrog. what ?, s. die. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ka ka djisi ? what do you say ? 

djor), n. whirlwind. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: kia djor) |hu: the whirlwind is cold. 

dju, n. mouth, s. tu. SVI . (Schi.) 

dju;, n. rhinoceros. SV. (D.B. ) dju-ba, rhinoceros calf. 

dju:mo, n. bridle, possibly of rhinoceros skin, s. dju: . SV. (D.B.) Ex.: maki a _||kale /i ke pise, a 
_kwe: djuimo Maki has come on a horse, has taken the bridle. 

djuu, n. bustard. CI. (Do.) dynu. 

do, V. to wash. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: r) do jk'Hre I wash my hands. 

do, n. ashes, s. da, dsoaa. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. Nil. (Wil.) do. 

do:, n. man, husband, male, s. !go:, da. SII. (D.B.) emph. dogen pi. derjsa, denjan. Ex.: dogsn "am ||a 

a man runs there. | gwa do : ©pwol e fe the young male child is small, do : | na !xo:wa this 

man is big. (Ir) degan ! nwana three Bushmen, do: o: ~dje ? where is the man ? 

_do: n. cap of skin, s. dio. SII. (D.B.) 

_d5, n. wildebeest. SIIc. (.D.B.) 

d*?©, n. rock. SIIc. (D.B. ) 

dola, t;. to be able, be obliged to, can, must_, should, might, ought to, or emphas ising imperative , also 
yes. SI. (B. ) d^a. Ex.: r) sir) ka |huntu-! kat! katten se ||xam k"srrita ke, rj ,ne dola ||xam ts'^ei a, ta: 
r) dola |kwaffag-i eg, hs ta !kui, -r) |ne dola ||xam !kum!kum ||ko eg, ta g Ifaukidola ||ka||ka: g ~tu ha: 

I wished that | hun tu- ! kat ! ka t t9n should also render fat for me, that I might also moisten (meat 

with fat), for I had been obliged to eat dry flesh, which was hard, that I might also be able to dip 
flesh (into liquid fat), for I had not bean able to moisten my mouth's food. |kaggsn | nu dola de ? 

where can the Mantis be ? !koinjar) dola di: | gebbitsn— di grandfather did do foolish actions. (LI.) 

ddda. Ex.; r) kar) k"auki dola se xu: tu wai: a: a, ta: ha ||kwalr) dolak"wag ha kd ha |ku:kan — I 
think that I ought not to let go this springbok, for it really looks as if it will die. ! kwi tag 
k"aukidola a: !kwi: ||gaule g, ta: ||kha: I dola e it cannot be a man who calls seeking me, but it 


must be a lion, dofa | ki ! ke ! hoa r) — do pull me up. dols^ k6l~ar) |ha:, a dofa tai:f — get up out 

of this, walk away, dofa, g ||ka: yes, my brother. 

d<5a, aux . of imperative. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: doa ~U, go away. 

doa, demon, this, that, there. Nil. (LI.) d<5a, this, doa, that. Ex.: t/i dda xaxa this thing is 

sharp, ta zau e dda ti t/a for this woman stole. t9^-™j l|l^^ 't/irj-a d3U do^ be silent, leave 

off crying for that person. (V.) doS, like this. Ex.: ^n) do_a: a ^O: , |na: a ^o: like this you 

did, you should do now. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsi na mi n doa brought me a skin there, n doa ~!kana 

that is shade. 

do:a, n. kudu. Cllb. (Wil.) do&. 

_d6a, n. tortoise, s. da:m, dham. SIIc. (D.B.) 

doa^ n. cucumber. NI. (D.B.) 

doa, n. grass. Cllb. (Wil.) dq^l. Ex.: |kum doa cut grass. 

doi, n. flea. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

doddod, n. fly. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

doasi, n. reeds. SIIc. (D.B.) 

_doaxu, n. sky. SIIc. (D.B.) 

dobe, n. salt, s. daba, debe, dimi, diri, Cla. (Pa.) dobe. 

doddfttsn, v. to be bewitched (to blindness). SI. (LI.) ddodddtten. Ex.: |ku-g-! nwir)jar| haf |ne kui, "a 
kwaf se |ku doddlttan"; hag a ts'^erre Ikuken-te, |kukan-te kvfa: k"auki,se an:tau |ni ||xe: — the 

lynx said, "thou shalt be bewitched"; he bewitched the anteater, the anteater should not quickly see 
Bushman rice. 

do:e, V. to pick up, s. dwa. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: a do:e k"anena (we) pick up ants. 

dobe, n. lip. CII. (Schi.) dSbe. 

_doele, V. to wash, s. do. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: e jka dosle /aa --- he washes his face. 

doh^, n. feather. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: doh4 ga ba t/u --- the feather lies (on the ground). 

do-hum, n. bracelets, anklets, s. d'^hom. SV. (Schu.) n do— h(u)m. n is probably my. 

doko, but only. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ti tama t/a, doko ti ko ma t/i you did not give to me, but only 

I gave to you. 

dole, other, different, s. dore, dyre . NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: limbor|gO wa ! ku dole LimbOr|go was another 

kind of Bushman. 

dolokwe, n. bell. [Ned. klok. ] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: dolokwe |ka f^ain --- the bell rings. 

jiom, V. to swallow, s. _dom, dofm, throat. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ko fo, a ko _dom rika _dom --- (you) eat, 

swallow with the throat. 
_dom, dofm, n. throat, neck, s. ^dom, to swallow. [Na. dom, to swallow, domi, throat.] SI. (B. ) dddmm. 

Ex.: ts'^a de |nu a: da: ke !kwa dofm,^ he !kwa |ne |kwe: da hag we:tsn g ? — what is the matter with 

the child's throat, that the child thus answers me ? (LI.) dd<5mm. Ex.: hi |ki jhig ! gei |khau:, he 

hi jko: ||ko he au |xuru dofm they took out sheep's fat, and they hung it round the ring-necked 

crow's neck. Slla. (Mg. ) dom NI . (D.B.) _dom. Nil. (V.) d6m. (Dk. ) d<j>m, dAm. (LI.) dddmm. Ex.: tsaba 

doSm e --- the bird's throat it is. NIII. (D.B.) _dom. Ex.: ~|gwi a _dom _! nori the paauw has a 

long throat. CI. (Do.) dom. CII. (D.B.) _dom. 

dom, near. NI. (D.B.) Nil. (Pa.) (V.) 

dommir), v. to munch, s. _dom, to swallow. SI. (B. ) dddmmin. Ex.: hi fe:, ti e:, hi doJa dommiq ! gei e: a, 

hi— ka s'^oeg they thought that they would munch those sheep, their fat. 

doggepi, n. pi. brass rings (worn on arm). CIII. (D.B.) 

_dor)go, n. monkey nut. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _doggo ki a kha the monkey nuts grow (wild). 

dorjgo, n. zebra, s. ~dou. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ja k"amba doggo ako — a male zebra it is. ha "khami doqgobe 

there go the zebras. 
do:ni v. to make off, run away. Nil. (Dk.) 

dogki, n. donkey. [Engl.lSV. (D.B.) Ex.: dorjki ki a Se Se -la -.- a donkey is walking along, pi. dogkile. 
Slla. (Mg. ) donkisi. 

_dofo, _dofsara, n. tin. [Germ, dose.] SIV. (D.B.) 

dopingopi, n. pi. three-cornered white beads. CIII. (D.B.) 

_dora, dor^, n. leaf. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: _dora O |ne one leaf. 3U ku m _dora:si p.eople edt the 

leaves. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. dord, w. sp. dor^. 

dore, other, s. dole, dyre. NI. (D.B.) pi. dorisi. Ex.: tsama-ma dore _!ka ~u — the other little bird 

flies away. 3U dorisi a _lka kuru Ikhwi other people do not make rope. Nil. (V.) dore. 


dori, V. to burn, roast. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kau dori d31 roast the beans. 

doro, doro, v. to twirl, pierce, bore, rub fire. [Na. doro, to bore.] NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: | goo, ka se 3U e 

doro beads, those the people pierced, dzosi ~ku gu ~t/u, | ni O doro _dala the women build 

the hut, sit and rub fire. CI. (Do.) doro, to bore. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: doro ! kored3i --- pierce beads. 

|e:/a ko doro, ~kei/e doro tama, |k"are/e doro (we) rub fire, much (we) do not rub, rub a little. 

doro, n. tinderbox, firestick, s. doro. [Na. doros, tinderbox.] SI. (LI.) dddro, pi. dd<5tt§ndddtt§n. 
Ex.: mama ||kwafr) a: ka a. he a: doro, hs se |ki|kf ||ka: he a:, ta he ka ||nau:, mama a: xa |xumma he, 

hir) ka f Ahdbbokan ||ke:i||ke:i e: , he da: dottandottsn i: mother had been the one who had given them 

a tinderbox, that they might make fire for themselves, for they would have done this, if mother had 
not pitied them, they would have put pith into the horns of which they made tinderboxes. SIV. (D.B.) 
doro t^anta, tinderbox. SVI (D.B.) tinderbox. CII.(Schi.) (Pa.) firestick. (D.B.) dorosa, tinderbox, 
dual, dorojara. Nil., Cllb. (Wil.) doro. 

ddro:, n. thong. Nil. (Wil.) doro. 

doro— le-llkau, n. a certain bee or wasp. SI. (LI.) 

dorub, n. lizard. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

doruq, n. village. [Afr. dorp.] Sllb. (Mh. ) doruA. 

_do:J*a, n. a musical insturment copied from the Tswana, made of a wooden trough with a string fastened 
at the bottom of one end and the top of the other, played with a small bow. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: _do:J'a 
ko tjanaja he is playing the musical instrument. 

dou:, dourken, v. to grow tall, spread, scatter. SI. (LI.) ddou, ddoukfn. Ex.: /oi-joar) !ko:fn |hiq au 

eho |u, hag dou: the /o:-|oa grows out of the tree's stem, it grows tall. !kwi-|a ||kwafr) hal a 

~oa |ku Igolm ho Ikuise: |ku, har| |ku ||kou: ki ||kaitji, hir) ha I |ku Hkoaksn (kwe:i |ki, hir) |ku-g |ne 

doucken ~||a:, hig hal |ku— g |ne di: !hou: a girl once scooped up Ikuise hairs, she threw them up, 

they altogether did this, they scattering went, they became locusts. 

dou, outside (?). Nil. (LI.) Ex.: |xwe sauwa t/u, ta | ge /uwa dou, |kua *iaba daa, ta | ge /u JAhd — 
I xwe went out of the hut, came to lie outside, did not make a fire, but came to lie bare. 

-dou, n. zebra, s. dor)go, |haba. [C. Hott. daou. ] SI. (LI.) ddou. Ex.: -dou !kwi: zebra (skin) sieve. 

dou, n. finger, dou dum, thumb. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

dou:wa, v. to stagger. SI. (LI.) ddouwa. Ex.: wai kwa: ~ko:a, wai taif dourwa ~||a: — the springbok 
runs forward, the springbok goes staggering along. 

_dova, V. to wipe away spoor, s. _dau. Nil. (Dk. ) do: va, . (V, )' d(j)wa. 

_dova-\!n, n. armpit, s. dava ~/n ||na, daba/a !ne, dfiCi. Nil. (V.) dowa-!ii. 

dove, n. salt, salt pan. Nil. (Wil.) dove. 

du:, V. to heat slowly. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: _||kaba ~!'?u:, 3U ka _||k\im, a ka kuru daa, a ka du: ka, ka^ 

|gwa:ba ka ka to:, ka |hum the arrowhead shinbone, people pare it, work it in the fire, heat it 

slowly, at evening take it out, it is nice. 

\du:, V. to seek. Nil. (V.) du. 

du,t;. to let out. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U |nu kai | nu, ka U du tam k"a a person sifts them on a sieve, 

and lets out the earth. 

du, n. rain water, s. tu. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: ~du _/o rain falls. ~du e si, hail. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

du, water. 

du, n. mouth, door, s. tu: . SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: ||nir) du house door. 

du, _n. night. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

du, n. sand. Cla. (Pa. ) 

du, n. eland. CI. (Do.) (Sh.)(Schi.) du. (Sel.) doo. CII. (Pa.) du. Ex.: du fke: --- elandbull dance. 

(D.B.) mas. duba, dum, fem. du/a, pi. dudu, duii. Ex.: kweba dum kwa ko te the man stands by the 

eland, dudu ! nwana --- three elands. Clla. (Pa.) du. Cllb. (Zuk.) du. (Bal.) doo. (Wil.) du. 

_du, interrog. what ? s. du/, de. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: du xu:ne ko ~U wa _haf ? what goods to you were 

given ? 

du, pron. you. pi. s. U. SIV. (D.B.) Ex: du to kuwaso Qpwo'^aTL you had ... slept. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: du 

|ka ||kau 16. your axe is that. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: du ! num you two. du ||kare you all. 

duala, n. a big arrow. SIIc. (D.B.) 

dub, n. stomach, belly. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

duba, V. to tread. CI. (Do.) 

dudubukan, n. the great (throat) artery, s. fxuru. SI. (LI.) ddi^^du-bukf n . 


duduk"ejsi> n. monster, applied to lion and elephant. CIII. (D.B. ) 

dudwitan, v. to come down, fall. SI. (LI.) dduddwitfn. Ex.: ti e:, !khwa: tAm se dudwitsn, i:, hig e:, 
!khwa: k"aukl Itwari when the rain gently comes down, then the rain is not angry. 

due, V. to become dark. CI. (Do.) 

duela, V. to defend oneself. CI. (Do.) 

dui, V. to hear, s. tu, tui. SVIa. (Kr.) Ex.: r) dui q-ga ! nundu, r) | oue r)-ga ts'^axen I heard with my 

ears, I saw with my eyes, a ||koar] dui ! goai a a then thou hast heard this hyena. 

du~i, V. to arise, go out, fly up. Nil. (V.) dui . (LI.) dui, dui-r Ex.: ta dT^n gu !kei, ta du~i, d^n 

~fkhi ti tsau, e ti ok"wi du~i then a person took a digging-stick, and they arose; (when) many 

people arise we say du~i . ta ||nwafi ~|gi, ta dgu sir) ||nwali, ta du~i then the moon rose, and the 

people saw the moon, and went out. 

duidurise, v. to lead on, attract. SI. (LI.) ddui-ddui-sse. Ex.: ||kha: I ka, ts'^a se duidu:ise |ki |ke 
||e i, O ha the lion intended, that the thing should leading on take us to him. 

dukea, v. to sleep, shut eyes. Slle. (An.) 

duko, n. river, s. dum. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: _/wa ~e |lkwe:r| duko water is there in the river. 

dukwe, n. handkerchief. [Ned. doek.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ja tomke dxikwe he folds the handkerchief 

dukwe, n. ants, a certain kind. CII. (D.B.) 

dulai, V. to stamp, pound. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: an ! kan dulai he stamps. 

dum, V. to swim. [Na. du, to dive.] Nil. (LI.) dumm ||gu swim in water. 

dum, n. neck, throat, hole, river, s. dom, duko. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nau dum the Nossop river. NI. (D. 

B. ) Ex.: _dum ~ku fka ~!gu the river is full of water. ! noi t/i gu _dum the porcupine makes a 

hole. _dum ~|ni --- neck beads. Clb. (Pa.) dum, neck. CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) Ex.: dum kom^saka --- neck 

beads, m tai kono ko t/aue ? Inu: dum — how deep did you dig ? a deep hole. ||gwe ko | ga fu, a ko 

t/a/a k"a, a ko ykoa/a tum dum ||oaba the tortoise eats grass, and drinks water, and swallows 

stretching its throat. _dumba ku _!karo the river runs down. Nil., Cllb. (Wil.) dum, throat, river, 


dum, near, s. dom. NI. (Pa.) 

~dum, medium sized. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ne kwa daba ~dum I was a medium sized child. 

dum, quiet. Nil. (Wil.) dum. 

_dumb'a, s. dum, river. 

dum:mo, n. shadow, SI. (LI.) dum-mo. Ex.: ti se xarra ~ti di ku ta serritan, o |kwa:Jgan-ka dum:mo — 
the place will really become cool with the cloud's shadow. 

dug, ? during. SVIa. (Kr. ) dun. Ex.: avag | guin ! ui dur) ea ? wilt thou perhaps sleep here during (?) 

this evening ? 

dun, dunina, v. to heal, cure, recover. SI. (LI.) dun, dun-na. Ex.: har| ka:, ha se dun:na ke, ti e:, ha 

sir) |ki |ha: ts'^a i: she thought she would heal for me the place from which she had taken out the 

thing, ha kag !ko:lar|se! !kwi a:, ha dola su: ha ; ha te:g, o ha ka, ha se dun:na — he takes care of 
the man whom he has snored ; he lies, as he wants to recover, ha dun kuitja he has finished curing. 

duppsm, to skim off, take up. SI. (LI.) dup-p§m. Ex.: hir) | ne |amma au |ku-ga |ku:, Iku: |ku-ga |ku:, 
hirj |amma |xabba:, i: ) hirj |amma suer| I:, hig tatti e:, hi ||kwalr| duppsm i suerj, i: — they drink 
with the hair's brush, the proteles' hair's brush, they drink soup with it; they drink fat, for they 
skim off the fat thus (they take up the fat by turning the brush on the surface of the soup. ) 

dure:, another. Nil. (Wil.) dure. 

durru, v. to limp, walk slowly, painfully. SI. (B. ) ddurru. Ex.: ! gwarra sar) |ne |e: ha i, ha se-g |ne 

twi:, hs e: ha |ku sag |ne durru s'?a the knife goes into him, he will be wounded, so that he comes 

slowly, ha |ku-g |ne durru ||a: — he goes painfully away. (LI.) ddurru. Ex.: i-ta ! gitan, he ta |ki 
!khwa: hi a: ts'^a-ka ti, o hs: ka, i se |ni ts'^a, o ts'^a: durru-a tir) — our sorcerers, they would 

break part of a thing (animal) for us, when they wished us to see the thing, as the thing was limping 

_duru, n. sheep, s. turu. Sllb. (D.B.) Ex.: nie lisa ko _duru --- I look after the sheep. 

duruko !khe, v. to speak with a deep voice, SI. (LI.) dduruko ! khe . Ex.: ! kaukakan e: !xwa ten:te, o ha 

• koirijag |ne a: duruko !khe children are those whose voices sound small, while their grandfather 

speaks with a deep voice. 

du_si, n. sky. Sllb. (Mh. ) dysi. 

du/ laroma, duj" !ka:kwe, interrog. why ? s. du. [Na. taree laroma.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: du/ !aro(ma [kam 
|kwijera ko kau ? why may two names be given ? 


du:wa, v. to do wrong. NI. (D.B. ) Ex. : ba | ku kure ?ka koa re o du:wa. why have you done that ? you ' 

have done wrong, 

dwa, n. kudu. CI. (SeiJ dwar. Cllb. (Bal.) dwa. 

dwS, V. to pick up, collect, lay together, s. do:e. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | hano-epwa dwa ke ~u ka !nwe --- 
fhano-0pwa picks up a strap. 

dwa:gr), n. thong. SIII. (D.B.) 

dvraitan, v. to refuse, be unwilling, take no notice of. SI. (LI.) ddi^^iten, ddwaiitfn. Ex.: u dwaitsn 
|ki r), au I) a |ke:tan !ki u, u k"auki'tui q, auiikan ka, u xau se |kwe:nja ~hi — you keep refusing 
me, when I keep sending for you, you do not listen to me, for you do not want to fetch water for us. ■ 
ha xoaksn hal |ne !kAn !kw'?ai ! ho ha, he ha hal |ne dwaiiitan, ha kwe: tig — his mother grasping 

set him on his feet, and he was unwilling and wanted to lie still, au Ikwija k"auki talba, hi | n^ ta, 

"i ||ka kaq dola |ku dwaitan |ki i, har) e ~||xwarra" when a person does not work, they say, "our J 

brother takes no notice of us, (of what we ask him), he is an idler", toitan a:, ha |ku !ku:xe |hir), 

au ha k"auki dwai: tandwai :ta ta: that ostrich is one who runs away, and does not lie refusing (to 

get up). 

dwae, particle used before num. s. des, dis, tis. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: be | na dwas | kam two men. 

dwa t/on sime sime, n. white cutter ant. CI. (Do.) dwa chon sime sime. 

dwe, V. to carry in the arms. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweba ko |lo:, kwena ta ko 6axa, a ko dwe, a ko _aif/ kwe 
^ka a man dies, other people bring him, carry him in their arms, put him in the grave. 

dwedwehe, v. to abate. CI. (Do. ) 

dwee, young. CI. (Do.) Ex.: dwee t/o, a dwarf, dwee | gwa, a youth, dwee juro, a young rock dove, dwee 
zera, a nestling. 

dweho, n. portion, piece. CI. (Do.) 

_dwene, num. three. SIIc. (D.B.) 

dweree, round about. CI. (Do.) 

dwese, a little. CI. (Do.) 

dydyitan, v. to resound gently. SI. (LI.) dd^dd^iten. Ex.: har) ||nau:, ]|i;"e: ko:, har) |ku dydyitan, tikan 
!xwar), i |nS: e dydyitan, o hag ta: ||ka ti e:, ha |ki |ku !gau:, dafrrakandalrrakan ! k'^siu — it (the 
earthquake) does this at another time, it resounds gently (in the distance), the thing sounds as if 
our heads were those which resounded gently, while it (the earthquake) feels that it is accustomed to 
rumble, shaking the ground. 

dy~i, n. a certain fruit-bearing plant. Nil. (LI.) dui. Ex.: dy~i go dsao, ha | ne-sil) |kAr) ; |kAin tanki 
ha |ne— sir) ! numma, ha |ne— sir) ti ! ga the dy~i flower is light-coloured, its fruit is green ; an- 
other day, when its fruit has ripened, its fruit is red. 

dyidyi:, v. to feel one's way. SI. (B. ) dduiddui. Ex.: ! kau ! kaurukan fkakkan, "r) |o ko ta:e, g |o ko 
ta:!", au ha: tatti e:, ha |ku-g |ne dyidyi: — the moon says, "I totter along, I totter along", for 
it walks feeling its way. 

dyre, dyri, another, different, strange, s. dore. Nil. (LI.) di^re, di^ri . Ex.: ta d3u Ige gu ka~ru, |kua 

e d3U dyri, ta e ka~ru dgu and the people came to take hold of Ka~ru. (they) were not other people^ 

but were Ka~ru's people, ta na ti e ||nwai, ta m— sa |kui saa ||hi, ta e d5u dyre — for I am the moon, 
for we (you and I) do not listen to the hare, for we are a different kind of people, ha fig, ta kws, 
""dgu dyre ti ! Icur) ma, je he" he thought and said, "strange people will kill me, oh dear !" 

dy~ri/, n. purposely burnt land. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ti/ dy~ri/ tire ko _dau,ko me takwe ~nabo — my burnt 
land I have burnt, no one must gather food there. 

dza, V. to dip up, s. za. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: dza ||gu, to dip. up water. 

_dza, V. to come, s. _dze, sa, tsa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _dza kwa mogiko a sokiko — Mogoko and Sokiko are 
coming, kweso ssta _dza, ba ton tsatsa — when the moon comes, we shall go. "welapina _dza pei 

unubi, wapagazi to-morrow will come the men, the carriers. 6, _dza to t/ia oh, come and take 

me. _dza: mo pisi the cook came. 

_dza, V. to sweat, s. d30. Nil. (V.) ds|.. 

dza:, ~dza, v. to curse. Nil. (V.) dsa. (LI.) dzl. 

Ndz'?a, V. to hear, s. ts'^a, tj"?a, s'?a, ~sa. Nil. (V.) ds-a. (Wil.) dzSC. 

\dza:, V. to leave someone. Nil. (V.) dsa. (Wil.) dzS. 
dza:, n. rhebok. s. dso. SI (LI.) dzza. 

dzS:, num. two. s. tsa. Nil. (V.) dsa. 

_dzal, all. Nil. (LI.) dza. Ex.: i dzaf Iku Ixoa we all are alive. 

y — 1 I 

_dzaba, n. feather. NIII. (D.B.) 


dzambi, v. to be clean, s. dz'au. cm. (D.B. ) Ex.: dzeta ja na atibi, si dzambi he washes in water, 

shall be clean. 

_dza_mi, n. bowstring, s. dseni. Nil. (V.) dsami. 

_dzami, n. evening. CIII. (D.B.) 

dzag, V. to call, to answer, s. dzor|, ~dzu. Nil. (V.) dsan. (LI.) dsan. Ex.: ha ti dzar) — he calls. 

dzar), n. fat, s. d3ar). Nil, (V.) dsaii. 

_dza:na, v. to bring, s. _dza, to come. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi _dza:na hamana he was brought here. 

Jamobi a _dza:na the Izanzu brought him. 

dzana, n. a certain bird. Nil. (LI.) dzSna. Ex.: dzana ti tne*?^!!! !kag, ta !xo ti !ka the bird taps 

on the tree, and the elephant runs away. 

_dza:Jrag, v. to smell badly. SI. (LI.) dzanan. Ex.: he |ku ta _dza:frar) they (the vultures) smell 

_dzao, n. woman, s. zau^ dzau, ~dzou. Nil. (V.) ds^o. 
~dz'?ao, n. tooth, s. ~tsau, ts'^ou. Nil. (V.) ds'^o. 

dzap, V. imitation of the sound of throwing or striking, used after kui, to make, say. SI. (LI.) dzapp. 

Ex.: har) |ku-g |ne kui dzap, xabbu te ! kwa au ~||khal |na: he threw, hitting the bone on the lion's 


dzau, V. to hunger. Nil. (V.) dsau. (Wil.) dzSuu. 

•dzau, i;. to arise, stand up, s. ~tso, tsa~U. Nil. (V.) ds|,U. 

dz'^au, clean, s. dzambi. Nil. (V.) ds'au. 

dzau^ n. woman, wife, girl, s. dzou, _dzao, sau, zau, tsau. NI. (D.B.) Nil. (LI.) Ex.: me dzau — my 
wife, dzau ! gum, widow, or woman without a husband, dzausi Je | nu dcbbi the girls are return- 

dza*U, n. dung. Nil. (LI.) dzfiiu. Ex.: dzoadzdk ti Am gomme dzafuf the flies eat the cows' dung. 

-dzawa, v. to run, s. _dza. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: "fkwe a _dzawa the dog runs. 

_dzaxu, n. sky, s. ! gwaxu. SIIc. (D.B.) 

_dze, V. to come, s. _dza. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: jama _dze ti makanjarjge now has come Makinja^ge. 

dze, n. finger. Cla. (Pa.) dee. 

dze, dzema, new, small, s. ze:, tsema. Nil. (V.) dee. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nwi dze ke tj*ua ||kwa — the new 
moon lies over there. !kolo dzema a small knife. 

dzendlaeri, n. tin. CIII. (D.B.) pi. dzendzeripi. 

dzeni^n. bowstring, s. dzami. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: /ula |ke juwa na dzeni the arrow lies on the bowstring 

dzeta, V. to wash, s. dzambi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dzeta ja na atibi he is washing in water. 

~dzi:, n. thing, s. t/i. Nil. (V.) dsi. 

dziniam, v. to stand overhead. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dziniam i/o the sun stands overhead. 

dziwa, n. stepson. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi dziwa ka mbogo my stepson is Mbogo. 

\dzo: n. night, s. gO. [Na. tsuxub . ] Nil. (V.) dsa,. 

dz3, n. blister, s. dgoi], dgodgone. Nil. (LI.) dz§. , , 

dzo, n. bee, honey, s. "30, dgo. Nil. (Li.) dzS. Ex.: |xwe ti |kaa |ou daba kwe dzo |xwe gave honey 

to the young buck. 

dz3a, n. breast, s. teoa, tswa. Nil. (V.) dsoa. (Wil.) dzoa. 

dzoadzoa, n. fly, s. dzwadzwa, gwagwa. Nil. (LI.) dsoa-dsoS, dzo-dzoa. Ex.: ha ti Am dzoadzoS — he 

eats flies, ma ti k"atu dzodzo~a thou seekest a fly. 

dzor), V. to sound, call, s. dzSr), ~dzu. Nil. (LI.) dzofi, dson. Ex.: ma ti dzor| tsausir) — thou callest 

the women, e ti sir) ||nwaj, e ti dzor) |ou ||go !khu we see the moon, we sound the male buck's horn. 

ta ha tsau, ti |kau ||ke, ta ti dzog ha ba, dz6r|dz6r) ha ba, ta ha ba fgum — and he arose, and was 
not dead, and called to his father, was calling to his father, and his lather was silent. 

dzora, v. to scare away, startle by a noise. Nil. (V.) dsora. 

dzou, n. woman, wife, girl, s. dzau, zau, tsau, sau. NI. (D.B.) pi. -dzousi. Ex.: dzou ko ||nam, ko Ikwfi 

ku: t/ani the woman shall clap, and the men shall dance, dzousi ||ka||kama xabasi women sling 

on big karosses. kama ~dzou-ffla e, m |kWa gu ~tju when I was a girl, I did not build a hut. 

dzou-me ~|khi many girls, me ~dzou ||a tsi my brother's wife. 

dzouksn, v. (?) to spring. {pToh. obsolete , occurs in an old song) SI. (LI.) dz6ukfn. Ex.: au dzouksn 
llhoukan ye (?) spring to visit. 


~dzu, V. to call, s. \dzar), dzog. Nil. (V.) dsu. 

dzu, n. ostrich eggshell. Nil. (LI.) dzii. 

dzu: n. person, s. 3U, d3U. Nil. (V.) dsu. 

dz'u'.j n. hut, village, s. t/u. Nil. (V.) ds'U. Ex.: dz'?u v! n inside of hut, sleepingplace. 

dzu:a, big, very. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: seseme dau:a, pakap^ |ki hi dzu:a — a big lion, big and tall as 
this, pakwai dzu:a han-!a, |ka|ka dzu:a a very big stone, very flat. 

dzukwa, V. to carry, s. t/ukwa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: unuwe a dzukwa te a utumeko --- the man is carrying a 

dzuu, n. sheep, s. d^U. Clb. (Pa.) dsuu. 

dZAm, n. tortoise, Testudo semi serrata, s. da:m, dham. Nil. (LI.) dzamm. 

dzwadzwa, n. fly, s. dzoSdzoa. NIII. (D.B.). 

dzwafi, V. to live. Nil. (LI.) dzu|ii. Ex.: ha ti dzwafi --- he lives. 

dzwaija, v. (?) to caress. Nil. (LI.) dzu^iya. Ex.: ha ba dzwaija ha ||hS, ta ha ||ha e ||go-ma --- his 

father (?) caressed his son, for his son was a little boy. 

d3a, V. to steal, s. t/a, t/^a, t/fi, tsaa. Nil. (LI.) dja. Ex.: ma ti dsa me, g a Ikug ara a (if) 

thou dost steal from me, I will kill thee outright. (Wil.) dza. 

d3a, dga^ v. to be ]jell, used as good, nice, nicely, sweetly, glad, s. 3a. Nil, (LI.) dzsha, dzha. Ex.: 

! kag ykoha, ||koha d3a the tree's shade, a nice shade. |kua /a d3a ha | gaa kwe ku (they) did not 

pour milk nicely into his eye. ha go d3ao, ta ||ku d3a its flower is yellowish and smells sweetly. 

e |k"ati d^a --- our hearts are glad, dga, to be well. (Dk.) dsa: . 

d3a:, v. to kick. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mad3wir]ki /e a dza: te |nyle --- Mad3wir)ki kicks at the stones. 

d3Sd3a, v. to warm oneself, s. tsa. Nil. (LI.) djadjS. 

d3aJd3a*, n. a certain bird. Nil. (LI.) dja-dj|. Ex.: d3atd3al ti Am |uni|uni the ... bird eats ants. 

dsai, n. fingers, s. dze, t/ai. Nil. (LI.) dzhdii. J 

dgala, n. smallpox, s. jale. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: !ku "fkhi a ki ~||kauwa d3ala many Bushmen were killed 

by smallpox. 

dsale, V. to prick, tear. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||xau ki a d3ale a thorn has pricked it. ! nwi e d3ale 

the boot is torn. 

dT^&im, V. to be lean, hunger, s. 3am. Nil. (LI.) dzhamm. Ex.: t/i e d3afm, ta ^kwe a thing is lean, 

and dies of old age. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~tkwe_de d3afm a a mother dog is lean. 

d3alg, V. to be fat, s. t/ag, t/ei. Nil, (LI.) dzh^h. Ex.: t/i |kua fnana, e ti ok"wi ka d3afr) — a 
thing which is not thin, we say it is fat. 

d3ana, brown, s. d30, d3ao. SVI. (D.B.) 

d3a:ni, n. chin, s. 3a:ni, 3ara. sv. (D.B.) 

d^anne, n. plaything, shuttlecock. Nil. (LI.) djanne. 

d3ao, V. to be yellowish, lightcolour'ed, to shine, s. d3ana. Nil. (LI,) dzhao, djao, dzhau. Ex.: dwi go 

d3ao the... flower is lightcoloured. maija tag'^a ! ga, ha go d3ao the ... fruit is red, its 

flower is yellowish. ||nwai d3ao the moon shines, ha tag'^a d3ao its body is yellow. 

d3au kakho, v. to fine. CI. (Do. ) jau kakho. 

-d3e, voc. ending, s. he, ws. CII, (Schi,) -dsche Ex.: arugu-d3e — o dog. 

~d3e, n. liver, s. t/l. NIa, (Leb.) m. sp. dsch^. 

d3em, v. to fold. CI. (Do.) jem. 

dsendsai, n. leopard. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i : ta d3end3ai SU sameta neeko the leopard caught and ate 

the baboon. 

^Z^^9^) ^- to circle. NIII. (D.B.) Ex,: ! ku fkhifkhi ki d3egge^ ka ti t/xai --- many Bushmen circle round 
and dance, 

d3exo, bad. Cllb. (Wil.) dgexo. 

d3i, V. to tan, NI, (D,B. ) Ex.: ti d3i ~|no: --- tans the skin. 

d3i, wet, bright, shining, s. d3ao. Nil. (LI.) dzhi, djl. 

d3i, mas. pi. ending of n. , used as pron. they, them, CII, (Schi,) dschi . (D,B,) Ex.: birid3i ko ~U, a 
ko uwa tea ||kwoi, a ||ais kwe oa dsi --- the goats have gone out, he will collect them, and take them 
home . 

d3i, prob. dem. that is. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. dschi. Ex.: d3i da, bitter. d3i doa, leaf. d3i tau, hard, 
d3i tue, beard, d3i tui, wing. d3i tua, breast. d3i ! nu, egg. 


_d3l, n. ground nut, 'eland boontji', s. d5i njim. NI (D B. ) Ex.: ! nau e ka _d3r m in summer we 

eat groundnuts. 

d3iba, n. lake, pool. CI. (Do.) jiba. 

d3ibi, n. digging-stick. CI, (Do.) jibi. 

d3id3Waho, n. partner. CI. (Do.) jijwaho. 

d3iee, n. sin. CI. (Do.) jiee. 

d3iko, "• pestle of a stamping block. CI. (Do.) JIKO. 

d3ili, V. to cover. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: !kom |nau d3ili |kiuii clouds cover the sun. m ~te ki ||ke, ke 

kum d3ili ni ~te my mother dies, and (I) bury covering my mother. 

d3im, n. locust. CI. (Do.) jim. 

dsinaa, n. well, fountain. CI. (Do.) jinaa. 

d3i njim, n. bean, pea, s. _d3i. CI. (Do.) ji nyim. 

dgO, t^. to put. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: r)-g ! ana d30 a siko I put the pot on the fire. 

d30, V. to pick up. CI. (Do. ) jo. 

d30, V. to be blunt, timid, s. t/o. Nil. (LI.) dJQ, dcho. Ex.: t/i e d30wa a thing which is timid. 

^.30, n. perspiration, s. Jo. Nil. (LI.) dzsho. 

d30, n. honey, s. dzo. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: na ke ~m d30 I eat honey. 

_d30:, n. hartebeest, s. d30, lechwe. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: _d30: hi !na: /i the hartebeest is big. 

d30, n. lechwe, reedbuck, s. _d30:, hartebeest. Nil. (LI.) dzhd. CII. (Zuk. ) djo. 

d30, proud, CI. (Do.) jo. 

d30, dark, black, s. "30. Nil. (LI.) dzh6, djo, dj6, dzsh6. Ex.: da d30 — black cloth, kwesig ti d30 

— the place was dark, fs''* ~!ku ti !k"ao, ti J*uwa tgwa:, ti ||ke||k^ja jantje, |kua d30 — the ash 

Bushmen are light, they sleep in the ashes, resemble Jantje, are not black. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~|gu ki 

d30 the night is dark. 

d3'^o:, n. a plant, Terminalia servicea, Burch. NI. (D.B.) 

d30a, n. porridge. SIII. (D.B.) 

dsoa, n. stick, staff. CI. (Do. ) joa. 

d30aa, n. ashes, soap. CI. (Do.) joaa. 

d30bba, n. an insect, Spiros treptes cinctata, Wood. Nil. (LI.) dshdbba. 

d30bee, v. to surround. CI. (Do.) jobee. 

d30bi, n. hare. CI. (Do.) jobi. 

d3od3dnne, n. a thin skin, s. d3oruu, dzo. Nil. (LI.) dzhodzhdnne. Ex.: t/i ti !xi ~|no, |kua e ~"|no, ta 

tl e d30d30nne tsema the thing (arrow) grazes (?) (or raises) the skin, it is not the skin (i.e. 

not a great skin such as that of an elephant, ox, etc.), but is a thin skin. 

_d30e, V. to blow. SIVb. (St.) 

_d30e, V. to fly away. [Na. doe.]SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i-0pwo _d30e --- the flies fly away. 
d30ee, v. to take out fire. CI. (Do.) joee. 

dsoko thome, n. flying ants. CI. (Do.) joko thome. 
dsola, V. to plant. CI. (Do.) jola. 

^Z^^f ^- to blow up, s. _d30e. dzo. Nil. (LI.) dzhon. Ex.: fa ti d30r) k"a the wind blows up the dust. 

^3°^^ "• root, tuber, potato- Nil. (LI.) dj6n. Ex.: ha ti Am ~d30r) he eats the root. 

dsona, n. duck. CI. (Do.) jona. 

dSOO, V. to overflow. CI. (Do.) JOO. 

dSOO, V. to suspect. CI. (Do.) joo. 

d300, n. springhare. CI. (Do. ) jOO. 

d300be, v. to walk round. CI. (Do.) joobe. 

d3oree, n. bark of tree, s. t/oraba . [Na. sorob.] CI. (Do.) joree. 

d3oruu, n. skin, s. d3od3onne. CI. (Do.) joruu. 

d3o/a, V. to pluck, s. d30,to pick up. NIII. (O.B.) Ex.: m d3oJ'a ||s: --- I pluck grass. 

_d3o/a,^ n. a certain bush. CII. (D.B.) Ex. : naro kwe/a ko |nu/a ~|nou, a ko _go, _d3o/ kwe _go, d3oJ'a hi: 
/l 1 a Naron woman sweeps the hut, cleans it, with a ... cleans it, the ... is a bush. 


d30U, V. to be blind, s. /ou. Nil. (LI.) dzhou. Ex.: ha d30u he is blind. 

d30u, n. sort. CI. (Do.) jou. 

d3u, V. to blow, s. _d3oe, d3or), d3uin, t/u, /u. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: 30 d3u daa — the person blows the fire. 
Nil. (LI.) dzhu. Ex.: ha ti gu deia, ha ti d3u daA, — he took the fire, he blew the fire. 

~d3U, n. beetle^ s. ~3U. SI. (LI.) dju, dzshu, emph. djuken. Ex.: d3u te ! gum the beetle is throw- 
ing, he e:, ~d3U haf |ne |ku ui and then the beetle arose. ~d3ukan ||khou sa: the beetle came 


d3u, n. hole, house, nest, s. t/u. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ha d3u e it is a hole. CI. (Do.) ju, house, nest. 

Ex. : d3u njimc roof of house. d3u jkum tsikho — door. 

d3u, n. sheep, s. yu. CI. (Do.) ju. Ex.: d3u jkwa, lamb. 

d3u, n. person, s. dzu, 3U. Nil. (Dk. ) d3u: . (V.) dsu: . (LI.) dju, dzhu, pi. dzhusi, dzhu-ssin.Ex. : a 
ji ma !kur)-a d3u e ? — why didst thou kill this person ? d3usi !nija — hostile people, e ba d3U- 

sir) t/u the house of our father's people, dju ! nu ~! kwi a bad person, dju ti kwal ! gag'^'a 

the people respect the mantis. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: d3u |ne r) a person's head is this. 

d3u:, dark, s. d30. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nole ka d3u: the land is dark. ~|gu wa d3u: — the night is 

dark. CI. (Do.) ju, darkness. 

d3ud.ra, v. to persuade. Nil. (LI.) dzhuara. Ex.: ta d3u^ra ha, ta ha ti gu, ta ti |a e — and (we) per- 
suade her, and she takes (it), and gives it to us. 

d3uawe, n. chalk pan. CI. (Do.) juawe, pi. jubere. 

d3uba:, n. millipede. Nil. (Wil.) dziiba. 

d3u:~be, v. to throw away. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: na ti d3u:~be I throw it away. 

d3ube, „. ox, cow, s. d3urethi. CI. (Do.) jube pi. jubene. Ex.: d3ube t/u — cow dung, jubere kale — 
to inspan oxen. d3ubere thowe a drove of oxen. 

d3ue, V. to disagree. Q. (Do.) jue. 

d3ui t/00, n. skin bag, oxhide, CI. (Do.) Jul choo. 

d3u ka ko ||xaie, n. maggot in a grass case. CI. (Do.) ju ka ko ||ghaie. 

d3um, V. to blow, s. d3u. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ka d3um he is blowing (it). 

d3um, n. tooth. CII. (D.B.) pi. dsuani. 

d3uman, n. a plant, Cyranchum orangeanum, N. E. Br. NI. & CII. (D.B.) 

d3un, n. house, s. d3u, t/u. Clb. (Pa.) djun. 

d3unje, black,, blackness, s. d30, d3u. CI. (Do.) junye. 

d3ure, v. to herd cattle, s. d3urethi. CI. (Do.) jure. 

d3ure, n. board, plank. CI. (Do. ) jure. 

d3ureo, v. to exalt, cause to grow, follow. CI. (Do.) jureo. 

d3urethi, n. herd, s. d3ure, d3ube. CI. (Do.) jurethi. 

d3urihe, v. to beware of. CI. (Do. ) jurihe. 

d3uro, afterwards, dgurowa, behind. CI. (Do. ) juro, jurowa. 

djurunje, red. CI. (Do.) jurunye. 


d3UU, n. bustard. CI. (Do. ) juu. 

d3uu^ n. colour. CI. (Do.) juu. 

d3uUj n. rushes. CI. (Do.) juu. 

dgwaT, n. ant, s. sidzwa. SVI. (D.B. ) Ex.: si d3wa ||nai It is an antheap. 

d3waj n. mierkat. NI. (D.B.) 

d3W£ia, n. club, knobkerrie. CI. (Do.) jwaa. 

d3waiHtan-tUj n. inside. SI. (LI.) dzhuaiiten-ttu. Ex.: har) ka, '*~|eta |huru ! nom d3wai?itan-tu" — 
she said, "in the inside of the hole.' 

d3we, V. to contradict, deny, s. d3weo. CI. (Do.) jwe. 

_d3we, n. fork of river or stick. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ki sir) ~||gu _d3we I have seen the fork (con- 
fluence) of the rivers. 

d3wene, n. baboon. CI. (Do.) jwene. 

d3wend3we, n. kidney. CI. (Do.) jwenjwe. Ex.: d3wend3we ! guwa kidney fat. 

fi3weo, n. objection, denial, s. d3we. CI. (Do.) jweo. 

d3wi, n. bubbles. Nil. (LI.) dzshui. 

This vowel occurs in Bushman both short and long, both close e and open s, also in the dip- 
thongs ei, we. It is occasionally nasalized. The neutral s is often found in endings. 

In his work "An Outline of fkhomani Phonetics" on page 63 Doke writes: 'The s phoneme: This 
may be described as the front mid vowel phoneme, and is variously heard as e (front half-close) or as s 
(front half-open)." Of the sound in ! ku he writes on page 132 of his work "An Outline of the Phonetics 
of the Language of the (jhu: Bushmen of North-West Kalahari": "e. Front Half-close Vowel. With the maj- 
ority of speakers this is a pure vowel, almost coinciding in tongue-position with Cardinal Vowel No. 2". 
9 in that language he calls the 'Weutral Half-open Vowel". 

e^ V. to be, be identical with, be equal to. [Na. i.] SI. (B.) e, e. Ex.: har| ~ha:f e !kwir[_, llOTirijar] 

k"auki e he, is not a dog, a dog (h^ is not. hir) ~ha: I e ! kwir)! kvfig, ||khl,:r| | ku e tney are not dogs. 

lions (they) are. (LI.) e. Ex. : ha | ku e toi !kerri, au ti e:, ha sir) Ihir) !kaui, i:, au "harj e toi- 

Qpwa he is a grown-up ostrich at the place where he came out of the egg, when he was a little 

ostrich. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: a Qpwanu e _||r)~!kwa thy daughter-in-law is a Bushman, e tu, e tsaxuke 

IS the mouth, are the eyes. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: duke e | onuwa the river is broad. SIII. (D.B.) 

Ex.: katren-ka |ha e witga Katren's husband is Witga. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: malxas r) |kai e Malxas 

is my cousin. |ne ka e a-sn ||An ? — where is thy hut ? SV. (D.B.) Ex.: molapo e ~! nau the 

Molapo is a river, wa e ||na ke kolui they are there by the wagon. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kieb e ||a ka 

|kieb is at home. NI. (D.B.) Ex. : kama dzouma e, m |kwa gu "t/u when (I) was a girl, I did not 

make a hut. ! num e "fkhi berry-trees are many. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ~!khu t/u e a Bushman hut (it) 


is. uwe e ! kur) — Uwe is a Bushman. NIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: /ove e — it is winter, kovekove e it is 

morning. CI. (Do.) Ex.: e be be it is not he (exclamation) . e be we it is she {exclamation) . 

e ma khae ? is it night ? CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||kur)kwe e,t/ok"au e an old man am (I), a sorcerer 

am (I). ! grr)kwen ! aikwe e the ! gigkwen are ! ai Bushmen. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: obe hadzabe e we are 

Bushmen, kwa mo komi e sariga, kwa mo pakapa^ e balad3a when small he was Sar)ga, when big he was 



V. to eat, s. a, ha, el. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ku||ka e 0bo:ke 

• the baboon eats bushes. SIIc. 

(D.B.) Ex.: r) xa |ku ni e ha -^- I have nothing to eat. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a e thou eatest. SV. 

(D.B.) Ex.: wa ka e: bupi they eat meal, masarwa ku ka ~s: the Masarwa eat it. SVI. (D.B.) 

Ex. : u a e ||kammate ? '^s:— do you eat ants ? yes. si se e _ha — we eat food. Sla. (A-son) exa. 

e, V. to tell. SIVb. (St.) "^s. 

e, V. part, used in narrative, may sometimes be translated by it, he. Slle. (An.) Ex.: e |a: it 

burns, he is dying. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e /oki a | ki sits on the ground. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: e /a /i, 

e |kar) |k"alej e ka tanaa, e a: /a ||hatu — (h^ comes, goes off, (we) talk, (he)has sat down. SVI. 
(D.B.) Ex.: e IgAinte^ e se ||kare, e sa ! oe 0pwe: (he) hits it, skins it, cuts up the meat. 

:, rel. & dem. who, which, that, this. SI. refers to nouns in the pi. and to those in the sing, which 
take he, hi, instead of ha in the 3rd pers. sing. (B. ) e. Ex.: u kag | ku e: ||ar) |a |ki|ki: !koir| 

you are those who went and cut up the old man. har] ka si se ta:a pn: e: a he desired that 

we should feel this fatigue (fatigue which here). (LI.) e. Ex.: ha xoa k"auki d ha ! huir| erjeg e: 

|k"waija her mother did not give her .... roots which were many, he e:, rj |ne |xi: toi and 

then then it is that) I shoot the ostrich. SII. (D. B. ) that» Ex. : ki sa e:?--- what is that? SIIc. Ex 

|kwisi e ||koe one bird (bird which one). SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwi" e: that person. SV. (D.B.) 

Ex.: r| |ke: e my cap that is. e: /i ||ka: £), ! kAn there food is lacking. Nil. (LI.) e, who, 

this. Ex.: d3u e ti k"ija ok"wi t/i this person first said the thing. | gi ok"wi d3u tanki e geja^ 

e t/u come to tell the other people who are at our hut. (V.) Ex.: dsu: e: this person. (Wil.) 

e, this. 


e, pron. his, her, used instead of em in certain terms of relationship. CI. (Do.) Ex.: e ma his own 

mother, e kwekwe his own sister. 

e, pron. we, s. i. SII. (D.B.) only used before part. he. Ex.: e he k"aia we shall laugh. SVI. Ex.: 

e wasi Qpwaal let us sleep, e Ijaru ke we will return. NI. (D.B.) usual form, there is also a 

masc. form e ! ka, and a fern, form ehe . Ex.: e oasi ku ~khausi we all burn it. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: e 

ti ! kur) ! xo we kill the elephant, e ba ba ti Am fAhi our father's father ate the ....(animal), 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e we/e/s !o ! ku we are all Bushmen. 

e, n. entrails. SIVb. (St.) "^e. 

e, and. [Na. e] SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: lorike ku si, e |ne |nori ki _ts'^oo the lorry came and took him to 

the dance. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: lakai e Gpwani a woman and children. NI. (D.B.) ha |kum dzauma, e 

llgoma re |kuma he cuts girls, and boys cuts he. 

e, by, in, on, from. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hir) ||o /owa e Hheiq --- they sit by the house. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 
ta Ji e kokor) he will come from Kakong. 

6, interjection. Sllb. (Mh. ) '©. 

e, interrog. part. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'e. Ex.: a xa ! am e ? or are you butting with your head ? 


, e:, yes. SVI. (D.B.) a sa fkai fno ||gaike ? ve: --- do you use that ? yes. NI. (D.B.) e, s. eh^:. 

CII. (Schi.) 'e (Pa.) e. (D.B.) \s:. Ex.: xau dama ||xa||xase uwa ? ns: did the Berg Damara teach 

yes. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e:, aseja ola yes, the child sleeps. 


e, no , s . _e § . SV. ( Schi . ) . 

ea, V. part., or pron. he, she. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: maki ea /a ||abe, ea /a ||na Maki has gone riding, 

has gone away, madisa ka kabe bupi^ ea ka ||ko unte !kha 
in water. 

Madisa is kneading bread, he has poured 

ea, dem. that, s. ean, eba, e/a. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ea |i --- that is a fire. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ea _dala 

t/it/isi \ho: that fire burns off the grass. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ea ||oa8 ti e e those are child] 



ean, some, s. ea. CII. (D. B. ) Ex. : ean ta ko xau^ ako ean \!nwona some tobacco is cut, and some is 


eba, dem. that, s. ea, e/a. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: eba dabe, e/a lur||ei — that one (man) is Dabe, that one 
(girl) is |ur||ei. 

ebe, pron. he, she, it, CI. (Do.) Ex.: ebe kwa uka pakela — he rises very early. 

ebe i je, v. to stand over. CI. (Do.) ebe i ye. 

ebe gllgee, v. to dispute. CI. (Do.) ebe ng||gee. 

ebe oo ||ka, n. white mimosa. CI. (Do.) 

ebi, mas. pi. ending, used also as pron. CIII. (D.N.) Ex.: onebi, we (men), itjebi, they (men), ebi 
abikwa xlako ta | iami wainet/a — those who were cut all died. 

edz^, edzeko, n. wife. CIII. (D.B.) pi. edzeme. Ex.: manar]C|we edze ako — Manaqgwe is (my) wife, it/ama 
ako ono Edzeko, ddzeme sa tawa /i pisps — one is my wife, the wives of Tawa/i are two. 

_e-e, no, s. e. SIV. (D.B. ) 

eeba, this one, this person, s. ea, eba. CI. (Do.) 

eet/u, V. to be like. CI. (Do.) eechu. 

ehe, V. to deserve, ehe ahe, to happen. CI. (Do.) 

ehe, pron. we, fern. s. e. NI. (D.B.) 

ehe:, yes, s. e, e:ja. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! gu: !xa: ? ehe:, ja ! gu: ! xa — is water far ? yes, water is 

dhs, inter j . haha. NIX. (LI.) ehe. Ex.: ta |xwe |ni ti sir) ha, ka si, ta kwe, "shs, ^he" — and | xwe 
sat looking at him and laughing, and said, "haha, haha". 

ehe, inter], oh, oh dear. Nil. (Ll.)_ ehe. Ex.: ta |xwe ||na, ta kwe, "me zau, ehe, me zau, gu mi, ^he" 
and I xwe objected and said, "my woman, oh, my woman take hold of me, oh dear". 

ehr), pron. we, s. e, ehe. NIII. (D.B.) ! ku Inelne/i wa ehr| — Bushmen all are we. 

ehwa, hither (motion). CI. (Do.) 

ehwa nja, v. it will be, must be. CI. (Do.) ehwa nya. 

ehwa n||gwa, not yet. CI. (Do.) 

ehwa llgam, v. to have a friend, s. ||gamthi, friend. CI. (Do.) 

ehwe, V. to be nothing at all. CI. (Do.) 

ei, V. to eat, graze, s. a, e. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha el 0bo — he eats the bush. 

ei, n. sassaby, s. hale. CII. (Zuk.) 

e:in, n. locust. Cla. (Pa.) ein. 

einja, elrjelgja, n. meat, flesh, s. er). SI. (B. ) einya, elneitiya. Ex.: r\ a: ka |ku ~kon ! ho Ikorf^e: , au 

einja ! Ah i /o Ikorre: I am one who swallows up the tub, while the meat is in the tub. a ||ka:, au 

a eigeirija ||ka: --- thou art wet, while thy flesh is wet. 

einki, n. father, s. "egki. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gwa |na ha xeinki, |na ha einki the child is with its 

mother, with its father, r) einki einki ha ! xoi e ||swi my father's father's place is ||ewi. 

eisa:, good. Nil. (Wil.) eisa. 


else, V. to be short. SI. (B. ) Ex.: ha'k"auki se else he will not be short, i. e. he will be long a- 


eisi, n. grass. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

ei/a, ei/e, n. mother, also used for mother-in-law, maternal aunt, s. aija. CII. (D.B. ) voc. eije. poss, 

ei/-ti, ei/-ko. Ex.: aumko kwena ko ma, "tira ka ~|gi si teme"; ei/ko mamasa ~||xwi, ako ~|gi ta 

the father's people say, 'by name it shall bear"; the mother's mother contradicts, and names it. 

e:ja, yes, s. e, ehe:. NI. (D.B.) 

eja, e:ja, dem. there, this. Slle. (An.) eya. Ex.: |na eja ! owa see there is water. Nil. (LI.) eyS. 

Ex. : n a |kua sir) /i e:ja I have not seen this thing. 

eje, sweet. CI. (Do.) eye. 

eka, and then. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U reok"wi, eka 3U |kwa: |e, eka tsi 3U |kwa: da ka: — people talk, 
and then people do not think, and then people do not act. 

ekade, v. to turn round. CI. (Do.) 

ekala, v. to work, s. ekekela. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa:ku ka ekala t/ite kotele, kwe a geri — |kwa:ku is ] 
working, washing the dishes, and wiping them. 

ek6ja, v. to be bad, ferment. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hama ssm^ ek^ja, akwene seme — this food is bad, do 
not eat. 

ekekela, v. to work, make, build, beat (iron), s. ekala, ela. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ekekela ts'^'oko kwe te 

|api ta tsahoko is working to support the shelter, ekekeldta t/oma panako iron beaten to an 1 

arrow head. 

eko, V. to scoop out. CI. (Do.) 

eko, pron. their in terms of relationship, otherwise thau eko. CI. (Do.) Ex.: eko bare their father.i 

eko kwekwe their sister. 

eku, self, selves. Slid. (Wu.) 

ekwa ykhoo, venemous, deadly. CI. (Do.) 

^la, elaha, v. to work, make, treat, s. ekala, ekekela. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ^la ts'^oko — make fire. 
ha~khate ^la it/a akwape — go to treat those eyes, akitibe e ela ma:ku, akitibe to /amobe elaha 

ma:ku, akitibe _hadzabe d,kwape a elaha ma:ku women make pots, Isanzu women make pots, Bushman wo-, 

men do not make pots, obi _hadzabi ota eld^ta hamana we &ishmen have cleared this, salame ta tinai 

^seta, eld.ta tsetibi sleeps in a shelter made of bushes. 

elase, v. to form, mould, s. ela. CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: jamoa biti se elase akwi'tibe of earth the women mould 

elati, n. worker, youth, boy, s. ela. CIII. (D.P. ) Ex.: elati ja, a haba elati --- (he) is a youth, and I 
that one a youth, elatibi ko idza mu:a --- boys ar© cut on the little finger, ndogo a mbogo a harjgu 
elatipi Ndoga and Mboga and Haggu are workers. 

^lu, V. to get in. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea elu ke kolui he gets into the wagon. 

em, emdhe, pron. his, her, s. e. CI. (Do.) Ex.: em ||gait/o --- his wife, her husband. 

em, V. to eat, n. food, unusual form of m. Nil. (LI.) emm, fmm. Ex.: te'?e: ||ke||keja kuku, e ti em ha -- 
the .... bird resembles a fowl, we eat it. he ti t/ig em he cries for food. 

em, dem. that, mas., s. ea. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: mdsa kam ||ein keinko em kweba ha ? — what time was it 
when that man came ? 

emale, v. to hurt. CIII. (D.B.) Ex. : th'^ali ama emale a ono, ta tl'^oko kwa ? --- who has hurt me by buril 
ing me ? 

emeda, completely, entirely. CIII. (D.B.) 

e:mere, ermersi, n. bucket. [Ned. emmer.] SII. (D.B.) ermersi. Ex.: ha jkeja ermersi --- she carries t\ 
bucket. SV. (D.B.) ermere. 


em khe kho, inter j . begone. CI. (Do.) 

emoo^ n. measure, observer. CI. (Do. ) 

er], ®^6r), m. meat, flesh, body, root, s. a, e, einja. Referred to by the pronouns hig and e: , even in 
the sing. SI. (B. ) eft, en-en, emph. enyan, en-eri-yail, pass, en-ka. Ex.: hir| jka&mmen ho (kaggsn-ka 
eg — they take up and carry the mantis' flesh, ha ||kaxukak8n !ku!ku: ti (kaggan erjerj, jkaggsn-ka 
erjjar) f^haufhau ~||k"« her sisters threw down the mantis' flesh, the mantis' flesh sprang^ togeth- 
er, ha tuwar) ta:eja, ha er]er)jar| |ku e: a — his skin is gone, it is his flesh. (LI.) §n, enen, 
efiSiiya. Ex.: !kwi tail si dalrrakandalrraksn ha erjer] — the man walks, moving his flesh, hi se ha: 
er) e: ||ka: — they will eat meat which is cooked. |kui:i |ku &: , ka koir|, au ha tatti e:, ha eqegja 

|ki Ik'^au the broody ostrich is one that is lean, for it feels that its body has dust, ha xoa 

k"auki d. ha ! huir) erjer) e: |k"waija her mother did not give her ... roots which were meiny. Sla. 

(A- son) eng. 

en, ena, only. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ki en ki fkuri h^ — (he) only anoints here. !ge:xa ki taa si s6-|a, 
ena ki se, ki si fkuri ha the sorcerer has no medicine, only comes to rub him. 

ena, v. to come, journey. CI. (Do.) CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ki ena voari (they) have come to help. 

jena, enako, enapi, n. grass. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: iko tl'^otl'^'okos a udzame ena tina — fire was made by 

the hyena in the grass, kwa mo ta tako enako pakapaako then he collected much grass, poijapi 

enapi tsot/epi, ha~khana hi blows the wind the grass, it moves. 

~s:r)ki, n. father, s. einki. SII. (D.B.) 

lente, v. to go away. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe ente ha — he goes away. 

[enwa, here, s. erwa. CI. (Do.) Ex.: enwa ja — to come here. 

epeme, v. to carry, wear on the head. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: unuwa ^peme nepi men carry them, kimbakupi 

epeme arrows worn on the head. 

ere, dem. that. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 50 ere fke, 30 ere _ka.fra that man is clever, that man is stupid. 

erob, n. God. [Missionary name.] Nile. (Leb. ) 

errierre, v. to seek, look about. SI. (B. ) erri 6rre. Ex.: hi sag ! halm errierre |ki|ki hi — they will 
first looking about find them. 

erwa, there, s. enwa. CI. (Do.) 

jes, n. snake, puffadder. Slle. (An.) 'es. Ex.: es t/ina the snake bites. 

esee, v. to reign. CI. (Do.) 

eso, V. is used as copula. CIII. (D.B.) dit/i eso tseti — black is wood. 

leta, when. CI. (Do. ) 


^etari, v. to wish, will. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'etari. 

etapi, V. to lighten, s. taba. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: etapi ati — the rain lightens. 

•ete, t;. to be, s. e. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: !gwe: ete --- spring it is. CIII. (D.B.) Ex. :kwata komi, ete 
mwegga when small (I), was Mwegga. 

etsd, n. basket. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: etsa kweta sandawibe t/ikina enapi a basket is made by the 

Sandawe of grass. 

etsoro, n. dewlap. CI. (Do.) 
et/iako, n. vent. CIII. (D.B.) 

eu 'ku, n. mortar. Cla. (Pa.) 

ewa, V. to mention. CI. (Do.) 


exla, n. uncle, aunt. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kindeako exla gisako — Kindeako' s aunt is Gisako. 

The labio-dental unvoiced fricative is not a Bushman sound. It occurs only in languages spoken 
by tribes residing among the Bantu, and in these often in loan words. Other Bushmen may use a bilabial 
unvoiced fricative in imitating the noise of wind or fire, but not in regular speech. 

fara, far, v. to get on, be well. [Afri. hoe vaar jy 7 how are you?] Sllb. (Mh. ) Ex.: n fara /tswi 
\||oa |e ||a e: I am getting on well in God's name, axa tern far di:ka ? how are you ? 

fs, n. hookah. SIIc. (D.B.) 

fs:, n. hand, arm. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: g-ki fs: my hand. r)-ki f s : o ki ! uti my arms which are two. 

— fe, ending expressing time, s. — fua. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||naka— fe, afternoon. 

fiela, V. to sweep. [Tsw. feela.] CI. (Do.) 

foana, v. to yawn. [Swa. funua kinwa.^ CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ka foana, makwa/a — have yawned, (I) Makwaja. 

fofa, V. to fly. psw. fofa] CI. (Do.) 

fud, fudta, V. to drink. CIII. (D.B.) Ex. :_dzane ku atebi na fud come with water to drink, fudta on 

atebi I drink water. akwd. mo. fud it has not drunk. 

-fua, -fue, endings expressing time, s. -fe. CIII, (D.B.) Ex.: tsi-fua ko a fua tsiggaoko — at night 
drinks the gemsbok. ||nakar-fue na three to four p. m. . 

fueta, V. to buy. [Mb.] Mflll. (D.B.) Ex.: ke tar|ga, ke "fkanu, ke mborigo ke fueta mi — with stuff, 
with metal bands, with money he bought me. 

fukwa, fukwape, n. foot. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i fukwa — is a foot, a fukwape e, it/ame ja, a fukwape 
piepi a foot it is, is one, two feet. 

fuu, V. to turn. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: ko fuu, kwe sa (he) has turned, comes. 


The voiced velar explosive is found in all Bushman languages as initial sound, in second 
syllables where it interchanges with k and t , and after all clicks except the labial click. 

ga, V. to stay, s. ge. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mu ku "te'^aa, 3U ku o~k"wi, ko -u t/u |kau, m ga — I heard 
people talking, went to the hut' s inside, I stayed. 


qa^ V. part., possibly derived from ga, to stay, often expressing habitual action, or a state, s. ka. 

SI. (LI.) ga. Ex.: ha ga |ku tai:l o ||ga: he is accustomed to go by night. Sllb. (Mh.) Ex.: toe 

nar) koro nar) ! unsi na ga |k"xoa: the lion and the jackal and the hyena went hunting. SIII. (D. 

B. j Ex.: m ga pe:la — I have pushed. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ga ||kora ki k"aa — (she) is drawing on 

the ground, rj |ke[ke ki ||k"ani i, r) ga ||hai i my grandfather cut it off, (because) I was sickly. 

SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||An ga |lk"wa — the sun is setting, ea t/u |ki ke kai, /i ga ! kaile a he |ke ||na 
--- he stayed at Kai, we have left him at his home. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: | ho t/i, ka 3U ||ei, ka | geja^ 

ka ga t/xo the steenbok comes, and people catch it eind carry it, and will cut it up. Nil. (LI.) 

Ex.: r) ga ti u I go out. ga ti t/ak"gi falls upon the earth (rain). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ga !u 

— (he) stands. CII (D.B.) Ex.: JkAintem a ga _haf, a ga !koxo ko tani |kAmtem will come and 

will bring meat, xam ||a: Ji, xara ga ||nei /i — he knows it, he can talk of it. ! ke/e ga _ha^ — 
come back again. 

ga, V. to bite, s.k'a. CII. (Schi.) 

ga:, v. to yawn. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ga: thou dost yawn. 

ga, V. is, are, used as copula. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: |e ga ||k'i'a:i the fire is warm, f^o ga ti a boy 

is that. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: na kabe ala 0mwa ga ||kari I have fetched much wood. !nwa: ga ! un one 

stick. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: taka ga ! gai \\naa,, taka ga ! ky ||naa — there are red big ones, there are 
red stars. 

ga, interrog. part. s. ge. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ga ||kaba la ? — how are you ? ga ha /a tia ~la ? — where 
have you been ? 

-ga, poss. part. s. -ka. SI. (B. ) Ex.: r) |na:-ga |ku ka k"auki |k"oa:ja -- my head's hairs are not many. 
SIV._j[D.B. ) Ex.: tkon|ki n-ga |ke — fkonjki (is) my name, sometimes -si is added, m 0pwa-ga-si |kha 

my child's face. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: pu/o a ||k"aba |a:ga 0mwa Pu/o has brought the fire's wood. 

la a-ga turu this man's hat. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: !kha-ga ! ana /we the water's pot it is. 

ga, pron. it, referring to things and animals, s. ha. Nil. (V.) g^, pi. gasn, an. Ex.: _ga ti _! U_WU -- 
it (tree) gets leaves. (LI.) g^. Ex.: ga ti k"ffa it (caterpillar) lifts its head. . 

ga, to, on, in, by, some of. Slid. (Arb. ) Ex.: ga kaba to dig. ga /u to smoke. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 

0pwa:ne wa t/u ga ||ku:m the children sit on the sand, ha t/a kuta ~|ki ga ||kwa they are hid- 
den in the grass, e a t/u: ga |a he sits by the fire, n ga ~t/un ga jkaujna I am smoking 

some tobacco. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: n ~fhu ga |komsa (it) stands on the ground. 

ga, if, perhaps. Nil. (V) Ex.: ga _ha |gje:'?a mi, na""ti \o: _|au a _ha if he comes to me, I shall 

treat him badly. (Wil.) ga. 

ga, n. thing, s. gau. Slla. (Mg. ) 

ga, n. steenbok. Cla. (Pa.) 
ga, n. duck. ai. (Pa.) 

ga:, n. white tsama melon used for mixing with poison. CII. (D.B.) 

_ga, long, s. tgan. Nil. (V.) g^. (Wil.) ga. 

sga:, now. Nil. (V.) gS. Ex.: \ga: na ~ti |gje: — now I will go away. 

/'ga:, wise, clever. Nil. (V. ) ga (Wil.) ga. 

ga:, n. nail, claw. Cllb. (Wil.) gS. 

~gaa, n. rain. SIII. (D.B.) NIII. (D.B.) short form of ||ga:. 

gaa, n. awl, needle. CI. (Do.) 

gaba, n. broth. Slle. (An.) 

gaba, long, many days, s. _ga. Nil. (LI.) 

gaba, n. rhinoceros. CI. (Do.) 


gaba, n. bowstring, s. ||kaba. Cla. (Pa.) 

gaba^ n. friend. CI. (Do.) Ex.: gaba t/on, friendship, gaba kho, custom. 

gabae, v. to be a friend. CI. (Do. ) gabao, to be friendly with. 

gdibaka, n. fungus. Nil. (LI.) g3.baka. Ex.: g^baka |nu |ne ||a: zausig ti m — a large (kind of ) fungus 
the women eat. 

g^batf, n. tree fungus, s. gdbaka. Nil. (LI.) g^bati. 

gabe:, n. hookah. Cllb. (Wil.) gabe. 

gabee, n. giraffe, s. gawe CI. (D. ) Ex:: gabee ||gau — a bull giraffe. 

_gabe"u, v. to dip up. NIII. (D. B. ) 

gabe jkhaine, n. the Southern Cross. CI. (Do.) 

gabi^ v. to turn over, change. Nil. (LI.) gd,bbi. CI. (Do.) gabi. 

gabi hewe, n. change. CI. (Do.) 

gabigabi, v. to be changeable. CI. (Do.) 

gabi nja, v. to obtain. CI. (Do. ) gabi nya. 

_gabi/e, i>. to turn round, shut. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||ei/a xu, a !ku, na debi, _gabi/e, dau |e:s kwe ! ga:ba 

leave the hut, go, and come back, turn round, set fire to the grass. fxed3i _gabi/e shut the 


ga-durub, n. striped rat. Cllb. (Sh. ) 

ga:-ga:-e:,now. Nil. (Wil.) gS-ga-e. 

sgalsgauJ, v. to make new, clean. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kak"oaka ! gu ~ze, a ka sgalvgauS clean it 

(waterhole) with fresh water, make it new. 

gal, V. cannot. CI. (Do. ) 

gal, V. bury. CII. (Schi.) 

gal., good, nice, s. gake. Nil. (Ek.) (V.) Ex.: dzu: gsCi e: — he is a good man (Wil.) gai. 

ga~i, n. poison caterpillar, s.ka~i. Nil. (LI.) gdl. 

gai, n. wildebeest (?) s. ! gai, gue. [Mb. mpulu.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex. :~gai wa ||kha ~||na~||na, ||kha d^o — 
the wildebeest is a big buck, a dark buck. 

gai, n. steenbok, s. gale. Cllb. (Bal.) 

gaiai, v. to despise. CI. (Do.) 

gale, n. steenbok, s. gai. CI. (Do.) gaie. (SeL) . gai-ee. 

-gaie, n. dusk. CII. (D.B. ) 

gaiethi, n. servant. CI. (Do.) 

gaihe, n. warmth. CI. (Do.) 

gaii, n. puffadder. CI. (D.B.) 

gaije, n. ringhals. CI. (Do.) gaiye. 

gaioxi, often, very, CII. (Schi.) 






gai; te, v. finished. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: si gairte ku ||na: (he) is finished in the war game. 

gake, pretty, s. gal. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: lake gake ka that is a pretty wife. 

gala, n. roibok, s. pala. Cllb. (Wil.) g^la. 

_gale, v. to roll, s. gane, garjgani. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha gu ~! gau a _gale — she takes a stick and 
rolls (it). 

gale, sweet, s. gaT., gake. Cll. (Pa.) 

_gali, n. Kangali, a Bantu tribe. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gali ke fnaam the Kangali beat it out. 

galla, n. impala, a buck. CI lb. (Zuk. ) 
galu, n. hive, s. ||galu:. NIII. (D.B.) 

gam, v. to awaken. Nil. (LI.) gStmin. 

gam, v. to cast away, s. gamohoxe. CI. (Do.) gam ho nje, to be lost. 

gam, gama, v. to swear an oath, n. oath. CI. (Do.) 

gam,n. bustard. Cla. (Pa.) 

gama, v. to hide oneself. Nil. (Wil.) gama k'Tx'^a: to hide oneself in the ground. 

gamagama, n. bracelet. NIa. (Leb. ) m. & ch. sp. 

gamo, n. truth. CI. (Do.) 

gamohoxe, n. loss, s. gam, to cast away. CI. (Do.) gamohoghe. 

ga:g, v. to swim. C SI. (B. ) ggSn. 

gan, v. to doubt, complain, s. ganthi . CI. (Eb.) 

_gana, n. lizard. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gana t/u _gc>lo the lizard sits in the mpaka tree. 

gane, gani, v. to roll, s. gale, garjgani. Nil. (LI.) ganne, ganni. (V.) gani. (Dk. ) ga:ni. 

gane, n. beard. CI. (Do.) 

garjg^ni, v. to roll down, s. gane, kagk^ni. Nil. (LI.) gangani. 

gangarob, n. spirits, ghosts. Nile. (Leb.) 

ganina, n. pi. Germans. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hama ganina hi hd heru:, hemi ba /a — those Germans are 
finished, finished and gone. 

ganthi, n. doubter, s. gan. CI. (Do.) 

gao, V. to hide, conceal. CI. (Do.) 

_gaoxa, n. chief, s. gau, gauk"au, gaiuxa. [Na. gao, to rule.] Nil. (V.) gaoxa. 

gara, n. scab. CI. (Do.) „ 


gara, n. dish. Cla. (Pa.) 

g^rama, formerly. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: t/i e gd,rama owa this thing (painting) was formerly done. 

_gare, v. to love, want, wish. Nil. (V.) gare. (Wil.) gSre, to rejoice. 

gare, stupid. CII. (Schi.) 

gari, v. to fall. Sllb. ,(Mh.) Ex.: gari ! are --- to fall out. 


_gari, n. pi. pigs, s. ! ga, boar. NI.(D.B. ) Ex.: _gari m t/i e --- little pigs are these. 

gari, n. thatch, s. gau. CI. (Do.) 

garii, r. to creak, buzz, croak. CI. (Do.) 

garii, v. to caress. CI. (Do.) 

garikgari, n. bl ack- backed j ackal. Nil. (Zuk.) gari-k-gari. 

gariki, v. to work, make. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: gariki ho amo ! urjguwe made it has the Masai. 

garinjan, v. to rub. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: garinjan da — rub it (arrowhead). 

garinje, n. stump of tree. CI. (Do.) garinye. 

garo, n. ostrich, s. |garo. CII. (Pa.) 

garoha, v. to freeze. CI. (Do. ) 

garu:, v. to want, wish. Nil. (Wil.) 

ga~>u, n. flesh, pulp. Slla. (Dk. ) 

garuba, v. to knead. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ha garuba ke bupi he kneads the meal. 

gaje: !ga:, v. to wait. Nil. (Wil.) g&§e ! gS. 

gasi, very, SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: han kwa gasi ||keo — he is very old. 

ga:si, n. reeds. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ga:si — these are reeds. 

ga:8i, n. custom. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||k"au||e:n ka t/ani tjaa |nwa:^ sa o si hi: garsi — the Auen dance 
such a dance, such is their custom. 

_gafsi, n. rib. CII. (D.B. ) 

gassi, n. eye. Ni. (Sei.) 

ga/egga, n. present. [Ger. Geschenk] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: xleiata ma ga/egga — he wants a present. 

gau:, gau:wa, v. to approach, come near, drive near. SI. (LI.) ggSAl, ggauwa. Ex.: ts'^a de he, he gau: 
g-ka ||neir), S: ? — why do they come near my house ? hag |k"e:, harj k"auki se !xw3nni, hag gau:wa 

||neir) he said, he would not turn back, he had come near the house. hir| |ne gau:wa ||neir| a: (kaggan 

ijna ha they approached the house at which the mantis was. ! kaukan sar| ~fk5)e'?a~gau:wa ~hi: the 

children shall seeking springbok kids drive (them) near for us. 

gau, V. to thatch, s. ||gau, gari, NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/u ! ni t/a m gau a ~||e — the hut I thatch with 

gau, V. to forbid, stop. [Na gao, to rule.] CI. (Do. ) 

gau, V. to possess. CII. (Schi.) 

gau, rjgau, _gau, n. thing, s. ga. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: a |r)au gau ! kusake (I) shall marry a bad thing. 

\gau, n. green wasp. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gau ! ne 3U the green wasp stings people. 

_gau, n. hand, usually _ll9au. NIII. (D.B.) 

~geCu,n. tree, usually "Igefu. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _d30 a kula ~gau — bees swarm in a tree. 

gau, n. buffalo. Cllb. (Bal.) (Zuk.) 

gau, n. youth, young man, s. k"au,CI. (Do.) 


gau, n. government, s. _gaoxa. CI. (Do.) 

\galu, new, s. sgaf^^gaul. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: t/i~! a _|ga:, t/i"! a a NgaJu — the kaross is old, this kar- 
oss is new. 

~gau, light. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |nwi a ~|gi, ka kwe ~gau — the moon is rising, it will be light. 

gaua, n. gemsbok, s. gel. Nil. (Zuk.) 

gaukui, n. Namaqua partridge. [Tsw.J CII. (Pa.) 

gauk"au, n. chief, governor, master, s. _gaoxa, ga:uxa. [Na. gao, to rule.] SI. (B.) gdu/au. (LI.) 

gau^au. Ex.: r) sig ||na r)-ka !xoe, he r) !kwi:ja r)-ka gauk"au a:, hi |ke I must remain at my (own) 

place, the name of which I have told my master. 

gauo, n. curtain. CI. (Do. ) 

gau'^un, n. brown hyena, s. gaxa. CII. (Zuk.) gau-un. Cllb. (Wil.) gau uh. 

garu^xa, n. leader, s. gauk"au, _gaoxa. [Na. gao, to rule.] Nil. (Dk.) garuxa. 

gavo:, n. shoe. Cllb. (Wil.) gavo. 

gawe, n. giraffe, s. gabee. Cllb. (Zuk.) 

gaxa, n. brown hyena, s. gau'^un. Nil. (Zuk. ) 

_gaxn, therefore, if. Nil. (V.) gaxn. 

gafgaidum, deaf. CII. (Schi.) 

gs^ _gs, geja, v. to live, stay, be, be born, s. ga. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: namasi ! ko nake ko ge — the Nama 

live near the ! ko Bushmen. 3U tsa ~tsi |kwa gume, a |ne ge:, a ~nwi ~u two men came with the oxen, 

one will stay, the other go. dama ! goma tsema ! nau ka ge: the little boy in summer was born. Nil. 

CQc. ) ge. (LI.) ge, geya. Ex.: ha ba ge, ha ba taba ha kwe ||gu tsema — (if) his father is there, his 

father treats him with a little water, m sa ti geja me ! nwerre we two must stay in my country, ha 

|kua /ir) ||gu, ta geja /i sa, ||gu sa Am ha geja — he did not annk water, but did without (stayed 

without) two things, water and food he did without. (V.) Ex.: na ge _|hom'?a I am well. NIII. (D.B.) 

Ex.: Ilgaua t/u ! ni _gs — the spirit's hut is there. ! gau ne kwa ge sig kwa n — the trees are there 
like here. 

~ge, gs'^e, ~ge:e, _geja, v. to sing. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i ku ~gs: — sing a song. Nil. (Dk.) 9s'^e(Ll.) 

c]6, ge, gee. Ex.: e !k"a ti d3a, ta e ti ge — our hearts are glad, and we sing, ti Am /atna, ka ha 

~ge (he) was eating /ana fruit, while he sang, ha ti gee: he sings. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: gova ti 

~ge:e njambi the Mbunda sing to God. ! ku ti ~3e:e ! owa — the Bushmen sing to !owa. ! ku dame ki 

n~ge Bushman women are singing, na ~de e na ~!nu ~geja and the mother stands singing. 

ge, interrog. part, where is ?, s. ge, to stay. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: atsani ge ? Where is Atsani ? 

ge, with, from, by. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: dwa fusi ||kam ge |haa (they) live two together with the husband. 

|e ~|hu i ge _||wa — we came down from the hill. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea Ja ||ku ge ~||ka he goes to 

stand by the camelthorn tree. 

gea, gee, yes, s. gjeja. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: gea, na |ne kaike — yes, I have seen Kaike. 

gebbitan, less. SI. (LI.) ggebbiten. Ex.: !na: a:, hi twai:i a, ha a:,, hi-ta ||k"ao|[k"ao ta gebbitsn a: 
winter is the time when it is sweet, when its bitterness is less. 

gei, n. grey vervet, mountain hare, springbok, s. gai . Nil. (Zuk.)(WiL) 

gei, n. blanket. Cllb. (Wil.) gei, gei da. 

gei-a, just now. Nil. (Wil.) 

geite, heavy. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ho te ku geite the bag is heavy. 

geitsa, geitsape, n. forehead. CIII. (D.B.) 


geja^ s. ge, to stay. 

gen, v. to give a name, call. SI. (LI.) ggl^nn. Ex.: ! k'?e kuitan |ne gsn ha |ke o 4gwai:-|k"a: — the 
people gave him the name of Clayhand. ! kwai : 0pwa ha:f a: ||kenja ha !kwa:, hs tikan e: he |ne gen ha 

|ke o !kwai: — !kwa: a young gemsbok once pierced his leg, therefore they called him by the neune 

of Gemsbok-leg. 

gen, v. to steal, s. genti. Sllb. (Mh. ) gen. 

_geri, n. hut, s. ||Ar). SIIc. (D.B. ) 

gendso, n. bell. NIII. (D.B.) 

ge njom, v. to scold. CI. (Do.) ge nyom. 

genti, n. theft, s. gen. Sllb. (Mh. ) genti. 

gare:, slowly. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha gare: ~ki sa — he comes slowly. 

geri, v. to rub, dry. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa:ku ka ekala t/ite kote:le, kwe a geri — |kwa:ku is washing 
the dish and rubbing it. 

_ps, ~i £ ^j <i u ~ 

gerre, gsrri, v. to rejoice, s. ge. [Na. gare, praise. J SI. (LI.) ggerre, qgerri. Ex.: ha !koir)jar) 

gerre a: ka !kaukan, au han tatti e:, ha-ka !kauksn |ke di: ||kwalkksn — that^old man rejoices over 

his children, for he feels that his children are wont to act sensibly. (B. ) ggerriy^, gefrigeffiy^. 

Ex.: har) |ku-g |ne |ka:ti |e:, au hag tag, ||o:ir|jar) |ne gsrri~ja ! kur) J*o ha, ||o:irijar| |ne fkakksn, " q i 

||kwar| |ne to~a: i g ||ken: ha" he (the sun) later sets, as he aches, the sun does rejoicing follow 

him, the sun says, "I am glad I stabbed him". a/-g | ne gerrigerri~ja ||khau ! khe thou dost stand 

rejoicing there. 

gerrukan, v. to smart, be sore. SI. (LI.) gerruken. Ex.: r) |k"a|k"a gerrukan i:, au g dola ||ken ||xe: au 
||kha my hands are sore, because I dig out 'Bushman rice' with a stick. 

gese, also. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tibitibi heri !nu:ba, o makapo, xatia, heri gese !nu:ba — Tibitibi is 
dead, old Makapo, the Khatia, is also dead. 

getaka, v. to drink. Cla. (Pa.) 

gevi, V. to stir, s, geri. Cllb. (Wil.) gevi. 

gigerritan, v. to roll about, jog along. [Na. gari^ to roll something round. J SI. (B. ) ggiggerritfn, 
ggiggirriten, ggiggerritta. Zx. : ! khwagan |ne fkurrufkurru |e: twitwitan_, he !khwa: hir) e: , ha sag 

|ne gigerritan i:, au hi~ta !ku:i water dropped into the wounds, that water is (the reason) why he <1 

will roil aiDout on account of their pain, ha-g |ne gigirritan i, au ha |ne !u:xe ~|la — he (moon) I 
jogs along, as he runs on. 

gii, n. wild dog. SIVb. (St.) 

gira:, t;. to tell of. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hama kwe ba taia, gira: no of these that remain, I tell. 

girl, n. bushbaby. Cllb. (Bal.) 

gisi, interrog. what ? s. ~ge, gjisi. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: gisi he e ha sa si ? what is that coming to 

us ? 

git/en ||gu, v. to drink. Nil. (Wil.) gitsen ||gu. 

gja, part, preceding sing. pron. for emphasis. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: _gja a thou, gja: a he gja r) 

this. _gjar| — I. ujel, _gjar) khoidamas — Uyel, I, a Khoidama. 

9J®J^^ yes, s. gea, kija. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ke |na narokwe ? gjeja did you see the Naron ? yes. 

gji:, tomorrow. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a kwa se gji: you will come to-morrow. 

gjisi, interrog. how, what, s. gisi, ~ge. Slla. (Mg. ) jji^i' Ex.: ga ka t/u'^e gjisi ! "^anuma — I ...ask,, 
"how so ?" kje xar) kje ku: gjisi xai ?gjisi xai ? --- (he) ... say: "what is it ? what is it ?" 


gjo, n. skin. Slla. (Mg. ) s°' Ex.: ^(^arn-ka gjo --- sheep's skin. 

gjo, n. doctor, sorcerer. Clb. (Pa.) 

gnabe, n. giraffe, s. gabee, !nabe. Cla. (Pa.) 

gneru, n. sheep, s. tger~u. Slid. (Arb. ) Ex.: gneru kunte, lamb. 

gnomateg, n. knee. Slid. (Arb.) gnomateng, pi. ignomateng. 

gnu, n. gnu, wildebeest, s. !nu. Slid. (Arb.) 

g'^nu, n. quiver, s. gur). Cla. (Pa.) g'nu. 

gnum, n. stone. NI. (Sei.) 

^go:, V. to do, make. Nil. (V.) g5~. 

go, ~go, V. part, denoting past, probably form of \go:, to do. Nil. (V.) go, go. Ex.: \sn ~! ! ga: na-go 
sho: her knife I found. CII. (Schi.) go. 

go:, go, v. to open, flower, n. flower, s. goa:, _goa: . NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: ka:ni go:si a go:,^3U m the 

... flowers open, people eat (them). NIa. (Leb. ) w. sp. go. Nil. (LI.) go, g6. Ex.: ! gau ti m ||e go 

tsema the grasshopper eats the small grass flowers. k"warre go: iceplant flower. NIII. (D.B.) 

Ex.: ki _go, ka _go kula, _go jnesir) kula it has flowered, and the flower is over, the flower's 

fruit is over. 

go, V. to comfort. CI. (Do.) 

go, n. large tortoise. Sllb. (Mh. ) go. 

go n. grey wild cat. Cllb. (Zuk. ) 
go, n. antbear, s, gu. CI. (Do.) 

go, and, s. 0, 0-go. Nil. (V.) go. 

goa, v: to throw one's shadow over. SI. (LI.) gg6a. Ex.: mama-gukan f^akka si a:, ti s:, |nu: Ike: ||k"oen 
1, o ||k"e: a:, i goa i |ke: ko: a:, ha ||k'^:t8n a:, hs bairl i a: — our mothers told us, that the 
invisible sorcerers behold us, at the time at which we throw our shadow over our friend, that is the 
time at which they come quickly to us. 

go:a, v. to work. Nil. (Wil.) goa. 

^90_a:, V. to be afraid. Nil. (V.) gd^. Ex.: koe e: na ti \go_a: here I am afraid. (Wil.) g^, to 

fear, cowardly. 

goa:, v. to open (the mouth), s. go:. Nil. (LI.) goa. 

goa, n. part of |e: goa, ashes. Clla. (Wil.) |e gSS. 

_goa:, n. leaf, s. go:, _||gova. NIII. (D.B.) 

goa, n. knife, spear, s. !ge:. [Na. goab.J SIV. (U. B. ) SIVa. (D.B.) 

goa, n. blanket, s._koa/a. CII., Clla. (Pa.) 

go:a, n. shoe, s. gavo:. Nil. (Wil.) goa. 

goa, n. giraffe, s. gabee, gawe. Nil. (Zuk.) (Sh. ) 

go^, yesterday, s. ! gwa. NI. (Pa.) 

go:ba, by day, warmly. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i a _|noe ka !na:, /i ka go:ba ! na we travelled by night, we 

are travelling by day. ||An a te ||ki/a ke go:ba the sun here shines warmly. 

goba, n. Makoba, Mbunda, Bantu tribes. Nil. (LI.) gSba. Ex.: biriko ! ku ti ok"wi goba |nal, ta 6 ti ok"wi 
goba the Biriko Bushmen call the Makoba |na, and we call (them) Makoba. goba^ | nwa-~me the- 


Makoba- boils- me (a bird's name). NIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: _goba ta ke _! goa t/u ! ni the Mbunda have built 

Makoba-boils-me (a bird's name). NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: _goba ta ke _! goa t/u~! ni the Mbunda have 

built a hut. 

godsu, happy. CI. (Do.) goju. 

goe:, n. round grinding stone. Sllb. (Mh. ) goe. 

~goe, n. young ewe. SI. (LI.) ggoS. Ex.: r) hal sir) |ku ka, r| sir) ! ho ki ||e ha xoa, r) sir) |xa ha, ta: 

wai ~goe ak"auki akksn ||ka ha, ha |ku e I had been thinking that I would let her mother go on, 

that I might shoot her (the daughter), for a young springbok ewe unsurpassed in beauty she was. 

goe, n. ox, s. gome. Qla. (Pa.) g6e. Ex.: goe ko, ox hide, gune goe, wagon ox, trek ox. 

goe:, n. moon. Cllb. (Sei.) goe. 

_gofila, n. cap, fez. CIII. (D.B.) 

gogogogd, n. a certain water bird. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: saako ati nina ko a hama, kwa gogogogd hama — the 
red water bird in the water sits, where the sits. 

gogoma, v. to whisper. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: \3U gogoma, \3U ok"wi t/a ! naa/i — a person whispers, (another) 
person talks very loud. 

gogori/a, n. wrist. CII. (D.B.) 
gogwa, n. bow. Nil. (Pa. ) 

_gogwasisa, n. bumble bee. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: dane /umba |kwia xaa, _go_gwasisa xaha — the honey bee is 
one kind, the bumble bee is another kind. 

goha, n. flea. CI. (Do.) 

gohandeke, v. to write. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: iko tsahoba gohandeke ta a mama — the language is written 
down by the lady. 

goho, n. cave, shelter. CI. (Do.) 

goku, n. grandfather, grandmother, right hand. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: gomeri goku ma maturu — (jiomeri (is) 
grandfather to Maturu. t/ojo goku, modza goku T/ojo (is) grandfather, Modza (is) grandmother. 

gokue, n. tinderbox. Cllb. (Wil.)gokue- 

golena, v. to fall. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 0mwa tji ||ke: ~||ka:ti, ke golena \\ke ~||ka:ti — this wood is 
of the camel thorntree, it has fallen from the camel thorntree. 

_golo, n. the mpaka tree. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: d30 ki Ugaba _golo ~tsi: ||nu — bees descend into the mpaka 
tree's hollow trunk. 

gom, V. to swallow, s. dom. Nil. (LI.) ggomm. 

_gom, V. to bray skins, s. gum. Nil. (Ek.) g9m. 

gom, V. to pull up. CI. (Do.) 

gom, V. to blow (as the wind). CI. (Do.) gofi. 

gom d3ina, n. dunfly. CI. (Do. ) gom jina. 

_gom, n. knee, usually _||gom. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi _gom my knee. 

gome, gommi, n. ox, cow, cattle, s. gume. [Na. gomab, ox] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: gome J*i t'ym — ox hide, gome- 
ma calf, gome a /i ke kolui — the oxen are coming with the wagon. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gome-nna — 

calf. 3U o |kae kau gome, gome ~tsa |kae kau people are inspanning the oxen, two oxen are inspann- 

ed. Nil. (V.) gpme. (Pa.) gome. (LI.) goifimi. Ex.: i u |u gommi kwe Ikarra put ye in the cattle to 

to the kraaK gommi ||gwasi^ — ox (hide) shoes, gommi ||go --- bull, gomma ta&i — milk. NIII. (D.B.) 
Ex.: _gomi gu — cow's milk. ! ku jkwa ki furaka _gomi Bushmen do not possess oxen. 


gon, V. to scrape together. CI. (Do. ) 

gona, n. a Tswana, usually ! gona. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: gona a Ike tobolo |ki the Tswana is carrying a gun 

gor)gor)a, n. carpenter bee. Nil. (LI.) gongona. 

gonni, v. to hunt big game. n. hunter of big game. Nil. (LI.) ggoilni. 

gor) !hui, v. to cease. Sllb. (Mh. ) gon !hui. 

goo, V. to detain, be silent, n. silence. CI. (Do.) 

go~o,n. a very tall grass, probably tambuki grass. Nil. (LI.) gdhj g6. Ex.: ta ||e |nu |ne ||a, ta e go~o, 
||ke||keja ||nwa for the grass was large, and was .... grass, like reeds. 

goothi, n. comforter. CI. (Do. ) goothi kaldho, comfort. 

Igoowah, n. (?) duiker. CI. (Sel.) 

igoraip, blacktailed tree rat, Thallomus nigricauda. Nil. (Sh. ) 'goraip. 


Igore, n. backbone, s. gorer), gurieo. CI. (Do.) 

goreka, after. CI. (Do.) 

goreri, n. back, backbone, s. gore, gurieo. CI. (Do.) goren. Ex.: goreg |kwa a joint of the backbone. 

goreg ! gaka ||kwe to bend the back, lie down. 

gori, n. a grass, Kyllinga alba, used for making necklaces. NI. (D.B.) 

goronapi, yesterday. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: goronapi ha~khate t/ate mamako — yesterday we went to fetch game. 

go~ru, n. lizard, 'gecko'. Nil. (LI.) gdr^. (Wil. ) goru. 

|go:/e, perhaps. Nil. (Wil.) g5Se. 

gothwaba, n. a plant, Baralea obtusi folia. CII. (D.B.) 

,gouru, gougoutan, n. blister. [Na. gou, to become fat.] SI. (B. ) Ex.: g |ku-g |ne sir) tare tau !koa 
! gobboksn gougoutsn I walking along trod, breaking the blisters. 

gova, n. Mbunda, a Bantu tribe, s. _goba. NIII. (D.B.) 

govi:, n. vlei. Nil. (Wil.) g6vi. 

Igu, gu:, v. to take, fetch, seize, catch, make , do. [Na. u, to take.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: hare ~! gu, gu 

! gu -— go to the water, to fetch water. gu ~tso to lift up. gu ||ko to put down. Nil. (Dk.) 

gu:, to make, do. (Vvii.) gu. (LI.) gu, ggU, giiwa. Ex.: |nabbe ti gu tammeja, |nabbe guwa tamme ka goba 

the Ovambo took Tamme, the Ovambo took Tamme from the Makoba. ! xo ti "fxi ti gu m tai sa-sig 

many elepheints took hold of my mother's sister. (V.) gi^ Ex.: _gu:-a dom seize the throat, throttle. 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAm a gu ~||gu, a ~u the sun takes the water, it rises. ! kam a gu |au the 

leopard catches a duiker. 

-gu, V. to dig, build, set (trap), lay(eggs). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: d30 !na:, ha ~!ki, ha -gu the old woman, 

she holds the stick, she digs. k"a | goru | gau, ke ma ~|ka guwa — the earth is hard, so I am not 

digging, mihi ko ~gu t/u, ka /u — I build a hut, and lie down, -gu ! gwi set a trap. Nil. (LI.) 

gii. Ex.: ha ti -gu k"a, -gu /a — she dug the ground, dug out the ... root, ha ba -gu t/u tsema, ||e 

t/u his father built a small hut, a grass hut. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: -gu tsi, ti _!kum dig a hole 

and bury. !ku _||go: Inejnesi ki ~gu — Bushmen often throw (dice), a ko tsama o gu _|nu, ta tsi — 
the bird lays an egg, then comes. 

jgu, g'^u:, V. to catch fire, burn, roast. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||e:si qu data, hi guwa gu, hi ~|ka gu — grass 
catches fire, it is burning, it is not burning. Nil. (V. ) g»u, to roast. 

^gu, V. to stink. SIVb. (St.) 


/-gu, V. to go. n. path, s. u: . Nil. (V.) gu. 

gu^ n. spoor of animals. Nil. (Wil.) Ex.: gu sin, to seek spoor. 

— gu, pi. ending to n. used for people or personified animals to indicate family or companions . [Na. — gu, \ 

masc. pi. ending. ] SI. (LI.) -ggu. Ex.: siton |ne ! kuitan r) ||kaxai whaitu-gu ||neig we returned 

to the home of my sister Whaitu and the other people. r| ||kwalr) f±, ti e, koro [houkan-gu Hkwa^r) s*?© 
oa e, hi tau||k"wi-gu , hi tau ! k'^ou: |ko-gu, hir) to:i-gu I think they seem to have been the jack- 
als' husbands, and the quaggas, and wildebeests and ostriches. 

gu, n. living things. Sllb. (Mh. ) pi. gu-kn. 

gu:, n. locust. Sllb. (Mh. ) gu. Ex.: gu kunte unwinged locust, gus | '^uhyn, stork, locust bird. 

gu, n. mouth, s. tu. Slid. (Arb. ) 

gu, n. sheep. [Na. gu:i.j SV. (D.B.) empn. guwa. Ex.: guwa ||kwe:a ||k"a — the sheep looks about. NI. 

(D. B. ) pi. gusi. Ex.: gu tsi, gusi ~fkhi a sheep this, many sheep. Nil. (LI.) sing. & pi. g^. 

(Pa.) gu. NIII. (D.B.) gu. CII. (D.B.) masc. _guba, fem. gu/a, pi. _gu, _guu. Ex.: gome ~i, byri ~i, 

_gu ~i, ko |hu ko Je cattle were there, goats were there, sheep were there, and the white man 

took them. Cla. (Pa. ) gu. 

gu, n. milk, breast, usually ku. NI. (Pa.) Nil. (LI.) gU. (V.) gu. 

gu, n. pot. NI. (Pa.) 

gu, antbear, s. go, Cllb. (Bal.) 

gubama, n. size. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: njambulu taseja, ija gubama kenaggu — the .... bird is tall, like 
the size of an ostrich. 

_gudo, n. pi. boys. SIV. (D.B.) 

gudom, n. cucumber. SIV. (D.B.) 

gue, n. blue wildebeest, s. gai . Cllb. (Zuk.) (Wil.) gue, ox. 

gue, n. porcupine. Cllb. (Zuk.) 

gui, V. to lift up, s. gu. CII. (Schi.) 

gu"i, V. to play, s. gwa, ||gwitan. CII. (Schi.) 

gui, n. spotted hyena, s. |gwi. Nil. (Zuk.) 

gui, n. large frog. CII. (Pa.) 

gui, n. leather armband. Cla. (Pa. ) 

guisi, V. to carry. Nil. (Wil.) 

guju, n. cup, gourd. CI. (Do.) gujru. 

guki, V. to pick up, s. gu, gui. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ai jako, guki jake atone — it has fallen, pick it 
up again. 

gukwaa, n. a milk skin, s. gu. CI. (Do.) 

gule, n. bark. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i u ||ale gule, ~||kar-ka gule we break the bark, the camelthorn's bark.: 

_gulu, V. to burn, usually _||gulu, s. gu, to catch fire. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ke _gulu _daa we burn 

the firewood. 

gum, gufm, v. to rub (a skin), to soften. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi "t/o, ka d3i, ka _!noe:, ka me gum ka /oa » 

I span (skin), and tan, and scrape (with a stick), and rub, and smear (with fat). Nil. (LI.) 

ggumm. €11. (D.B.) gum. 


gum, gumma, v. to threaten (with a stick), te gum, to throw. SI. (B. ) ggumma. Ex.: ta: hr) ! kwi : a: a, ha 

a: sir) gumma ha xoa for that man there, he is the one who threatened (to beat) his mother. (LI.) 

ggu^, gumma, tte ggui&n. Ex.: au ka rj karj gum: ha, har) ||kwalr) | ne fko: ku:i k"war) i kwi a: |ki ha 

tsaxairtji when I wanted to threaten him, he sprang aside like a man who has eyes. d3U te gum 

the beetle is throwing. 

gum, n. sand, s. xum/a. CII. (Pa. ) 

gum, gume, gumi. n. ox, cow, cattle, s. gome. [Na. gomab.j SII. (D.B.) Ex.: gum ~fne: k"xa many 

cattle are lowing, gum k"a se |nwa: the cow lows to her calf. SIV. (D.B.) gumi, ox, gumis |ke, cow. 

SV. (D.B.) Ex.: gume kag Ja the oxen walk. SVI. (D.^B.) Ex.: gume se _a ||ga the oxen eat grass. 

NI. (D.B.) Ex.: "gume ~di, cow. gume ma, calf. (Pa.) giime, gumi, ox. g^me disi, cow, gune gume, trek 
ox. Nil. (Dk.) gumi, beast, cattle, ox.(Vdl.) gumt. Ex.: gumi fgau, ox. gumi ||gu, milk. NIII. (D.B.) 
Ex.: gum.i,a _||gSu the ox lies down. 

guma, n. forearm. Cllb. (Wil.) 

gumu_gu:_ma, v. to whisper. Nil. (Ek. ) gumug\i:m^ 

gur|, n. quiver, s. g'^nu. Cla. (Pa.) gung. 

gur)'?a, n. pheasant. Nil. (Wil.) gun'a. 

gundameri, n. a big fly. CIII. (D.B.) 

gune, n. wagon, s. guni. [Na. gunis.]CII. (pa.) gune. Ex.: gune goe wagon ox, trek ox. NI. (Pa.) 

gune foa, wagon. 

guneho, behind, s. gurieo, gore. CI. (Do.) 

guggulu, V. to sing. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta tdka pe zi gur|gulu waka they are dancing and singing there. 

guni, n. wagon, s. kuni, gune. [ Na. gunis.] CII. (Schi.) Ex.: guni dau wagon road, guni t/u, wagon 


"■gunni, v. to hunt. Nil. (LI.) guhni. 

guno, far. CI. (Do.) 

gunt/i, n. singlestriped rat. Nil. (Sh.) 'gunchi. 

guppam, v. to spring away. SI. (LI.) giippem. Ex.: ha: ka, wai a sig dola !hou:wa ti e, ha Ba:l |ku-g |ne 

gupp8m~|lkoa Ike \\a: she thinks, that the springbok which has been sitting at this place would 

spring away to leeward. 

guri, V. to injure, mock, s. gurithi, guru. CI. (Do.) Ex.: guri-ama, to damage. 

_guri, n. year, s. kuri . [Na. gurib.J Nil. (V.) gvr"i. (Wil.) guri. 
guri-d3wa, n. tiger cat. CI. (Do.) guri-jwa. 

gurieo, backward, behind, i. guneho, gore. CI. (Do.) 

gurihe, v. to perish, s. guri. CI. (Do.) 

guriho, n. Destruction, s. guri, gurihe. CI. (Do.) : 

gurijo, n. injury, s. guri, gurihe. CI. (Do.) guriyo. 

gurinja, v. to become destroyed, s. guri, gurihe. CI. (Do.) gurinya. 

9^^^ ^llgwa, n. spinal cord, s. gore, gorer). CI. (Do.) guri n||gwa. 

gurithi, n. destroyer, mocker, s. guri. CI. (Do.) 

gulo, n. nipple, breast, s. gu, milk. Nil. (Ck.) 

guru, j;. to throw down. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ma:a |ne ko ! num, ka 3U |nwa ko:a, ka ||ga, Hkeyo ko guru ! ne, ka 
||kuwa, ka o ! gani one (ostrich) egg is laid, and a Bushman finds it, leaves it, throws down his 


arrow, and goes leaving it there. 

guru, V. to destroy, s. guri. CI. (Do.) 

gurUj V. to allow. CII. (Schi.) 

_guru, V. to build, make, s. gu, kuini. [Na. guru. '} Nil. (V.) guru. 

_guru, n. house, large hut. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: _guru ki e t/u ! ni ke e |)ka||ka — a house is a hut that is 

guru, n. a certain palm. NI. (D.B.) 

guru, interrog. what, why. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ak^nabe ma guru wa ? — his name is what ? guru ma ^ a dza 
titina ? why does he come to you ? 

_gur\ima, v. to lead (dance). CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso niggi hig |i si _guruma, si tat^ka atonen when 

the doctor clapping lead, they dance there. 

gurur)guri, n. knee, guruqguri upukwaku, ankle. CIII. (D.B.) 

gu/i, n. cap. NI. (Pa.) guschi. 

gu/ika, v. to go round. CIII. (D.B.) 

gute, n. rock elephant shrew, Elephantulus rupestris. NI. (Sh. ) 

gutlujrugutluru, n. mole or rat. CIII. (D.B.) 

gutta soa, n. wart. SI. (B. ) ggutta ssoa, pi. ggutta ssoassoa. 

gu-un, n. impala. Nil. (Zuk.) 

guva, n. Ovambo, s. goba. Nil. (Wil.) guva. 

guwe, n. time, s. guri. CI. (Do.) 

guxa, never. CII. (Schi.) 

gu:xu, n. pi. flocks (sheep, goats), s. gu. [Na. gu:i, sheep.] SI. (LI.) gguxu. Ex.: mamak"auki |ki 
gu:xu mother had no flocks. 

gAmte, now, to-day. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: gAmte /i a ||hainja ki ||nau to-day we are staying at the waterpoo] 

gwa:, v. to be loose, uncovered. SI. (LI.) gwa. Ex.: ha a:-g |ne !ku: ||k'n.: tir), o |kwammar)'?ar| a: |ku-g 
I ne gwa: ta: he was covered up fast, while |kwammar)'^a was the one who lay loose. 

gwS, V. to play, s. gui, Hgwiten. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |k"ari ko a ku gwa — the child is playing. 

gwa, n. man, s. gwai. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: gwa han ||e: ti ? where is the man ? gwa |ha husband, 

married man. 

_gwal, n. evening, s. !gwa^, ]_gwalka. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: te _gwal tsike — now it is evening, nam/e _gwaf , 
~u --- Nam/e went away (yesterday) evening. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /i re ga ||ga:, _gwal ka debi ha --- they 
will graze, in the .evening will return. 

gwa, n. Indian hemp, dagga, xxsnally ! gwa. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~u ke |ku gwa --- go and smoke dagga. 

gwagwa, n. green wasp. CII. (D.B.) 

gwai, n. man, male, husband, used also as great, entirely. SI. (B. ) gwd,i, goal, emph. gw^iya, gw^iySkfii. 
Ex.: to:i |ai:ti ka«-g |ne Ikaigan kau !kui:tsn sa au ! gau:e, au gwaija ta:e — the female ostrich re 

turns early in the morning, when the male goes. (LI.) gwSi. Ex.: ha |ne ||na hi gwai: she was alonii! 

with (her) husband. ! k?e |ku-g |ne !ka: whai : , au whaiitan |ne ||& ko;ir), whai-ta gwai: people waiisj 

for the springbok, while the springbok go lean, the male springbok, a k"auki tu:i fxda-ka toro gwai: , 

thou didst not hear the elephants' great troop, i |ku-g | ne |kalnunain ts'^a-ka er]-ka ku: gwai: --- 

we had taken the thing' s flesh entirely. j 


gwape, n. bark of tree, s. gule. CIII. (D.B. ) 

gwara, v. to be disturbed, moved, s. gwere, gweri. Nil. (LI.) guara. Ex.: ||gu ti gwara the water is 

disturbed (as when a stone is thrown into a pool). 

gwe, n. ox, cattle. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: gweba, bull, gwesa, cow. gvredsi, cattle. gwe-|kwaba, calf, dabe ko 
gweea ko !xai. Dabe is driving the cow. gwe-|kwaba ko | ga/a fu the calf eats grass. 

~gwe:, n. ankle Nil. (Dk.) gw<^:, 

gwee^ n. porcupine. CI. (Do.) Ex.: gwee ||kam porcupine quill. 

gwegwe, n. liquid. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! galxa ko gwegwe |nya e — the poison liquid is red. 

gweke, n. a woman's sister or brother, s. gwera. CI. (Do.) 

gwelug-gwelee, n. waterbuck. CI. (Bry.) gwelung-gwelee. 

gwera, n. brother-in-law, sister's husband, s. gweke. CIII. (D.B.) 

gwere, v. to stir. s. gwara, gwerri. CI. (Do.) 

gwere-ho, afterwards, gwere-|kwa, back. CI. (Do.) 

gwerri, v. to turn, move, s. gwara, gwere. SI. (LI.) gguerri. Ex.: he !kwi !kAn: kui gwerri a: |na: 

and the man turned his head a little. 

^wi, V. to touch. CI. (Do. ) Ex. : gwi t/o to touch each other, gwi t/o kakho — to have touched each 


\gwi, V. to knock down. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: namani ko Ixeii, ~kei k"oxo ko Ngwi — the Nama hunted, much 
game they knocked down. 

~gwi, n. salt. Nil. (LI.) gi^l. Ex.: m tai ! nwerre ~gwi my mother's country's salt. NIII. (D.B.) 

gwi, not. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: han gwi |ki o — she is not there. 

gwii, n. string, rope make of grass, bridle. CI. (Do.) 

gwii r) I gale, v. to burn charcoal. CI. (Do.) gwii n|gaie. 

gwija, alone, s. kwija. CI. (Do.) gwiya. 

gwim, V. to be dislocated, s. gwerri. SI. (LI.) gwirri. Ex.: har| !ku: tir), hs ha ||Ahaikui gwirri, i: 
he fell down, and his thumb was dislocated on account of it. 

_gwoba, n. light, midday. CII. (D.B.) 

gwobbu, V. to come down. SI. (LI.) gu6bbu. Ex.: ! koukan |ne kui gwobbu ~||kau sig ha ! nwa — the stone 
came down upon his foot. 

_gwofbbu, V. to swell. Nil. (LI.) guobbu. Ex.: ha zau t/a ha kwe ||gu, ta ha ti gwofbbu, ta |nu |ne ||^ — 
his wife poured water on him, and he swelled, and was large. 



The glottal fricative is much used in Bushman languages, both as initial sound, and after k, t, 
and all clicks. 

ha^ ~ha, _ha, _ha^, v. to come, go, s. ~haa. [Na. ha:, to come.] SI. (B. ) hha. Ex.: tswitswi:tsn |ne 

|ks:tan hi Ikaigan, |ne ~ha: the things call their mates to go. (LI.) ha. Ex.: ha^-ka !khweja 

k"auki ta ! ke !khe, au ~ha ta Ikaula his wind does not feel as if it waited, but comes from the 

east. SIIc. (D.B. ) Ex.: ta ti ente ~ha they running go (run away). NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ~koma~koma 3U 

o tsi kwe muje, |kAm |na kwa a, ta |a tsi _ha to-morrow people will come from Muye, the sun will 

be there (pointing), when they come. ClI. (Schi.) ha. D.B.) _hal. Ex.: kweba ko t/a, |kwi|kaiba ko 
_hal |o:re ha a man is ill, |kwi|kaiba comes to cure him. 

1 "^ 

ha:, ha:, haa, _ha, v. to eat, s. hi:, to eat, ha, ha:, food. SI. (B. ) ha. Ex.: ha ka ha |ka te'^a^ ha se 

ha: to:i eger) he thought he would kill something, that he might eat ostrich flesh. (LI.) hS, hS 

hShS'. Ex.: hi-ka ku:wa: se sa ha: — they all will come to eat. toitan jku-g |ne haha: !khe: the 

ostrich does eating stand. ha salrj se ha, hi se !ku: ha: he will come to her, that they may both 

eat. (Lich. ) haa. SIV. (D.B.) _ha, _h£ia. Ex.: a ki _ha fkha — you eat ants, i ! nara ti _haa — we 
eat porridge. 

ha, _hal, v. to be, stay, live, s. haa. [Na. ha, to be, stay.] SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kieb ka e ha, ||a:ka e ha 1 

|kieb is not here, he is at home. ! khagsn ha ~|ki ? water is where? CII. (Schi.) ha. (D.B. ) 

_hal.Ex.: namani ko /i guni/ kwe, a ko _hal, a ko !kai, a ko debi — the Nama came in wagons, stayed, 

hunted, returned home. t/ok"au taraa ra _hal a doctor I am not. hi !a: kwe tako _hal, a ko ! gwi/a 

! num in the bush (they) live and set traps. 

_^ha:l, V. to wear, put on, sling on. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwesa Ikheimea _ha:l a woman wears a big kaross. 

ko:be a /i \\ei, a ma: ei, si _ha:l a skin he buys her, gives her, she puts it on. ||gai kwesa 

! kai/a ku !kai, ! gu:J'a ku !gu:, koal/a ko _ha:l a woman ties on the apron, puts on the petticoat, 

slings on the kaross. 

ha, _hal, _ha:l, v. part, or ending probably connected, with ha, _hal^ to stay, expressing past, or a 

state. SI. (LI.) ha, ha, ha hhl^, hha. Ex.: di:-xerretaksn hal |ne~|lxa:, han kui — Di-xerretan again 
said. Igsiunu:, har] hal~oa e Ikwaltten Ikerri — !ga~unu:, he was formerly a great star. !khwai: tag 

hS": I 6a hi: !khou: ||ki e: !kui:ta the gemsbok formerly ate liquid honey which is white. Sllb. (I\1h.), 

Ex.: n ha | na 1 have seen. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mesi ha t]"a the knives are finished. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 

30/i ha ~|ni the women have sat down, eh^, mi ha ko |k"au gume yes, I have milked the cow. ihi hi i 

k"ai i t/isi, ha ~u you take the things and go. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tira |)k"wiar-ha 1 am tired. |kwi/as' 

hal uwa^ha a name it has. si/e /ana fke:xa keija^ha'-we are now only grown-up. dina f kuu-ha ?- - - who is 

roasting ? 

~ha:l, not. SI. (B. ) hha. Ex.: hin ~ha:l e ! kwi r| ! kwi r] , ||kha:r| |ku e — they are not dogs, lions they are.1i 
SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! gaue-te hal ||a roots are not here. 

ha, ha:, ha, pron. he, she, him, her, it. SI. refers to all nouns except a few which take hi, hi, in bothi 
sing. & pi. (B. ) ha emph. han, han, poss. ha, ha-ka, ha-hdr-ka. Ex.: Ik'^wa: |ku |ne !ku:xe u s'?a, au ha « 
er)er)jan |ne !ki:ja, au hag k'^uki |ne |ki |kukan, ( |kuksn e: ha sir) |ki ta: i), au harj |ne Ikattan 1 

!hou: kui k"war) ! kwi the hartebeest ran forward, while his body was red, Vihen he had no hair, 

(that hair in which he had been lying down), as he ran swinging his arm like a man. ha xa te: u ? | 

how does it lie to you ? Ik'^wa: k"auki |ki twi i:, au !s: e: |xa: ha, ta !k'?wa: ||kho:a \\e\ ha |ku:k8n | 

the hartebeest has not a wound from the people who shot it, for the hartebeest seems to have died I 

of its,elf. ! etsn [ne |kau: !kwa: ha-ka a: the people cutting break away his flesh. (LI.) h&, hd, ( 

ha, hS, emph. han, han, ha-ha, hS.-h^, poss. ha, hsU-ka, ha-ha-ka. Ex.: o u fi:, ti e:, g-r) e har-ha, u 

kola^g |ne di-a r| because you think that I am he, you are beating me. siten [ne ||nau:, o sitan ka i 

si !nau: kuitan ha-h^, sitan |ne !kuitan we did^this, when we had finished burying her, we return- j 

ed. he e:, tija-g |ne ||kau: tir| |kwalmmar)'?a i:, o ha-hS that is why the things lay on top of [ 

|kwafmmar)'?a, on account of him. ! ku ko: Ikhaukan, au har| tatti e:, ha |i: ! kurj ||a: the other one 

trembled for he felt that his heart fell aown. au han tatti e:, ha^ha-ka /o-|oa e: |ne ! koa se |ka:gan;l 

kuitan then she ieeis that her ... root is protecting the other women, ha: swerjswer) ti ! goa i, ha: 

sir) ! goa i tikantikan-ta ku: he sitting looks round, that he may look round ail places. (Lich.) haha 

he, she, it. haa-ka ts'^oir) — his goods. SII. (D.B.) ha, emph. han, hag, poss. ha, ha-ka. Ex.: ha ||a ha j 
xe:nki |na ha e:nki---he goes to his mother and his father. ||koe:n-|a:, ha |ka !ohe:, ha |lko ! 13, ha 
ykana l|ka:, ha-ka ||ka:--- the old woman, she has a digging-stick, she digs onions, she puts them into ai 
bag, her bag. ~! gou, ha sir) k"u m ebo — the dow, it is made ot wood, har) |kwa: sa:gan — he hunts the | 

eland. ||kol a ko ba:s xa seja, han [ketan 0pwoinki yesterday a Baas came, he fetched the boys. Slla. ; 

(Mg.) he, she, it, nom.& obj . , possibly they; his, her its, s . ka, ku, kwa.||gai fejen sija !kae ||kei |ha, j 


kj3 kjam l|kei|ka woif come run (to the giri , he. . . make( s) iove (to th^ girl.'.nSu ! kei ha ! ko koj^o hare 

run, he outdistance jackal. Sllb. (Mh. ) ha, he, him, his. SIIc. (D.B. ) he, it, her. Ex.: |kwe sa ha 

ma the child comes to her mother. Slid. (Wu.) he, she, his, him. Ex.: ha eku, himself. SIII. (D. 

B. ) emph. ban, har), haja. Ex.: ha an tean — he comes, ha |ewa |i she goes to the fire, har) |a: 

— he is big. han ||kxuni — he is small, han |ke'^o — it is nice. SIV. (D.B.) poss. ha, ha-ga. Ex.: 

m 0pwor) ki e |ama, ha ||uruwa my son is passing, he returns, n ||en ~u, ha ||arusa I am going to 

bring her back, ha-ga |ke ti-|kan her name is Ti-|kan. SV. (D.B.) emph. han, s. he, e, ea. Ex.: 

missis ka |ne _! nwoio kia, ha kala Missis has seen a hare here, it ran. lakai ka /a, ha ||gwe: 

0pwa: ||ki a woman comes she carries a child there, han Ji kanaita ||e ga ||ko: he shoots the 

duikerbok. M. (D.B.) emph. hai, poss. ha-ka. Ex.: ||kwe--||na tsi ko ~u a |nee ke ~u, ha ka ~tsa, Nkoma 

ko tsi ||kwe-||na has gone, alone goes, he will sleep, to-morrow will come. d30 ! na, ha ~!ki, ha ~ 

~gu the old woman, she holds (the stick), she digs, hai ~|nu he stands up. ha-ka ! kum/i 

his legs. Nil. (Dk.) conjunctive form ha, in isolated speech haihrj. (V.) hh, for persons, s. ga for 
animals and things, emph. h4xn, hiixnhn, poss. hk, h^sn. (Wil.) ha, haxen. pi. hasn. (LI.) Ex.: ha ti 

u "di he is naughty, ha ti t/u me, na ti t/u ha she blows at me, \ blow at her, xuxuri, ha ti 

k"wonni ha jkhusir) a snail, it moves its horns. ! nanni ti sir) ha ||koha !nanni is looking at 

his reflection. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ha tsun mi, au ke fnave de: when he called me , I was fiave's 

wife, ha ba ka ||ke: — his father is dead. |nemi|nemi ~de, ha ||ka:xe~de, a ||ke: — |nemi|nemi's 
mother, she is ||ka: xe~de, is dead. 

ha, ha-a:, pron. thee, thy. SI. (B. ) ha-S. Ex.: aksn k"auki |na ha-a: !kwa:gan — thou didst not see 

thy (springbok's^ legs. (LI.) ha Ex.: a ||kwar| k"auki sir) se di'^a g, au |kwa:l xa fkakka ha a: — thou 
wouldst not have beaten me, if |kwa:^hadnot told thee about it. 

ha, dem. this, that. SI. ( B. ) Ex.: ta: ha ||ka, ha a:, x) |ki|ki ta:li ha for this stick is the one which 

I took. |twa:-g |ne |ki ha kum |kwa: remembered that saying. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha koko, han xexelai 

— that cock. It crows, ha gaa — this is rain. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ka s\^ike, ha ~||go a xein, a si 

I e I era that is hurting, that shoulder is swollen, you are complaining. CI. (Do.) Ex.: ha uka 

pakela this morning. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tira |u:wa ha I do not know that. |nu kwe ko Ikol sa, 

! ana ha you kill at night, (I) know that. CIII. (D.B.) this, s. hama, that. Is declined, masc. 

hawa, haba, pi. habi: fem. hako, haku, pi. habe. Ex.: tisiuni jako hako at/e — red is this cow. 

ikombo kslako i/a hako Ikombo (is a) riverbed like this, han! ape habe waine stones these (are) 

all. haba el^ti that (is a) youth. 

ha, ha, ha:, n. horse, s. hasa. [Na. hab, has. Eng. horse.] SI. (Lich.) haa. Slle. (An.) ha, pi. haha. 

SVI. (D.B.) ha:. NI. (D.B.) ha, ha. Ex.: sa re toa re fkebi ha | nee they two are riding one horse. 

h^ tsi to, ha ma ! go: a — a horse is this, a male foal, ha ~tai — a mare. CII. (D.B.) ha:, ha:ba, 
stallion, ha:sa, mare. 

ha, n. well, spring. Nil. (Leb. ) 

ha, ha:, ha:, _ha, haa, n. food, s. a:, ha:, to eat. SI. (B. ) hf, ha. Ex.: ha /ar) |ne se ha: au-g ||neir| 

— she shall bring food to the house, ha |ke ka | ku di:ja tir] au |a:, au ha k"auki ||gaue ha: — he 

IS wont to go about fighting, while he does not seen food. (LI.) Ex.: hi-ta ha ||kwar) e their 

food (it) is. (Lich.) haa. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: si se e _ha we shall eat food. 

haa, V. to stay, s. _ha. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: se a ku haa, se ||anu we stayed, will return. 

~haa, away, s. ha, to come, go. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gaiki Qpwa ||na: ~haa the little girl runs away. 

haa, there. CI. (Do. ) 

haa, here. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a |ki ||ho, a tani haa pick up the bag, bring it here. 

haa, pron. thee, s. ha. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a se "keira se, n tia kuk"u haa — thou art old, I will not 
marry thee. 

haa'^i, s. ha:i. 

habba:ksn, v. to eat up, devour, s. ha, hsm. SI. (B. ) hd,bbaken. Ex. : ha k"auki fenna hsm-ts'^oen, ta: rj a: 

habba:ksn ts'^oer), n |ku a he does not know the devourer of things, for I who eat up things am the 


habe, v. shall. CI. (Do.) 

habe, dem. this, these, s. ha. CIII. (D.B.) 

habee, v. come here. CI. (Do.) 


habela, n. string apron. CI. (Do. ) 

hadebipi, pi. wild dogs. CIII. (D.B. ) 

hadz^, n. Bushman, name of tribe resident near Lake Eyassi, Tanganyika. CIII. (D.B.) fern, hadzako, pi. 
hadzdbe, hadzSipe. masc. pi. hadzabi, hadzdpi. Ex.: hadzako a mama — a Bushman woman is the mother. 
habe hadza, it/anepi unu — this is a Bushman, a far off person, akwitibe hadzabe akwape a elaha 
ma:ku Bushman women do not make pots, hadzdibi piepi takitavita two Bushmen are fighting. 

hagu, n. pig, s. |ho. [Na. hagub.] SI. (LI.) hagu. 

ha_gwanda, young of animals, calf. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha_gwandako hako — a heifer this. ha_gwandape — 
the young ones. 

haha, s. ho,, pron. 

haha, n. everlasting flower. Nil. (LI.) 

hai, ha^i, ha:i, interj . oh, hi, hullo. Nil. (LI.) h^i, hai, h|i. Ex.: !ka!kd,ru/e, hai !ka!kdru/e, 

ok"wi mi^ ha:i, hai, ! ka!kd.ruJ'e,ok"wi mi kwe ~t/i young moon, oh young moon, speak to me, oh, oh, 

young moon, speak to me of things, ta ha kwe, "me zau, hall, me zau, gu mi, hali" and he exclaim- 
ed, 'by woman, hi ! my woman, take hold of me, hi!" CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: haije, jehe, jehe, hai hi, 

hullo, (the chorus of a song.) 

hai, n. feather, wing, usually found in the pi. hdipi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akwa kwa hg fe hdipi he 

does not fly with wings, h^ipi sa kenarjgu feathers of the ostrich. 

hale, V. to flee. CI. (Do.) 

haie, v. to swell, s. haio. CI. (Do.) 

haie, v. to play on an instrument. CI. (Do.) 

haie, n. night. CI. (Do.) 

haie, n. sassaby. Cllb. (Bal.) 

haie, too much. CI. (Do.) 

hai:i, "haa*?!, ha:~i, v. to be w^rm,hot, s. haii, hour. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: Ilkoi hai:i the-sun is warm. 

Slla. (Dk.) ~haa'?i. (Mg. ) ha:~i. Ex.: ||'^ui kjeq ha:~i the sun is hot. 

haii, cold, s. hai:i. CI. (Do.) 

"haija, "haije, v. to talk, speak, s. ije. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n "haija i fkomaka, n "haija i |au, jhurube 

ti td "haija |au, "haije fkomaka I speak the fkomani language, I speak the |auni language, 

|hurube does not speak |auni, speaks fkomani. 

haija, no, there is no. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mako ekekelase txlamebi? haija, akwitibe — do men make pots ? 
no, women, haija ||k'^oba there is no flower. 

haijo, interj. hullo, s hai. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: haijo, |ne _||k"am ake, n sek"e — hullo, give me quickly, 
that I may drink. 

haini, little. CI. (Do.) 

haini kau, misty, foggy. CI. (Do.) 

haini |kwa !koe, eclipse of the sun. CI. (Do.) 

ha:in~ja, ha:inti, v. to be hollow, curved. SI. (B. ) hainy^, hSinti. Ex.: ha ||ka:xu e: !oa:i, hi |ku 
||kar)'?r)a, i:, har) |ku-g |ne ha:in~ja, i:, hag |ku-g |ne harinti ta:, au harj ^''a: ~ta ! gwaxu — his 
(the moon's) side is one only, it is hungry, he becomes hollow, he being hollow lies, as he lies a- 
bove in the sky. 

haio, n. tumour, swelling, s. haie. CI. (Do.) 


hai/e, hai/o, n. mantis, Empusa purpuripennis . Nil. (LI.) hdishe, haisho. 

haixa, n. Molopo river. Slla. (Dk. ) 

hai |i, in. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: _ka ki hai |i kii water is in the egg. 

hai-||um, n. name of a Bushman tribe resident near to the !ku, s. hei ||um,. Nil. (Li.) hai-||umm. Ex.: sir] 
! gu ti e hai-||um, ta ! ku ti sa sir] k"wi their name is Hai-||um, and the ! ku understand their lan- 

haja, sharp. CI. (Do.) haya. 

ha— ka, pron. s. ha. 

haka, num. four, seldom used. [Na. haga.] SII. (D.B. ) Slla. (Mg. ) SIIc. (D.B. ) 

haka^ "hakha, v. to go, bring. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sessme tsibita mo kslako mokuju^ ko "hakha ako te ts'^e 

the lion came along the river-bed, then went quite away, haka bita manana bring us meat. 

^ukuwaatibi, haka te ti /a there is no water, go and dip up. 

hakato, v. to sing, n. song. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapina hakdto ko txlemevi — this morning sang the men. 
hakd,to wako itj*e, hak^tobe piepe this is another song, two songs. 

hakinhakin, n. horse. Sla. (A-son) 

hako, here, this, s. ha. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ono hako ta dzana — I will go here. 

ham, V. to smell. CII. (Schi.) 

hamd, v. to sit. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tseti tina ako a hamdi — in trees it (bird) sits, hamd ta txlehen — 
I sit on the ground. 

hdma, hdlmana, here, this, s. ha. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ksla, ike hama |ama this (is) a stream, and 

this is a fish, hadzabebe a mu:a hama — Bushmen cut it off here, a ta |ki fimbalako hdmana ko ||ata 
e and see the arrowhead here has fallen. hd.mana tsi a guwa this is a deep place. 

_halma, n. dark, night. CIII: (D.B.) Ex.: _halma asebita t/aia mo — at night he sleeps soundly. 

hambe, n. shirt. [Afri. hemp.] NI. (Pa.) 

hambe:, nothing. Cllb. (VVil. ) hambe. 

ha:mko, here, s. hama. CII. (Schi.) hamko. 

hamt/a, interrog. where, which. CII. (Schi.) nom. hamtscha. dat. hamtscha gu. ace. hamtsoha go. 

han, har), s. pron. ha. 

hana, _hanaha, there, there is. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |k"au /uba hana, ! kore/a ~ka — a clay pot is there, 
not a wooden pot. |ka:m kwe "keise fuxwoin _hanaha on the fiat there is much food. 

hani, n. cuckoo. CI. (Do.) 

han-|a, n. gullet. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweto seme manako, kuti ku k"u, han-|a kwi nina — when he ate meat, 
in stuck in (his) throat, in the gullet. 

han-! a, n. stone, hill. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hadz^be dundu ine |ka|ka: ita pakwai dzu:a han-!a — the Bush- 
men at Dundu have a very big flat stone, han-! aba pakapa^be nabe puhuna big hills are over there. 

hao, V. to provide water for a journey. CI. (Do.) 

hao~ughao~ur|, n. feeling. SI. (LI.) hao~unhfoun. Ex.: ha |ku ||nau:, hag ki sag k"auki ||naG)pwai:, harj |ku 
||nau:, haolirihao^ir) a:, ha |ku ta:'^i a:, hag -a:, ha |ku di'^a o ti e:, ha |ku ||na he, o hag ka ts'^a a: 
sig ||xAm o ke k"wag, ti e:, ha [kweri-daksn fi:, i:, o ha ||na he: ti — he (lion) does this, although 
he is not with the game, he does this, the feeling which he feels is the one he causes at the place 
where it is, when he wishes the thing (game) may also resemble what he is thinking at this place. 

hao ||a:, n. knorhaan. Sllb. (Mh. ) hao ||a. 


hapo, here, s. ha. CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: hapo i/o |e |kste here the sun rises. 

hare, _halre, v. to fetch water, s. _ha, aire. SVI. (D.B. ) Ex.: u sa hare, u se !we: ! kha — they are 

fetching water, they have gone to the water. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: _ha^re t/a/a dama ko _ma to fetch 

water the Kafir is told. 

h^re, that, s. ha. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: h^re ko:lui — that wagon. 

~haj°u, ~haru^ far, s. ~heru. Slla. (Mg. ) h~aAi. Ex.: na r] fkai |nau g ~haAi I see marry far. SIV. 

(D.B.) Ex.: txobaku ||eja "haru — Txobaku goes far. 

has, pron. his, her, s. ha. Sllb. (Mh. ) ha-s. 

hasa, hasi, ha:si, n. horse, s. ha, ha. [Na. hab, has. Eng. horse] SII. (D.B.) Ex.: txu: ! ke so hasa — 

the master sits on the horse, hasi ||na, hasi ||ne'^a this horse, that horse. ha:n, horses. Slla. 

(Mg. ) ha:si. Ex.: r) agkje ha:si kje q ||gai — my father's horse is wolf. Sllb. (Mh. ) hasi. Ex.: hasi 
n-fo gelding. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: !e hasa |e sa ga ! kha take the horse down to the water. 

hatsape, n. leaf, s. atsape. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tseti a, hatsapepi e a tree it is, leaves they are. 

seme ta hatsapepi — I eat the leaves. 

hatsdtseja, n. shinbone. CIII. (D.B.) 

hats6, V. to nunger, n. hunger. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: olanakwe hatse a the children are hungry, kweso 

||kowa hats^, si lu:wa manaketo killed is hunger, there is plenty of meat. 

hatj*e:, v. to leave. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hat/e: ja hadzabe the Bushmen have left. 

hau:, V. to warm, s. hai:i. SI. (LI.) hhau. Ex.: ha ! hAm bu, ! gwe ! ho | i au g, | i se hau: r) — she 
first makes fire, placing the fire near me, that the fire may warm me. 

hau, V. to bring, give, s. hare. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: hau kia ! kha bring the water. 

hau, n. hippopotamus. Cllb. (Bal.) 

h'^'au, n. sable antelope. Cllb. (Bal.) 

hauikia, light, shimmering. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ka kauikia it is light. 

hauru, hauruksn, v. to throw out. Cast. SI. (B. ) haurruken. Ex.: |nakki g ||xa:r) |ki Phir) ! akka ! gaua, q 

sir) ||xa:r) haurrukan let me again take out sweet food, that I may throw out. (LI.) hauru. Ex.: 

hag |ku-g |ne hauru ! kuq ||kho ~||a: ! nui au |ai:ti he cast the thong over the woman. 

haus, n. rock elephant shrew, Elephantulus rupestris. Nlla. (Sh. ) 

hausise, afterwards. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha |na ha ||a ! ha, hausise hag a he will first go to the water, 

afterwards he will eat. 

hawu:a, v. to be tired. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g hawu:a, g k"aunki hawu:a I am tired, I am really tired. 

he:, hs:,. v. can. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: ga he: fkx'^wa: na a I can (?) speak I (to) you. 

he, V. part. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: e he sigsi ? we shall work. Slla. (Dk.) sentence formative^. Nil. used 

after imperative & interrogative. Nil. (V.) Ex.: i |a: mi he give it me, do. (LI.) he. Ex.: d3U 

tagki te ok"wi me fkum ~!ku, he let other people stop calling my son-in-law's name, xam |nu Am a, 

he ? !xo !kug a, he ? shall not the lion eat thee, hey ? the elephant kill thee, hey ? NIII. (D. 

B. ) Ex.: ||na ma ~||guwa, he sing about the rain, do. 

he, hs, hs:, pron. they, them, referring to certain nouns also it. SI. (LI.) he, he he pass, he— ka, 

he-ta. Ex.: Ik'^e e: ||na ||neig, he salg !ka: |ki|ki he, o he ka:, he fi:, he,k"auki ||a: ti e:, 

!khwa:— ka xoro ||na he the people who were at home, they would be waiting for them, while they 

would think, they had not gone to the place which the water bull was at it. ! k'^e ha: I ka sig ||nau:, 

he: ta: ha ! nwa, hs ||nau:, he: |k"e:ja he |ka:gan a: the people used to do this, when they saw his 

spoor, they did this, they talked to each other (their mates) about it. he-ka ku: ||ku||ku:ka they 

all have become fat. he-ta ?weg t'?ai:n their fat is soft, ha ka, ! gauukan e:, i: jxa: ts'^a i:, hs 

se di ku ta sirritan he wishes the poison with which we shot the buck, it should become cool. SII. 

(D.B.) Ex.: he |ko they dance. 


he, pron. he usually ha, e. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: he sa stulosi he brought a chair. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: 

||k"abi ku ||ija johannisburg, lorike ku si e |ne |nori ki _ts'?oo, he _kia |na |noli — ||k"abe has 
gone to Johannisburg, the lorry came and took him to dance, he has been taken. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: e ka 

|xa:ma, ja e t/u |ki ga |ku:m, he si karaa ke ||nai he is ill, and so is lying down, he is at home. 

ji ga !kaile a he |ke ||na — we left him at his home. 

he, hs, rel. pron. who, which. SI. (B. ) he. Ex.: i se so ko tum'^a kukummi he hi so ko f^xoa hi — we 

will sitting listen to stories, which they sitting relate (them). The relative being the object is re- 
peated at the end by hi. (LI.) he. Ex.: ! xwe :-| na:-Jo ! ke-ta !kwi-|a |ku e, he |ku e: ! kwe ||a: ! ke 

the early race's girl it was who looked towards the people. SIX. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ka [na !go:, he kia 

he sees the man who sleeps. ! nunasi ha ! ke ||na ! koroke he ki _(xoa the arrowhead stands on 

the shaft which has poison. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: a r)a: r|!koa he-||k"xa ~a I (am) (a) man who precedes 

you. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: d3U tanki, he e ha fkumma, n!ko tumua — another person, who is his father-in- 
law, sits near . 

he, he, dem. this, that, these, those, s. ha. SI. (B. ) he, he. Ex.: he !kwar)!kvfar) hig e: a a: hAm 

ts'^oer), akan |ne sag kolkolnna ke hi these pots, they are those which thou who devourest things, 

thou earnest to swallow them from me. g |ku u hd ti I arose from this place, hir) !ku!ku:xe ! kei 

tig ||a: h.6: ti — they went running to that place. The phrase he ti hir) e:, or he ti hir) |ku e:, 
this thing it is, or these things they are, is used as therefore, then, that being so, this is why. 
It is often shortened to he tiksn e:. Ex.:. han tatti ha |ku-g |ne !kwi, he ti hir) e:, ha |ku-g |ne 

|kan|kan au !ku!ku he felt that he was a man, therefore he stepped along with his shoes. (LI.) he, 

he. Ex.: hag jhag toi |ai:ti, he ti hig e:, ha: |ku Ikwai: |hag /o, i: — he marries a female os 
trich, therefore he is once married. ! khwai : tag ha: I oa hi: !khou: ||ki e ! kuita, he tiksn e:, ha 

Ikniita i the gemsbok formerly ate liquid honey which is white, that is why he is white. In the 

last two examples the i: at the end refers back to the he ti, he tikan, these things, meaning on ac- 
count of them. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: g |hu kwite he e — my master is that. CIII. (D.B.) he e, there, he 
ena, here, hither, he nana, away. Ex.: dzeremani aka t/i atonen ! unguwe, aka b^ kwa he e — the Ger- 
mans caught the Masai again, and kept them there, he ena ja _dza he is coming here. ha~kha e he 

nana haku su seme — (he) went away with it to eat. 

he, he^and, then, that. The phrase he e:, those which, is also used as then, and then, he ko, he tau, 
are used as and, they and, joining nouns. SI. (B. ) he. Ex.: [kaggan ku:i, hag |k"e:, "a xa fna^mmeg 
au g fnafmmeg ?" he fxoa 0pwa ku:i, "kur^rlu", he |kaggsn ku:i, "|ne toa, ts'^akan a:, g-ka !kwa: 
k"aukika |kwe: da a:, he n k"auki turn akkan" --- the Mantis spoke, he called out, "art thou eating 
as I am eating ?" and the little elephant said, 'kurru", then the Mantis said, "listen, what is the 
matter, my child does not usually speak so, that I do not hear nicely ". (LI.) he. Ex.: he, he |auwi 
ti e:, !khwa: bailtja sa:, he, he kukuitan jk"e: — then they see that the rain lightning comes, 

and they speak to one another, ha-ka !kukan!kuka |ne ||a ha a:^ he tau ||khwai:, he ko ! nwig his 

shoes came after him, and the quiver, and the kaross. 

he, n. sassaby, s. haie. Cllb. (Bal.) 

he, so, thus. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |no:ane ko kuru tama, !au: ||kuko khama, a jo sesej" jkwisa he — war they 
did not make, they were afraid of them, and only worked so. 

hee, V. to make, work, s. hethi. CI. (Do.) 

hee, n. war. CI. (Do. ) 

ha'^a, no. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: ||kai | "^a kja ha'^'a — girl say no. 

y IS there, 
hei, n. silver jackal. Nil. (Zuk. ) 

hei-||um, CII. name of a tribe living near Ovamboland, s. hai-||um. [Na. heib, bush. ||om, to sleep, bush- 
sleepers.] CII. (D.B.) 

heja, here, s. he. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwin heja olanakwe idibake suck here the children milk. 

helape, n. money. QII. (D.B.) 

hem:, hAm:, v. to devour, consume, s. ha, habba:kan. SI. (B. ) hamm. Ex.: ||khwai-hem: |ne fkakkan, ti e:, 


Ikaggsn |nu doa de ? ha a: !kwi:ja ha, ha a: hiun: ts'^oer) — ||khwai-hem: ( monster, perhaps quiver-de 
vourer) said, where is the Mantis ? he who called him who devours things (or is the devourer of 

things). (Li.) he^.Ex. : hag karj |k"e:, ha ~kau:wa ||kwonna se hsm: ! k'?e he says, he wishes that 

the heat would consume the people. 

hema, v. to call. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: hema unu ku dza call the person to come. 

hempe, hempi, hein~si, n. shirt. [Afr. hemp. J Slla. (Mg. ) hem si. SV. (D.B.) hempi. Cla. (Pa.) hempe. 

hanir), n. honey. [Afr. heuning.JSII. (D.B.) 

heri !nu:ba, v. is dead. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tibitibi heri !nu:ba, o mokopo, xatia, heri gese !nu:ba — 
Tibitibi is dead, old Mokopo, the Khatia, is also dead. 

harri:, hsrri, v. to push, s. herru. SI. (B. ) herrt. Ex.: g |ne |ki ! kuq |e: ||ka a:, r) |ne hsrri: ho ||e 

ha, ha^g |ne gigsrrita u ||e I put in a stick under her (ostrich), I pushed her off (the nest), sh 

rolled off. (Li.) hherri. Ex.: tikan |kuk"war), !kwi a: herri tattan, ||kau: jkAJii ha o si — it seemed 
as if a person had pushed him down upon us. 

h^rribi, v. to help. [Ned. helpen. Afr. hulp.] SI. (LI.) herribi, herribe. Ex.: ha salr] di ||kha:l, o 
Ik'^eja xa ! kdttsn ta: ha a: ha ! khaua, he tiksn e:, ! k'^e se o:ruko herrebi ha, i:, ha ! kheiua se te:nj 

ha: a: he would become a lion if people did not singing make his vertebral artery lie down, there 

fore people must quickly help him, that his vertebral artery may lie down for him. 

herru, LitruhAru, v. to throw, s. hauru, harri : . SI. (B. ) haruharu. Ex.: hei-g |ne !khwi!khwi tir) to:i-ta 
Ikuitan, ha-g |ne te:n si territanterritsn ~i:, ha |ku |kaminir) |kAm hi au ha ts'?i:r)xu, ha |ku |kammir| 

ti |kAm ||e Ikuitan au |kubbi:, ha se hXruhAru |ki |e: ! kuitan au |kubbi: he (hyena) lies on his 

back on the ostrich eggs, he lies rolling there, he carries bringing them on his back, he brings the 
eggs to the thick bushes, that he may throwing put the eggs into the thick bushes. (LI.) herru, 
h|rru. Ex.: hig |ku ~|ku akkan t/weg-ta Ikwagan, au hir) k"auki herru-i i: — they (the Bushmen) put 
the things' bones nicely aside, while they do not throw them about. ||hof~etan hsrru ki ||khoe !hau:-ka 
ti ko: the black crow threw down the other part of the thong. 

~heru, he~ru, far, s. ~haru. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) ||r) ~heru ||na — my house is far. | gwa xu he~ru ||a: ||r) 
the child has gone far (to its) home. 

heru, V. finished, sometimes pronounced hulu in song. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hdma ganina hi, h^ heru, heru ba 
/a or hulu ba /a here the Germans are, finished, finished and gone. 

hethi, n. worker, s. hee. CI. (Do.) 

hef^i, n. meat. Slla. (Ot. ) 

hi:, V. to eat, feed, w. ha, a. SI. (B. ) hi. Ex.: hag hi: kerru-ka ! kaukan — he eats young bushes. (LI 
(LI.) hf". Ex.: hig |ne |kaiikan hi: hi they cutting feed themselves. 

~hi, ~hii, V. to do, cause, s. hiama, hie. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tare koko ||kug kwena ~hi, ako ||neid3i byri 

taa so the old people did, and told the others, ykai/a m ko ||nare a ko ~hii tu/ ti /a he 

shakes his feet, and causes rain to come. 

hi:, hi, pron. us, the dat. & obj . of the incl. form of we, i. SI. (B. ) hi, our, hl^. Ex.: i ta ! haul i 

|ka:gan, au hig k"auki ||kou ||koa hi: |a: we visit our fellows, when they do not put upon us the ; 

fight, itan k"auki |na hi:-a: !kwa:gan — we did not see our bones. (LI.) hi, hi, hi. Ex.: akan tuko* 
se |ks|kAm se Ghokan, a se ||khou "jkuita ~hi ||neig --- thou shalt bring bushes, thou shalt cover in , 
for us the house, ha ka |ku 4 hi, i di ku ta Gpwoin he is used to cause us to become sleepy. ■ 

hi, hi, pron. they, them, and referring to certain nouns it s. ha, he. SI. (B. ) hi, hf, emph. hin, poss.y 
hi-S". Ex.: Ikoiggu tatti e:, hi ta so ko ! kweiltan! kweiltan au ! gei e: !khe — the old people felt 

that they sat chatting on the sheep which stood, hi ba |ne fenna they do not know, ha oakan ^kakbij 

hi — her father said to them (children), he ti, hi tag e, Ik'^wa: k"auki jki twi i:, au !e: e: jxa: j 

this thing, it seems to be (it seems that) the hartebeest has not a wound from the people who shcj 

it. he ti hig e:, hig |ne !aukan-i hi |ka:gan, i:, au hig tatti, hi-ka ku: ||kwag e: !kwa: — there- 
fore (these things they are), they were beating each other (their mates), because they felt they all i] 

_were angry, hig k" auki |na hi-a: !kwa:gan they did not see their bones. |kaggan-ka egjag fhaufhi 

||k"e:, hig ku:i fwafwa au |kagqan l|k'K3e --- the flesh of the Mantis sprang together, it Quickly jo]] 
ed itself to the Mantis' back. (LI.) hi, hi, hin, poss. hi-tS. Ex.: hi se-g | ne ||gerre !nwa: they willl 
feather the arrows, hsr-g |na: ka |ku mail-i, hi |hig ||e, au ha eijegja: |ku Hrlu: ||na his head is ■ 

60 i 

wont to be first, it comes out, while his body is behind there, hi— ta ha ||kwafr) e their food it is 

r) !koir) ||kwa?r) e: sa:, ta:, hi e: ta jkwe, hi |ki fhafrri-he — my grandfather is coming, for he is 
wont to carry a feather-brush, i ta-g |ne fkakka i |ka:gsn, ti e:, Ikauka: ||koa |na: t/wer|, hig e:, hi 

|ne !kwa:g we say to each other, that the children appear to have seen things, hence they beckon. 

(hirj e: refers back to ti e:, the thing is, it is.) NI. (D. B. ) occasional form for it>they. Ex.: 5U a 

gu 50:, ka \/e ka ~tsi tane hi people get honey, and come home carrying it. gome ~tsa (kaekau, re 

o hi ~tsi sin ||ga: two oxen are inspanned, and they are waiting. Nil. (LI.) Ex. : da ||ke, hi ||ke 

— the fire burns, it burns. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: a ! ku ki tjo:, a |kum hi, ki tjo:, — people tattooed, 
cut them and tattooed. 

hi, dem. that, here. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: hi |i e ||k" wi, n |ka ka ||goara fkwi ts'^o that fire is out, I 

will light it, to roast tsama seeds. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hi t/iatosa, hi tl'^ako here it is slit, 

here cut. dondu hi ina Dondu is up here. 

hi, with. SI. (B. ) Ex.: |ka:g3n e: !ku:, hir) |ne te:r| ||nair), |aiti ko:gsn ||xam tae hi ha -- two wives lie 

at the nest, another wife also goes with him. (LI.) Ex.: !ko: te:n-a ||a: hi |kwal |kwaHtan the 

Milky Way lying goes with the stars, hi tau is used as and. he ha !kwi: ||khwai:, 1, ||khwai: se ! gauuka, 
hi tau ! kukan ! krukan and he called the quiver, the quiver should follow and the shoes. 

hi, in, and, s. he. CII. (Schi.) 

hi, n. vulture. CI. (Do.) 

hi, n. plant, wood, s. hii. [Na. heib, heis.Q CII. (D.B.) The masc. form hiba, hime, indicates a tall 

tree, a stick or pole, the fern, form hija, indicates a round bush or plant, pi. masc. hidgi, fen. hiji. 
Ex.: hi !a:kwe tako _ha, ako ! gwi/a ! num m the bush they stayed, and set traps, hiba ti ko kura 

— the stick I made, /oroba ko !aba him kwe — the legavaan climbs up the tree. =fnu hi/ "kaukwe 
kweba sits among the bushes a man. hid3i xumj" kwe t/a dig (plant) the sticks into the ground. 

hiama, v. to serve, s. hi, hie. CI. (Do.) 

hiba, hid3i, s. hi. plant. 

hie, V. to do, s. hi, hiama. CI. (Do.) 

hie, n. the open country, the veld, s. hi, plant. CI. (Do.) . 

hie t/o,n. Mosarwa, Bushman, s. hie, veld, t/o, person, pi. hie t/ware. CI. (Do.) hie cho, hie chware. 

Ex.: hie t/o kwio — the Sesarwa language, hie t/ware ere kwa | gamee ka g ||khai Bushmen shoot 

with bows. 

hi, hafhal, name of a game, "guess which hand". Slla. (Lk. ) 

hii, n. tree, medicine, s. hi, hie. [Na. heib, heis.] CI. (Do. ) Shortened to hi in the phrases hi |kwa, 
bush, shrub, hi ||kau, to cut down a tree. 

hime, s. hi, plant. 


,hin, n. steenbok. Nil. (Zuk.) 

hir), pron. s. hi. 

hin, hn, pron. they. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hin ||o/e wa ||neir) — they sit by the house. 

jhina, dem. there, s. hi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hina unu seme — there a man eats. 

hindmepe, n. tomatoes. CIII. (D.B.) 

hine, dem. this, hine e, that. Slid. (Wu.) 

hipe, n. axe. CI. (Do. ) 

hi/epe, n. leaves, s. hi, plant. CIII. (D.B.) 

tiise/a, hi/e, hi/e/a, n. a supernatural being, probably a spirit of the bush, s. hi, plant. [Na. Heitsi 
Eibib. I CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tira mu: tama hise/a I have never seen Hise/a. 


hisi, n. bullroarer. CII. (D.B. ) 

hi:tan, v. to look at, peep. SI. (B. ) hitfn. Ex.: hig hirtsn i ||nair) they looked at the house. 

hitsi, n. storm, lightning. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso sa d.ti, so taija hitsi tl'^ehena --- when comes the 
rain, then say lightning falls. 

hi ||k''*owa, n. wooden arrow for shooting birds, s. hi. QII. (D.B.) 

hm, pron. we, rarely used. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: hm ~! kou | k'^a jantje ka ! num we three give stones to 


hm, pretty, s. |hom-a. Nil. (Leb. ) 

hma, n. head. CI. (Do. ) 

hmee^ v. to smell, hm tswi, to smell anything. CI. (Do.) 

hr), V. to see, know, s. sir). NIII. (D.B..) Ex.: ma ki hrj kwevi, kwelei ma ki hr) — I know (have seen) the 
Kwevi, the Kwelei I know. 

hn, V. part, completed action. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ohekia hn |ko: ha |na n 0ho: !ne:i — the lion carried 
him to a big tree. 

hr), hn, v. part, expressing future or then. s. hasn. Nil. (LI.) hn. Ex.: ! kur] ||ke||ke hr) debbi, hr) |kua 

||ke ara the dead Bushman shall return, shall not die outright. d3U e ma txa jjke ara, |na a |koa, 

k"aru~|kwi, jkoa a |e, hr) Am the person thou didst shoot is quite dead, do thou cleanse (thyself) 

seek ... fruit, cleanse thy body, then eat. NIII, (D.B.) Ex.: ! nai ka _gu ! ku, ka ! koa ~u, ka hq ~m 

the lion catches the man, runs away, and then eats (him), a gu !nai, a hn da na ha t/u (he) 

took the lion and then carried it home. 

hr):, dem. that. SI. (B. ) hhM. Ex.: hg: ! kwi a: a, a: sir) gumma ha xoa that man who is here, he is 

the one who had beaten his mother. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||xe: ||a:r)en ! ''u, hn lna:ke two arrows, that 

one is big. 

hn, hr), pron. they, their, also pi. ending of nouns, s. hi, hig. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: hn ||na hn eigki 

they stay with their father. | gwahr) ||nei, hr) ~||a ||r) ~a children many, they run to that hut. Slla. 

(Mg. ) Ex.: a hr) ||ga l|kei|ka --- they go to the girl. Slid. (Wu. ) hn. Ex. : hn ku they all. SIII. 

(D.B.) Ex.: hn ! kokn 0ho:si they stand by the tree. 

hr)-a, dem. here. s. hq. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: !kogan kwa hg-a — sit nearer here. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gova 5.7,0 
||ka||kale hr)-a an Mbunda man came here. 

hn-|'?an, n. black beetle. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: hn-|'?an ga |a the black beetle is dead. 

hn-||uwa:ko, n. ghost, spirit, s. ||u:wako. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ||ia mo unu, hn-||uwa:ko hamana — dies a 
man, the spirit is here. 

ho, hoa, V. to take, lift, pick, up, s. hor)l. When used after another v. expresses up, off, away. SI. (B. ) 
ho, hho, ho, ho, h6a. Ex. : ha se ho: | "^hau, ha se mar) te ha — he will take up the bow, he will put 
it under his arm. ||khwaitsn ||kwar) ~|ke:, jkaggan kar) ~ho: ha — the quiver is yonder, the Mantis 

lifts it. i |ku safr) |a ho Ik'^wa: a: a we came and cut up this hartebeest. fxoa tuko dofa a: hoa 

ka !kwa: the elephant really must be the one who took away from me the child. (LI.) h6, hho, hho, 

h6&. Ex.: Ik'^e ||koa:ksn sir) |ne |a|a !khau: — the people must really cut off honey, whaiitan |ne 

tafi ||kau hoa !kwa: ||ki e: |ka:f the springbok walk, passing over the rain liquid which is wet. 

ho-0pwa, tau-ho, names for the little springbok which was carried off by elephants. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: 

tsi a ho ti ~|ko we get some honey, o misis ka kxu ho |kam-||ari Old Missis fetched away 

|kam-||ari. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 3u: ho te 0moi throw off the wood, howa ||kum take the berries. SVI. 

(D.B.) Ex.: ho ||kwa-ga ||numko --- bring ... bulbs. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ho /u/u ^-- lift the lungs, 

ho, ho:, hoa, howa, v. to find, meet, get, put on, marry, beget, bear. [Na. ho, to find, get, bear.] NI. 

(D.B.) Ex.: gwaf karima o ho: t/i this evening (I) shall find something. 3usa k"ai "tsisi re o 

ho:wa, 3U |nwa he Jum ara |kwa ho:a medicine men come to meet him, Bushmen who are simple do not 

meet him. m ba tsi, a hoa tsike my father came and married here, dama ! goma ho ||wama a boy 

puts on a round apron. Nil. (Dk.) ho:, find, get. (V.) h8, get, find, CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma: m ko ||khwij 
num ko tas kwesa Je:, a ko jkwani ho sees he (her) childless, then another woman takes, and child- 

62 ! 

ren begets, si |kwa naman !o:kwe ho tama we did not bear (children) to the Nama. 

shof, vho, V. to sprout, come up. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: fuxwoine >hot, kas ko dauwa — food sprouts, where it 
is burned, tuwa ko \ho, a ko tu, |neba ka tu — rain comes up, it rains, there it rains. 

ho:, V. to know. CU. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kur) kwe ||kwa ho: tama — the old people did not know. 

ho, n. wild dog. Nil. (Zuk.) 

ho, nothing, ho ||ke, to reject. CI. (Do. ) 

hoa, V. s . ho . 

hoa, n. antbear. Nil. (Zuk.) 

hoara, n. crow. CII. (Schi.) 

hoba, n. husband, changes to horn. s. ho, ho/a. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ti hoba ko waxa kuru my husband made 

them all. si se hom kwe /e ko debi a _hal we to our husband returning came. 

hoe, V. to say. Sla. (Mg. ) Ex.: a ||kosi hoe gau'^a ha gasi kx'^u — (I) shall not way(?) the thing which 
(I) shall do. 

hde, V. call to come or wait. Nil. (V.) hpe. 

h6ese, all, s. sasi, we/s/s. Nil. (V.) h9es^. 

holhola, V. to tremble. SI. (LI.) hhohhoa. Ex.: !k'?au e:, r) ta:l i ||khou !khe hi, hir) tuko di kui tS 
hofhofa the ground on which I am walking really seems to tremble. 

hoNhori, n. youths, s. ho. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: hoNhori ~tsa o ma — two youths are wrestling. ■ ".i 

ho its |hwe, still. CI. (Do.) 

~hoke, n. skirt. SII. (D.B.) 

hola, V. to thresh. CI. (Do.) 

holai, n. aloe tree, a big one. CIII. (D.B.) 

hom, V. to stir, s. _hof~ni, ho~ri. CIII. (D.B.) 

hom, V. to help, support, s. homa. CI. (Do.) 

hom, s. hoba. 

ho:m, n. lion, s. hum. CI. (Do.) hom. 

hom, n. sand. CI. (Do. ) 

hom, n. carrots. CI. (Do.) 

hom, upon, on below. CI. (Do. ) 

homa, n. help, homathi, helper, s. hom. CI. (Do.) 

hom t/ai, n. smallpox. CI. (Do.) hom chai. 

ho^q, V. to hoist up (with the shoulders), s. ho, huSq. SI. (B. ) hhdri. Ex.: !k'?wa:-g |nar) ||ko:e, '.kwaq 
hoSrj hi the hartebeest head slips down, the child hoists it up (with the shoulders). 

hor), V. to blow from, come from. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: khwe hog ~|nuu the wind blows from the south, khwe 

hor) ki~i the wind comes from this side. 

honda, v. to carry off, marry. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _l|go ki a gu daba dema, ki "honda — a man takes a 
young girl, carries her off. 


_hoe~ni, V. to stir, s. hom, hori. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: /u/ kwe fuxwoine toxo^ ko _hof ni /o:m kwe --- into ; 
a pot put food, stir with a spoon. 

hoo, n. evil. (3. (Do.) ^H| 

-holoho:lo, V. to provoke. SI. (LI.) h^^h^j'. Ex.: "Ilkhaf |ki e ts^^a a: "hofoho: lo, har) ||gaufeja hi |a: TT* 

a lion is a thing which provokes, it seeks a fight from us. ' 

hoo tsiri, n. fun, mirth. CI. (Do. ) 



hora, over yonder, s. her~u. CI. (Do.) 

horakwe, n. pigs. [Na. hagub.] CI. (Do.) 

hore, n. viei, pan, marsh. CI. (Do.) 

horehe, v. to scratch, s. ho~ri. CI. (Do.) 

ho~ri, V. to stir, s. hom, _hof~ni, horehe. SII. (D.B.) 

horo, V. to awaken, s. ho. SI. (LI.) hhdro. 

\horo, n. legband, armband, generally of leather. CII. (D.B.) 

horoko, n. a certain bone. SI. (LI.) hhdroko. 

horrokan, ^horrukan, horruka:, n. eggshell. SI. (B. ) hhorrokfn, hhSrruk^n, hhcJrrukS, enph. hhorrukakfn, 
pi. hhorohoro. Ex.: ha ee |kAm ! aui 8pwa a: ferri, ha se ! ham: |ku surru |higja, ha ee ! gwa: |kum 

ha^ka horrokan he will first take a little egg, he will first drink it out, he will break with 

his fist its eggshell. hir| |ne xo: u:i ha-ka horrukan, au i tatti e, horruka: |ku e: — they throw 
away the eggshell, for we feel that an eggshell it is. hdrohoro e: !u: two eggshells. 

horwa, v. to arrive. CI. (Do. ) 

ho:/a, n. wife, s. ho, hoba. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: huitiba-ti ho:/a ko ! nu~/a kuru, a ko | geri /i — Huitib' 
wife has built a hut and thatched it. 

hotsa, V. to stop (?) CIII. (D.B.) 

hou:, n. heat, s. hai : i . SI. (LI.) hh5u. Ex.: u e ||nwa:fe !hou;, ! hou sek"auki ~bu |e:, xwa: ||khoe sir) ; 

|i, au I i— ta hou: you drive away the locusts, that the locusts may not burn up, fall into the firejl 

on account of the fire's heat. I 

houitan-hou:itan, n. rush of storm. SI. (LI.) hhduiten-hhouiten. Ex.: !khwa:-ka houitan-hou:it9n |no |nl!: 
ha ? had the rush of the storm reached her ? 

hour), V. to perceive, be aware of, s. ho~ui3ho~ur) , SI. (LI.) hhoun. Ex.: !9i:xa |ku ||nau:, har) |ku ©pwoig 
l|na, ha |ku !khou:, ti e: di tiqja he: ti, he-ka ||xaukan |kw'?ai^, ha |ku hour) he, o he: ti, o ha [nunu 

a sorcerer does this, he sleeps there, he smells what has been happening there, the scent of the 

blood, he perceives it there with his nose. 

hc5ur)houg n. presentiment, s. hour). SI. (LI.) hhoun-hhouii. Ex.: holirjhour) kie: ts'^a a:, i t&: , ti s: 

he di tiqja ti e: |xarra a presentiment is a thing which we feel, when something ishappening atanotheii 


hourukan, s. haurukan. 

hu, V. to marry, s. ho. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hu une ja go/aqgiri a married man is No/aggiri. hu 

unijakD sokiko, okoku makanjaqge a married woman is Sokiko, wife of Makanjarjge. j 

hu:, ~hu:, pron. you, pi. dat. & voc; pass, hu-a s. nom. u. SI. (B. ) hu, hu-S. Ex.: r| sag ! kwagga te:nJ8 
hu: au wai:-ta !kwa:gan, u sag |ku s'^a: |olg hi --- I will pick up about for you of the spripgboks' 

bones, you shall eat out (the marrow) of them, hu-a: !kwa:gan your (springbok) bones. (LI.) hu, 

hhu. Ex.: ||xa 0pwa tuko sa: ||k" o:ka "hu --- little sister truly comes gathering wood for you. 
Ikauruwo haS |ne kui, "~hu: ~we, jkakka koa:t te: |ka: tj"weg e: , ha sig ! ham |ki ||a:, i: ?" --- 
IkauruwO said, "o you, where has the Mantis left the things he took away before ?" 

hu, pron. they, usually u. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.. hu oas Ikauti--- they are sitting around. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: hu 
ku ||ke: they are three. 



hu, n. spotted hyena. Cllb. (Zuk. ) (Wil.) hu. 

hua^ this. SI. (Lich. ) Ex.: hua |koar) fau teteina this man is not good. 

huaJcho, n. permission CI. (Do. ) 

hu:e:, hue:e-na v. to come, used also as to. Nil. (Wil.) hu§, hue-na, hije. 

hue:, s. huwa, huwe. 

hurgan, upright, erect, s. ho. SI. (Li.) hhugen. Ex.: ha hal |ne !khe: hu:gsn |hir) she stood erect. 

huhuna, v. to make boil. [Tsw. ] CI. (Do.) 

hu:i, V. to help, s. ho, heribe. SI. (LI.) hhui. Ex.: r) ||kwafr) se ||nau:, o ka ki sa: ||k"oen, ti e:, ! kwi 

ta:, ha jkukan a:, g k"auki se hu:i ja I will do this, even if I come and see that a person lies 

on the point of death, I will not help him. 

hui, n. aardwolf. Nil. (Zuk.) 

hui, n. anteater. Nil. (Zuk.) (Wil.) 
hui, n. ear. Nil. (Leb. ) 
huilola, n. hare (?) CIII. (D.B.) 

huisi, all. Nil. (Wil.) 

hukkan, v. to load heavily. SI. (B. ) hhukken. Ex.: ha ||kwar| |ne hukkan xa kau ta:e — he is heavily 
laden and walks. 

hukwa, hurkwa, v. to get up, go out, take off, s. ho. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: teketapi unubi piebi, i/a mo, atu 
hukwa — two men fight, one falls and gets up. aijako mu:a akweteja, ! urjguwe tamo hurkwa, keta i ||ka 
the mother cuts the child (on the finger) with a string thus, takes it away, it falls. 

hum, n. lion, s. hom. Cllb. (Bal.) 

huma, yes. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: huma, oo wako yes, that is so. 

hutg, t;. to lift with the shoulders, s. hofr). SI. (B.) hhun. Ex.: |kakka hufr) !khe, au jkakka hufr) |ki 
|e: ||khwai: |k"a au ha ||ku |na: — the Mantis stood lifting (shrugging his shoulders), as the Mantis 
lifting put the quiver string over his shoulder. 

hunda, n. gunpowder. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a _||wa vindele ke hunda sell to the white "man for gunpowder. 

hunikje, all. Slla. (Mg. ) hunice. Ex.: hunikje ||koroke — all the nails. 

hunkeri, hunkerug, n. fowls. [Afri. hoonders.] SII. (D.B.) hunkerurj. NI. (D.B.) hunkeri. 

huo, V. to approach. CI. (Do. ) 

hurru-twiitsn, hurru-si-tu turrit an, n. name of a black bird with white on the head which inhabits a small 
hole, also special name of the anteater in folklore. SI. (LI.) hurru-ttwiten, hhurru-ssi-ttu-tturritfn, 

hut-si, n. hat. [Afr. hoed.] Slla. (Mg. ) 

hutsit/a, V. to wash. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hutsit/a mo nina atebi — he washes in water. 

huu, V. to leave, s. xho, hwe. CI. (Do.) 

huu, n. thing. CI. (Do. ) 

huuna, over there. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dzeremani aka t/i atonen lunguwe, aka bekwa he'^'e huuna — the Ger- 
mans caught the Masai, and kept them over there. 

Nhuwa,, huwe, _hue, n. spirit or demi-god, s. uwe. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: xhuwa ko kuru 3U Huwa makes people. 

Nil. (V.) hi^we, if spoken quickly h\ie. (Wil.) hue, good spirit. (LI.) hu-we. Ex.: dsu ti taba t/i e 

fkhija, e ti ok" wi ha !ku kwe hu-we, , e ti ok"ffi ha !ku kwe |xwe a person who works many things, 

we call his name by that of huwe, we call his name by that of |xwe. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku t/u a ts'^a, 


huwe |ne ||ka||ka people lie and sleep, Huwe is big (appears so in their sleep). 

huwe, huwi, v. to be born, s. ho, hu. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: m !ha: huwe — my son is born. 

hwe, V. to fear, be afraid of, s. hwee. CI. (Do.) 

hwe, V. to leave, s. huu, hwe. CI. (Do.) 

hwe, n. a race, s. hwee. CI. (Do.) 

hweaha, pregnant. CI. (Do.) 

hwee, V. to be surprised. CI. (Do.) 

hwee, V. to squeeze out pus. CI. (Do.) 

hwee, V. to escape, run, fly from, s. hwe, hwehwe, hwethi. CI. (Do.) 

hwee, n. fear, s. hwe, to fear. CI. (Efo.) 

hwehe, white. CI. (Do.) 

hwehwe, v. to outrun, be before, s. hwe, hwee, hwethi. 

hweitan, i;. to mix in, stir, s. hom, hoini, hori. SI. (B. ) hhweiten. Ex.: hig |ne hweitan ||k6ite hi 
ikhwei ||ki au ||X6: they mix in their breast-milk to the 'Bushman rice'. 

hwere, n. a muddy pool. CI. (Do.) 

hwerehe, v. to scratch. CI. (Do.) 

hwethi, n. fugitive, s. hwee, hwehwe. CI. (Do.) 
hwe ! gwa, n. chalk, lime s. hwehe, white. CI. (Do.) 

hwe ^hoa, n. roan antelope. CI. (Do.) 

hwi, good, well. CI. (Do.) 

hwi |ka, evening. CI. (Do.) 

hwi |kwa, about dark. CI. (Efe. ) 

This vowel occurs in Bushmen both short and long, but not very frequently as an initial sound. 

In his work "An Outline of fkomani Bushman Phonetics" on p. 62 Doke writes: "The i- phoneme: 
This may be described as the front close vowel phoneme, and is variously heard with different speakers, 
and with the same speaker on different occasions as i (front close) or as e (front half-close). This vow- 
el occurs short. When long two phonemes are found, viz, ii, and ei, dipthongs. " 

Of the sound in !ku, he writes on p. 132 of "An Outline of the Phonetics of the Language of the 
^hy: Bushmen of North-West Kalahari" as follows: "i. Front Close Vowel. The tongue position in the pronun 


elation of this vowel is fairly high, but not as high as for Cardinal No. 1. In ^hu: the vowel is 
pure, and is found both short and long. " 

i, V. to be, s. e, a. SIIb.(Mh.) 'i. to be, sign of the present. SIV. (D.B. )Ex. : ha i ||'?wi he is small. 

!wara ki i, a sn ||An ki ke e — a girl it is, whose hut is here. CII. (D.B.) Ex. : |kwim |huba ~i, 

|kwim ~! go-dama ~i, t/ara ko ^haf one a European was, one a Klipkafir was, both came. ka:si i, 

him-tis ka:si i a box (it) is, a wooden box (it) is. keim k'Brikau i, a ko ! gwiba ! num when 

a youth (I) was, (I) made a trap. GUI. (D.B.) Ex.: i ||kowako hako, i kakwa at/uwako, i kakwa panako 

this is the shaft, that is the string, that is the arrow, akwapi i, ukwapi i the hand this is, 

the fingers these are. 

1, i:, V. to eat, s. a, ha. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: nie i — I eat. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a i:, g i: — you eat, 
I eat. 

i, V. to give. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: i tja |ni matabab give it to Matabab. 

~i, V. to go, go away. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: u sis |kam ku ~i you two will go. i ku ~i ti we will go 

away. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: 0bu: a ki ts'^u, g ku ~i if the wind blows, I will go away. 

i, verb. part, expressing emphasis, 'do'. SI. (B. ) 1. Ex.: i |ku i: hi ! kaui ko: we do eat another 

egg. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: i pere sa |no, n _al do bread come give, (that) I eat. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

|k" ari/e i ||ke: tama, ~kei/i i ko |ke: — a little do not smoke, smoke much. 

1, i:, ~^' f V. to do so, do thus, used also for verily, truly, merely, yes. SI. (B. ) i, f, i. Ex.: 

|a:itik9n !hum: haha, "*!:, a karj ||kwag sar) i" the female assents to him, '7es, thou shaft do so". 

a kar) ka ~|kwe: ku, "i:, r| ||ka:" — thou dost say, "yes, my brother", ha |ku |ne i: Igeilgeitan 

he verily did move his arms fast. (LI.) \, i. Ex.: he tiken e:, r) ka-g |ne ~ta |xa|xa, i:, au tj*wer)ja 

|ku-g |ne ~i: [e: ! Aha u— u this reason is (why) I do not shoot, on account of it, for the things 

do verily go in among ye. korotwi : taksn haf | ne kui, "i:, g dola ka, a se |kwe:i ~|ki*' — the ... 
(bird) said, "yes, I think you should do this". Nil. (LI.) i, yes. 

— 1, ~^' f i^ V. ending, expressing duration of action, habitual action, or imperative. SI. (LI.) —1, — T. 

Ex.: o harj so ko Igora/-!:, hag |ku di kui ta 0pwoig while he sat looking around, he became sleepy. 

hag k"auki. k"wag !k'?e ||kwalg |xa-r ha it did not seem as it the people were shooting at him. Sllb. 

(Mh. ) 'i, -i. Ex.: se'^i — come. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | geki ki _tana-i _6bwa:a, be a ko ! weko-i _0bwa : a 
a woman carries wood (in the kaross) , a man carries wood (on the shoulder). 

1, pron. we, us, inc I . s. SI. ( B. ) i, i:, pass. i-ka. Ex.: i | ku s'?e Ikafmmsg ! xwof ri — we will carry 

ing turn back, i ba |ne fenna we do not know, i-ka ku: we all. (LI.) i, emph. i— i, itsn. poss. 

1, I-ta. Ex.: ||khe: ||khetsn |ne ! kAn ||kau: te i o ts'^'a — the beast of prey lays us down by the thing. 
i-i ykwa^g |ku se ||k"oen — we now shall see. hag |ne |kha ||k" e i-i o ts'^'a — it kills us together 

with the thing, itan tuko ka !ho!ho i |ny|nya-de we are wont to kneel upon our knees, i-ta ! ke-ta 

tuksn our menfolk. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ki ||a: _||g, i ki |kau ha we go home, we carry it. ||g 

!kwi kie |nu !k6a i --a Ekishman speaks of us. i-ka |k"a--our hands. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: i fkai we look 

kja fkami i ! koi — (we) beat each other (our mates). Sllb. (Mh. ) 'i. obj . 'i'e. Ex.: i: xa sn|kx'?o:a 

||xa de:_? where shall we hunt ? SIIc. Ex.: t/vfala a ka ||ka: i the sunshine warms us. Slid. 

(Wu.) i, emph. i-i, i-ten, poss. ita, dat. aht. (Arb.) i. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ki /owa, i |na: we 

sit, we see. SIV, (D.B.) Ex.: i tsCi ti we have come here, a oku "haija i |au thou must talk 

to us launi. kwe ||aru i-ki ||An — then return to our home. SV. (D.B.) Ex. : ja ga ki /um, i ge ||ka: 

ti this is the shade, we are in it. i ||ku | heri i |k"ale we wash our hands. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: 

i ! gwa — we follow. Nil. (LI.) i, rarely used bfore numbers. Ex.: ! nanni ti fkham i ! kao |ne — 
! nanni has cut us three the head (hair), i dzag |xoa we all live. 

i, pron. you, pi. NI. (D.B.) masc. form, rarely used i !ka:, emph. ihi . Ex.: mihi ~|ni, i !ka:, i ~u, 1 

~u I sit here, you (to men) go, you (to women) go. ihi fkhi k". ai i t/isi ha ~u .you all take 

your things and go. Nil. (V ) Ex.: i |koa sn dzao _! ! ga ? have you not seen the woman's knife ? 

(LI.) Ex. : ta d3u tanki ~fkhi ti sa4, ta ti ok"wika~ru, "||na a ||ha !kug", ta ka~ru ti ||na, "na ti 

!kug me ||ha kwe JkAmma e, ta |kui sa^ i, ta ||na i: |ne i u i t/u" and many other people heard, and 

said to Ka~ru, ''let alone killing thy child", and Ka~ru objected, "I kill my child to-day, and do not 

listen to you; go away to your houses", i sa ~u you two go away. NIII. (D.B.) emph. ihi. Ex.: i 

tsa !ko, a ku tsi you two have just come, ihi ke tagga ~||gu, ndala ke tagga ~||gu — you make 

rain, white people make rain. 

i^ pron. they. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex. : i e f^anje — they dance. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nani !ku t/u ! ni o kangar, 

i m /ao ; !o!ku m /ao, i ||wa, i ka tave the Chokwe people's huts are at Kangar, they eat millet; 

Bushmen eat millet, they buy, they work. 


i:, pron. obj . form of it, them, contracted from au.hi, au hi— hi, on, at, to, for, on account of it or 

them, often referring back to a rel. pron. in the nom. s. ihl. SI. (B. ) f. Ex.: he H'^'u'., hir) |ku e:, si 

ta:— 1 hi, hs si |i|i sosoikan i: this fatigue, it is that which we are feeling, our hearts burn on 

account of it. (LI.) f. Ex.: har) ! galbbetsn-ti-! ke:g |i i: — he threw fire at them, hir) ||xam: ||a: 
!kwig !nu!nun:tu:; he e: hi |ne ||khou |kir) i: — they also go to .... holes; these are (the ones), 
they fly out of them. 

1, i, dem. there, that, pointing. SI. (B. ) i. Ex.: har) i a: sir) |kwa|kwarra | "^hir) s'^'a: ti i e — he 

there (behind) was the one who gently came out of the place there (behind). SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: !kwi i e 

|na ~!khi that person wears a handkerchief, r) xa ||a sire a i a: I went to give sir there food. 

SIIc. (D.B.) i, here. Ex.: /wa xa i water is not here. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mdlapo e ~!nau, i ki ti ~i 

/a the Molapo is a river, it runs there. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: tsaxa !o: ! ne |nu||en ! nore t/i, i a ! ku 

t/i, a |nu||e: behind Tsaxas the |nu||en country lies, there the Koon sit and the |nu||en. NIII. (D. 

B. ) Ex.: kwa i ~||gu over there (is) water. 

i, n. tree, s. hi, ji. Clla. (Pa.) 

i, n. mother, s. ai. SIVb. (St.) "^i. Ex.: r| i my mother. 

i, ii, and. CI. (Do. ) 

ia, V. to tread on, iaia, to trample, s. ~i, to go. CI. (Do.) 

ia, n. guineafowl (?). Cla. (Pa.) 

ia, n. arrow. Clb. (Pa. ) 

ibi, n. egg, s. tybi- CI. (Do.) Ex.: ibi wa ||khoe — to sit on eggs. 

ibi, beautiful. Cla. (Pa.) 

ibo, n. father, lit. our father, used as my father, s. bo. SI. (B. ) ibo. (LI.) i-bbo, pi. i-bbo-gu. Ex.: 
! kwi a: !kwar), har) a ka 'Ibo" — one person is the one who says "my father", hir) | ne fkakka Ikaukan, 
"ik'^e kar) |ke: |kAminaig sa:, u okan-gu"; ! kaukaksn !hoin: hi, "ibo-gu ||kwalr] |ke: jkAmmair) sa:" — 
they say to the children, 'people £^re yonder coming carrying, your parents"; the children assent to 
them, "our fathers yonder carrying come". 

idibabe, n. milk. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwin heja olanakwe idibabe — suck here the children milk. 

idf:ga, n. word, thing. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: it/amebi idi:ga akwd: na tsaie ta some words I do not know. 

idzirj, idsug, idzoq, v. to enter, imper. Nil. (LI.) idziii, idsun, idzdn. Ex.: idzor) a we, — o enter. 

ie, ije, another. CI. (Do.) ie, iye. 
iee, n. mine, hole, pitfall. CI. (Do.) 

ien, V. to be, or v. part. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: pologn ien te 0bo: flowers are on the tree. 

igor)goda, n. fowl, CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: seme pi igoqgodabi — they eat fowls. 

ih^to, n. snake, one kind. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa oweja ih^to t/ula bi ati nina jumped the snake 
to the water. 

ihe, ihi, together, all. CI. (Do.) ihe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hadza ta ||i:a mo, ||ka||ka ano ihi ama sit/e tl'6< 
hadzako ta ||ia kwa, akwiko, ||ka||ka esa ihi ja sitj"e tl'!'6a — a Bushman dies, divide they among all his 
clothes, a Bushman woman dies, a female, divide they (fern.) among all her clothes. 

i:he:, dearest. Nil. (Wil.) the. 

ihi, you, s. i. 

ihi, pron. referring back, s. i. SI. (LI.) ihi . Ex.: hig e:, ha |ne "Qpwoin ihi — that was (the place), 
he slept at it. 

i:-i, V. to agree, consent, s. i. SI. (B. ) t-i. Ex.: ha:g |ne ku:i, si |ki !kui:tsn ha au-g ||nein, he ti 
hig e:, si— g jne i:— i she told us to bring her back to the house, so we agreed. 


i:i, n. wood, tree, s. hi, ji. Clb. (Pa.) li. 

ija, V. to sink. CI. (Do. ) iya. 

i:ja, r:ja, ~i:jo, v. to say so, do so, be so, be the same, s. i: , i: . SI. (B. ) lya.Ex. : i-g |nar)r)ar| 

!kui! kui:ta, i | wa | wai : ggag i:ja our heads are big, our cheeks are the same. (LI.) lya, lyo. Ex.: 

||koxaitan ||kwafg ||khoa, ta, ha ||kwafr) ~||kou ! hoa ts'^a a |na:, |xain-ka !k'^etsnk"auki ija — a Kafir 

it seems to be, for he has put a thing on his head ; Bushmen do not do so. "i: jo, ijo, ho g do so, 

do so, lift me up. 

Itjau, yes, occasional form, s. 1. SI. (B. ) l^au. 

ije, V. to speak, form used with negative, s. haije, itja. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: n ta ije er)gels — I do not 
speak English. 

ije, s. ie. 

iji, n. stick for throwing, s. 1:1. Cla. (Pa.) 

l:jo, over there. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n teani m i:jo — I go over there. 

Ika, V. to live, stand. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: una ma turn ika ja ? — where does the man live ? ikd ta I 

am standing. 

ikhoisi, n. hair (prob. o khoisi, our hair.) Nil. (Leb. ) 

iki, when. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ja soa ta:si, iki taa:ni I went away, when small. 

ikl'^'ikvra, v. to go, s. kl'^i'kwa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ba ikl^'ikwa — we will go. ikl'^ikwa ikombo — go to 

iko, dem. that, there, then. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! gom ko ! naul |kwane ||kun ka:, |kuin iko, a ba |noxoe a:/ 

kei iko, a [kum tama jvith. gum are children smeared by mother, suck then and are carried ; when 

big, do not suck. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: aijako iko xlako kwa --- mother then cuts her. 

i-la-:a, n. tail. SIVb. (St.) 

irlate, n. bracelet. SV. (D.B.) 

ilolo, yesterday. [Zu. uzolo.J Slid. (Arb.) 

ir), V. to know, s. an, fenn. SI. (Lich.) ing. Ex.: a xa ig ? — do you know him ? 

ir), pron. I, my, s. r). SI. (Lich) ing, inng. Ex.: ig xoro ir) my cattle, f^ar) ir) fainti I come 

from there. 

ina, there, s. tina, nina. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: taibe ina — leave it there, a mogivebi a~khame |ki ina bi 
Mogi and friends have gone out in this direction. 

inhei, n. lion. Nil. (Zuk.) 

irjkje, pron. 1, s. ig, r). Slla. (Mg. ) iqce Ex.: |ka tjh'^uu, igkje ||ku ka _gau --- listen, I not say (a) 

iri, n. star. NI. (Pa.) 

irid^, V. to approach. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: iride amo buruku — Buruku is approaching, kweso iride ati se 
||ka||ka when approaches rain, will run away. 

isa, i/a, as, like. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i na mi t/i isa mboga was about as small as Mboga. ikombo 

kslako i/a hako Ikombo (is) a riverbed like this. 

isa, n. spotted hyena. CI. (Do.) Ex.: isa | kwa a small spotted hyena. Cla. (Pa.) issa. 

isaggwa, n. small ants. CIII. (D.B.) 


ise, isi, iso, then. QII. (D. B. ) Ex.: ise bu: atonen akwitive — then bring there the women. t/e:ka 

t/anne, isi pieje e, isi sameikapi the first (little) finger, then the second, (ring finger), then 

the third, kweso kl'u/u ta, iso k"esse ta njambula when (it) grabs it, then devours it the ... 


isoania, v. to sit, s. so. Slid. (Arb. ) 

ijd, V. to fall, lie down. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: i/d ko ! napako --- falls down the fly. ati je i/d ja --- 
rain falls, a mo i/a tl'^'ehen — it lies down. 

i/o, i/oko, i/owa, n. sun, day. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ku tukutu ka i/o the setting of the sun. kweso 

i/oko hamana, nan ||aia — when the sun is here, (I) will throw it away, i/owa ko kl'i'ekffa ! napako — 
to-day bites the horsefly. 

ita, it, they, or then. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapina i/o /aha tsefui, ita hn fe, ita t/okwe sa, ita jkise ( 

atama so hama early the sun ends the night, it rises, they follow, they see his blood there. 

||nuku ita ko sleeves they are. 

itau, n. mother, literally our mother, s. tai. SI. (B. ) itau, emph. itaukfn. Ex.: itau |na !kwa:-kakum 
e: ha fkakksn akke hihi — our mother's mouth's tale, which she told nicely, itauken a d ka a — 
mother has given me meat. (LI.) itS,u, pi. it^u-ggu. Ex.: hig |ne kui, "itdu-gu ws:, u kag 8*^0 u ||k'K)e 
! kwi a:" they said, "o our mothers, you seem to think you see this person". 

iti, pron. you, pi., masc. itibi, fem. itibe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dzate ja, itibe come, you (to women)i 

i~tjo:a, pron. we, they. SIVb. (St.) 

itjo:a, pron. you pi. SIVb. (St.) 

itl'^a, t;. to cut, n. a cut, s. itl'ako, xlako. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: d,t/uko itl'?a: atonen, a tsifua itl'^a, 
tl'^oako itl'i'a a sinew cuts there at night it cuts, tie the cut. 

itl'?ako, n. knife, s. itl'^a. CIII. (D.B.) pi. itl'^atepi. Ex.: oneni jako itl'^ako — my knife, itl'aten 
wainet/a , all of their knives. 

itsabe, n. fat. QII. (D.B.) j 

itsam. n. spoon, s. ifkam. CI. (Do. ) | 

it/a, thus. CIII (D.B.) Ex.: olanakwe ssmea it/a — seeds are eaten thus, it/epi \ikuwa it/a xlako — thj 

others are not thus cut. 1 


itp&f far. The shorter and more stressed the tp , the further it is. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ^tepi pakapa^ I 

it/'?a the big water is far. hakha pi si t/i:ta manako, it/'^a na ko — they have gone to fetch i 

game, it is far. 

it/ame, one, alone. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a~khame askaribi piebi wooko ka te !kuja man^ko, !ku:ta me it/ame > 

went two'Askaris to the swamp to shoot game, fired the one. it/ame ako, mojd ako, he was alone, 

was unmarried. 

it/e, it/i, pron. & dem. he, that, pi. it/ebi, she, it/iko, pi. it/ebe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i kwa akwiti 
jako, ka it/e ja-k" amba — this was a female, and that the male, it/e pakapa^ a bulukwi — he is 
bigger than Bulukwi. it/ebi ||naabi kwapi k"lodzo — they hear them talk, edzeko it/iko sa no/ar)giri 
wife she is of go/ar)giri. 

it/iako, n. notch at back of arrow. CIII. (D.B.) 

it/u, V. to be like, CI. (Do.) ichu. 

if^tan, V. to loosen straps. SI. (LI.) itt-t§n. Ex.: i taiHaif ui, i |kAmmain, i daufko it'J'tsn i 
||kwa||kwan we go away, we loosen the straps on our shoulders. 

i~u, V. to go, s. ~u. Nil. (Ck.) 

iuqke, v. to eat. Cla. (Pa.) iungke. 



L:xa, exclamation, well ! Sllb. (Mh. ) 'ixa. 
13!, n. doctor, sorcerer. NI. (Pa.) iji. 
fkam, n. spoon, s. itsam. Nil. (LI.) ifkamm. NI. (Pa.) i'kam. 

The palatal fricative j, pronounced as the English y in 'yes', occurs fairly often in Bushman 
anguages in second syllables, where it has more the character of a semi-vowel. As an initial sound it 
|.s rare, being chiefly found in languages showing much Bantu influence. 

a, V. to come, ja kakho, to bring. CI. (Do.) ya. Cllb. (Wil.) j 


, V. to be, s. jako. SV. (D.B.) used before numerals. Ex.: |nyle-|oni ja ga ||nuin, ja ga ||xai — the 
stones are two, are three. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: gi/ama akwete ja GiJ*ama (his) wife is. 

a, pron. him, her, it, that, variation of ha. SI. (LI.) ya, ya. obj . after v. Ex.: ! gitan ka |ku ^=ni: ja 

o llga: a: ha |kwa: a: the sorcerers are accustomed to catch him on a night on which he seeks food. 

g kar) l|k"oen ti e:, !ke:i||au |no a:, ha fkakka ke: ja — I wanted to see, whether truth it was which 

he told me it. SII. (D.B.) obj. after v., impersonal nom. Ex.: r) |e ja I put it in. ja keri: 1 

— it is cool. SV. (D.B.) obj. Ex.: misis a ||abe /e ||ke ja, ||kai ||i:te /illir) Missis has bought 

it, paid with a shilling. NIII. (D.B.) poss. & dem. Ex.: ta ja tsir) wa ma/akute, mwene wa ja _|ga — 

and his younger brother was Ma/akute, Mwene was his wife, ja ~||kum wa dzema her leg is small, ja 

ma "dum, ja ma ~dum, ja ~||naa — that is a little one, that is a little one, that is big. 

, pron. you, used in respectful speech in sing. & pi. Nil. (LI.) ya. Ex.: ha ok" wi d3U tanki, "ja ti 
!kuq me fkhum, ta na ti t/ir)" she said to the other people, "you kill my son-in-law, and I cry". 

■ja, V. ending, to v. in 1 & e, prob. formed from v. & a, s. —wa. Expresses imper. or the past or a state. 

SI. (B. ) ya. Ex.: !k'^wa: |ku-g |ne !ku:xe u s'^a, au ha erjegjag |ne !ki:ja the hartebeest arising 

running came, while his body was red. (LI.) ya, ya. Ex.: har) |k'»e:ja ke a:, "|ne ||k"oenja ^ ts'^a dir) 
a:, whai: |ne sa: ti e: whai: k" auki doaf Ikweitan se se he ?" — he said to me, "look, why is it, 
the springbok come to a place to which springbok have not been used to come ?" !gi:xa— ka kum, ti e:, 
ha-g ||nau ||koxaitsn ||ki:ja rj doSm ha/-g |ne |kwe:i Ikwi, ha: surq, 1:, o-g r) dofm xi:ja — the sor- 
cerer's story, what she did when a Kafir had hurt my throat, she acted thus, she snored it, where my 
throat was swollen. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: si:ja — come, kue: xa ||eja 0bo, hn _! neja ||na — the ostriches 

ran to a tree, they were many. Slla. (Mg. ) emph. & imper. Ex.: UgaTilkeja, ha !kuja the wolf ran, 

he fled. ! ''ei, ! kho/ija — (I) shouted, turn round. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: makwa/a baheja — MakwaJ^a is 
staying, unu it/ame ikl'^'ikwaja one man is running. 

■ja, V. ending expressing tense attached to n. or pron. SI. (LI.) ya. Ex.: ha: se ||a kar), au ! kwiya | ne 

tai:f !kau tig sa ha it will go far, while the man walks following it. Sllb. (Mh. ) perf. ^a, i^-a. 

Ex.: haija ! hun'^a si he has beaten us. SV. (D.B.) pres. !xaija /a ~||na the dog runs away. 

glaseja |a the glass breaks, haija ||ug ||kwi he stands up. 

■ja>^ n. ending, masc. gender. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kua matl'^oa tseheja wants clothes the boy. 

labe, n. giraffe, s. njabe. Qlb. (Bal. ) 

ia!~i, ~jai, exclam. oh dear! alas ! Nil. (LI.) ySi, yai . Ex.: ta ha~|ni, ta ti t/ig, "me zau-sig, ja:~i, 
me zau— siq, ~jai hai and he sat, and was crying, "my women, oh dear, my women, oh dear! " 


jaie, n. oribi, steenbok, s. gai. Cllb. (Bal.) 

jaka, V. to give. Cllb. (Wil.) jSka. 

jak»'eimba, male, s. -ja. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hako bsslele jak"amba — this is a ram (sheep male). 

jako, V. to be, s. ja. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: betete jako akwitibit/i na saako — cruel is to men the ... 
bird, beslele sa /amo mutl'^e jako — the sheep of the Isanzu are many, seme jako |ama — (its) food 
is fish. 

jale, n. smallpox. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gole jkwe _fki jale, ma ki _fki jale — .Gole did not get smallpox, 
I got smallpox. 

jalo, jalu, n. blood. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ss/e/e a gu _bulu, a txatxa ||kha, ta ku ka jalu, ta wa _bulu 
all Bushmen make fetish -sticks, shoot game, take blood, put it on the fetish -sticks. 

jam, n. tortoise, s. dham. Cla. (Pa.) yam. 

jamoa, jamoabi, n. earth. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: jamoa ka tar)a na nina dtebi, — the earth is wet with water. 
||ekwa jamo^bi tina the bulb is in the earth. 

-jar), emph. ending of n. after nasal. SI. (LI.) -ySn. Ex.: ! kwig! kwigjar) ha:& |ku k" war) ha e ~||khaf, o 

~||kha^ jkw'^sCil e: ||na ha the dogs act as if she were a real lioness, when the lion's scent is on 


-jau, V. ending, imper. pi. contrac. of ja&u, s. ju. SI. (LI.) -yau. Ex.: he ! k'^e kukuitan |k"e: , " dola 
||k"oenjau t/a a: kwakwafra do^a di:ja" — and the people said, "behold ye the thing which the knor 
haan has done". 

je, n. pit, hole in the ground, s. jenaa, jera. CII (Do.) ye. 

~je:, interrog. part., s. jowa. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: q ^6k ~je: ? where is my pot ? CI. (Do.) ye, are 

they , re f erring to things. 

je, je:a, jeja, yes, s. jiwa, jowa, gje. SII. (D.B.) je, je:a, jeja. Nll.^ai.) ye. Ex.: e ti dzorj e |nwi 
e |nwi ta kwe, "je" we call our comrade, our comrade answers, "yes". CI. (Do.) ye. 

jeat/wa, v. to be unlike, s. jet/u. CI. (Do.) yeachwa. 

jehe, "jshe, exclam. oh dear, s. ja~i. Nil. (LI.) yehe, ybhe. Ex.: ta ! ku fnau. ta ka~ru ti t/ir), "me 

! ku te, jehe" his back-dress fell down and Ka~ru cried, "where is my back-dress, oh dear ?" 

CIII. (D.B.) chorus in song. 

jeki n. path. CIII. (D.B.) pi. jekepe. Ex.: hadzabe hakame bi jeki ku — Bushmen walk along the path, 
jeki jako a _nga t/ako kwa ngalama — a path it is which leads to Mkalama. 

jena, so that. (Do.) yena. 

jenaa, n. a deep hole, s. je, jera. CI. (Do.) yenaa. 

jeowa, V. to tell. CI. (Do.) yeowa. 

jera, v. to burrow, s. je, jenaa. CI. (Do.) yera. 

jeroko, according to. CI. (Do.) yeroko. 

jet/u, V. to be like, s. jeat/wa. CI. (Do.) yechu. 

ji, pron. we, s. i, si. SI. (Lich. ) 

ji, n. tree, s. jii, hi. Cla. & CII. (Pa.) yi. 

jibi, n. axe, hatchet, jibi jkwa, hammer, s. hipe. CI. (Do.) yibi. 

jie, entirely. CI. (Do.) yie. 

jii, n. tree, s. ji, hi. CI. (Do.) yii. 


jim oka, beyond. CI. (Do. ) yim oka. 

jiwa, V. to say so, s. je, jowa. CI. (Do.) yiwa. 

jokwi, n. yokes. [Eng.] SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ja ykabe gume ke jokwi --- he brings the oxen yokes. 

jondoa, n. rat. CIII. (D.B.) 

jowa, V. to ask, inquire, offer, tell, s. je, jiwa. CI. (Do.) yowa. 

jowao, n. question, inquiry, s. jowa. CI. (Do.) yowao. 

-ju, pron. you, pi. attached to v. in imper., s. u, -jau. SI. (Li.) -jru. Ex.: hs ! k'?e kukuitan |k"e:, 
"|ne ||k" oenju, ts'^a dir] |ne a: di: xwerri-k"au?"— and the people speaking said, "behold ye, what 
can be the matter with xwerri-k"au ?" 

ju, n. colour, stripe. CI. (Do.) yu. 

juisi, all, s. huisi. Nil. (VVil. ) 

juno, n. porridge, pap. CI. (Do.) yuno. 
juro, n. dove. CI. (Do.) yuro. 

ju tam, n. leg. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. ju tam. 


The unvoiced velar explosive k is the sound that occurs most often in all Bushman languages. 
It stands at the beginning of words both in its simple form or aspirated as kh. It is occasionally join- 
ed to a fricative or semi- vowel, forming kx and kj . It also follows all the clicks save the labial click 
more frequently than any other sound. Tlie following pages will show examples of words in which the ini- 
tial click is dropped at times, leaving only an initial k.k often interchanges with t, and in endings 
with g. In the fkhomani language Doke and Maingard write kj as c . 

Hie ejected k also occurs, very frequently in some languages, rarely in others. It will be 
treated separately, after the words in k, written k". 

ka, V. to wish, intend, think, say. -4s v. part. s. below. SI. (B. ) Ex.: q sir) ka jhuntu-! kat! katten se 

||xam k"srri:take I wished that | huntu-! kat! kattan should also render fat for me. (LI.) k&, kS. 

Ex.: he jkaggsn kukuitan |kwe:, ha ka, ha se |ki |hir) !khwa: — and the Mantis answered, he intended, 
he would take out the fchild. au swa:-ka ! kwi !k"wainja !ku ko:, hir) e:, ha ka, "|nu: !kwi" au ! ku ko: 

|ke when a Flat-Bushman is angry with another man, then he says "bad man" for the other man's 

name. !kwa:r) fkakka ha o:a, "ibbo-we:, a karj 8*^0 ka, !k'?wa:-g |na: k"auki |ku fkakka ke" — the child 
said to her father, "o my father, thou dost seem to think, the hartebeest's head did not talk to me". 
Slla. (Mg. ) k~a. Ex.: au ! koe ~ka g ||ko: r)~tl^o thou now say, I (am) not a man. 

ka, V. to lack, be empty, not to be, to deprive, s. koara, kora, kua, kuanna, kula, kwonna. SIIc. (D.B.) 

Ex.: ka t/wale is no sun. CI. (Do.) to deprive. CII. (D.B.) ~ka, ka:a. Ex.: |nu: kwe ~ka: ! abu ko 

i: — the Kafirs lacked guns, misis a ~ka kuni — Missis has no wagon, a ko xasa ~||kwi, "a ko ||o: 

kwe, a ka guwa "ka" then she (the hare) contradicted, "when a man dies, then shall (he) stay not 

there (dead)". |k'?au /uba hana, ! kore/a ~ka an earthen pot there is, a wooden pot there is not. 

_gau dama ||kwoi i:, gome dama ka:a Klip Kafirs were many, Herero were none. 


, V. to be intelligent. Nil. (LI.) kka. Ex.: d3u fir) ti |kua kwonna d3U ti ka — (when) a person's 


thoughts are not absent, the person is intelligent. 

ka, V. to sell, s. fkaar). CII. (Schi.) 

ka, ka:, v. to eat, bite, gnaw. CI. (Do.) to eat. CII. (D.B.) to bite, gnaw. Ex.: | geruba ko ka te 

the wasp has bitten me. | gere dauwa tama, a ka: the medicine is not pounded, is gnawed. 

ka, kan, v. to go on, Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: na ka — I go on. 

ka, V. part. prob. derived from ka to wish,< s. above. Denotes habi tual action, or a state, either alone 
or with |ku. ka: may denote finished action. SI. (LI.) kS, ka. Ex.: ha;-g |na: ka |ku maii, hi |hir) ||e, 

au ha er)er)ja: |ku |lnu: ||na his head is wont to come out first, while his body is behind there. 

whai:it8n a: ka tail kau ||k"oen au ! k'^au — the springbok is that which is wont to walk looking at 
the ground, toi gwai : ka ||kuwa — the male ostrich is fat (B. ) ka, ka. Ex.: sitan ||kwar) |ne e: 
!ku!ku:xs: |hir), au sitan ka: ts'^anuna 3*^6 !gaue-|r: |ha — we ran away, when we had poisoned the 
Day' s-Heart' s wife. 

ka, V. part. prob. derived from ka to go on, s. above. Denotes incomplete action or a state, sometimes 
future, sometimes then. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: na ka | gamkie ! goru — I am putting on the quiver. r| ka 
Ilka: — I am tired, ka kwija, ||koi Hija — get up, the sun is up. ||kana ka ke — camels are there. 

Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: na ka |nau "^a I action of going on, + action of marrying you, "implying that the 

action of marrying is modi fied to this extent that it is not yet completed, that it has started and 
still is going on". SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: t/wala a ka ||k'^a:i — the sun is warm. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n ka 

3wa |ewa |i --- I am cooking at the fire. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kobe ka fka khaa ||kobe is dipping up 

water, ka fko: — (it) is cold, na |uwa ko, n ka tua |ka:bes, a no |k'?ai a misis a — I do not know 

I will ask |ka:bes and tell Missis. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: lakai ka /a /la ||kokwi a woman is coming 

bringing a cock, i ka ! gwa kolexo we have inspanned the wagon, ja /a ka a they go to eat. u 

ka ||k"anata sit down (to two women), na se ka d5u:be I come to throw it away. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: 

ka tana (they) are talking, ha g ka |e that I am eating, o ka ~||kari they are many. NI. 

(D.B.) Ex.: 3U m ~|ni ka ~|m people eat berries (which) are nice. |kAiP ~tsa misis ku ~u, ahi ka 

|nee ka /u: (in) two days Missis goes, you will be alone, will stay. _gwa~ka kuru, a ka koma~ka 

"so — to-night make (it), and to-morrow bake (it.) |ho ~t/i, ka 3U ||ei, ka | geja, ! konia~ka | gea, ka 

ga t/xo, ka _kau da, ka ~soa the steenbok comes, then people catch, then carry it, cut it, make 

fire, roast it. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: me e |u|uni tsema, me ka e |xwe, |u|uni tsema ka e |xwe — I am a 
little ant, I am |xwe, a little ant is |xwe. ha /u/u, ta |kAm fnau:, ta ha ka ha tsau he was ly- 
ing down, and the sun set, and he then he arose. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ja ba ka |kota his father is 

|kota. ha ba ka ||ke: his father is dead, a ~gu ka ~m — pick up to eat. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |neba ti 

ka jkwa, tire au ma, |[kur) kwe this one is young, I am an old man, grown-up. kaua ra ka t/i 

to-morrow I will work, kwe t/ ko ! ku, |no t/ ka ||o: (if) a man you kill, yourself shall die. CUT. 

(D.B.) bibi ka oni jako --- the lady fans herself. 

ka, V. part, denoting past tense. CI. (Do.) Ex.: t/i kwa ||gam, ka t/i kwa ||gam — I love, I loved. 

ka, pron. I, me, my, sometimes used insteadof r) especially in subordinate clauses, s. ke, ki . SI. (B. ) 
ka, ka, pass, kd-ka, emph. k^kfn, kan, kSgen. Ex.: ! gwe : ! kweitan-tu a: |xa:l g au !nwa:, au ka |ku a: 
|xa:l ||k"i; ||koa n au Ikauxu — | ! gwe! kweitan-tu was the one who shot me with an. arrow, while I was 
the one who shot placing myself fast on the hunting ground, ha sag |ne jxabbe to:i ||ka:lg, ha ha sig 

fkakka ka !kau: he shall seek a new ostrich, of which he has told me the path. r| |kweitsn |ku a; 

k'<Su:r) !kwa:g9n au k^-ka |ko:a, ha se di ku ta | i, au ka:g8n |ne k"wa jki |e:ja ~!khwa: au !kwa:ksn 

I always am one who crunches bones for my stomach, that I may begin to feel warm, when I drink 

putting water upon the bones, hir) |ku-g |ne ! gabbetsn! gabbstan !kau tir| r), au kdken |ku-g |ne |]khou- 
kui surrusurru u ! kug ||a: --- they threw sticks after me, while I flew quickly forward away, f^oa 
tuko dolai a: hoa ka: !kwa:, o karj ||kein |e: ta |k" o — the elephant must have been the one who took 
away from me the child, when I was digging in the hole. 

ka, pron. he, she, it, variant of ha, ku, kwa. Nil. (Mg. ) Ex.: ka sa he comes. 

ka, prefix Sla. (Dk. ) aggregation prefix ka, kS. (Mg.) pi. prefix. Ex.: ! kuke kja ||koe, ka Ikukja ! '''u — 
one shoe, two shoes, ka ! ku kja kjebekje many shoes. 

— ka poss. part, following possessor, preceding thing possessed, often omitted before words denoting rela- 
tionship or parts of the body , used before ku:, all. s. -ga, -ta. SI. (B. ) Ex.: ha ! k'^'oa |e: ! kwi 

|na: o !kwalggsn-ka ~! kau it trod (pressing) in the man's head between the zwartstorm- tree' s stems 

(LI.) Ex.: !k'?e se |ne |a|a |kAm !khau:-ka ku: — the people may be cutting off all the honey. Rare- 
ly used without a preceding noun or pronoun, ta: ! hou— ka t/weg e, — ka k"ek"sn e for locusts' 

things (they) are, (locust' s)little birds (they) are. (Lich. ) Ex.: sisi-ka ts'^oir) our goods. SII. 


(D.B.) Ex.: kwe:-ka "Ikhu e an ostrich's feather it is. ha ||ko ! r|, ha ||kana ||kS:, har-ka ||ka; 

she digs bulbs, she packs the bag, her bag. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: ! nau-ka ts'^axam the hare's eyes. 

q-ka ! ku my shoe. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: katren-ka |ha a wilm Katren's husband is Wilhelm. SIV. 

(D.B.) Ex.: n |kAn-ka |numa — my hand's palm. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ||gon, t/urki a-ka ||kolete thou 

kneelest, sittest on thy knees. 

ka:l, interrog. part. s. xa. SI. (LI.) ka, kkS. Ex.: a ka:l e | gebbi ? — art thou a fool ? he tutu: he 

|ka:gsn, "ts'^a ka: I a:, da: |hu|hu ?" they ask each other, "what can have happened to the baboon ?" 

i ka:l se te: |ki, i datta ? what shall we do to deceive him ? SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ti ka ta ? — 

what is that ? 

ka, prep., different meanings. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r| te: ||r), r) te: ka: I take off (clothes), I put on. 

SV. (D.B.) Ex.: na t/u ka ||kuin I sit on the ground, gum wa ka lubu the oxen are in the vlei. 

||ha ka ||na ka |a (they) gather there at the fire. 0wa /a ka /i the smoke comes to us. ! xi ti 

a |kai la, a /i ||xai ka ||kanniteLa the dog has caught it, has shaken (it) with the teeth. SVI. 

used before or after noun. (D.B.) Ex.: e /u ka /om/e he sits in the shade. |kieb e ||a: ka 

|kieb is at home. NI. used after noun. (D.B.) Ex.: _! gwa~ka to-night. koma~ka to-morrow, ko 

! gom, ko ka gu ~|gu ka (the stone) falls, and gets into the water, mihi o gu ~ka I pick it up. 

5U ku ~!u:, ka nabbo, ka tsi |kauwa ~ka — people go out to collect, then come and sit down. Nil. 
before noun. (LI.) Ex.: ha ||ko ha ||gau: ka ha |ne — she puts her hand on her head, ma |ka ! nanni ka 

d'^a thou dost present ! nanni with matches. d3U ti ~||ke, d5U ti | uwa d3U kak»»a a person dies, 

people put the person into the ground, ha ti Am ka [ne— sir) he eats of the berries. NIII. used be- 
fore and after noun. (D.B.) Ex.: J|ga ka ||gau "t/u in raintime thatch the hut. Jove e txu ||gama ka 

~mi — /ove is aunt to me. CI. (lb.) Ex.: hie-tjware ere kwa | gamee ka q||khai the Bushinen shoot 

with bows. CII. used after noun. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwad3i Ixaii, a ko ~||k'^Am _! nsCu ka calves he drives, 

and hits with a strap, fkekuba -|nu ka ko _ha fkekuba at night came. ! gom ko ! nau^ |kwane Ukun/ 

ka: with gum children are smeared by the mother. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _hamata ka karjgiti sit on 

the box a kha kwa, ka t/a ka ts'^a n he comes here, and goes to the hut. 

ka, con]., different meanings. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ka 3U _||gau^wa, me o ss: kwe 3U |ua, xa 3U ko ss, e ka: 

koafra when a person (is) a spirit, I see (it) like a person'a image then a person sees (it), 

and then (it) is gone, ka ~tsi, ko mihi ko |ao ko if (you) come, then I will give it to you. ha 

~u, ka: a tsi ga — he goes, but you sit still. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ta ti fne'^am |xwe t/ir|, fne'^Am 

! kur) |xwe and beat |xwe, until he cried, beat killing | xwe . ta |xwe J'u~/u, ta |kiia ||ke ara, 

ta~|ni, ta ti si:, si ka ok"we and |xwe lay, but did not die altogether, but sat, up, and was 

laughing, laughing and talking. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ka ! ku ||ka||ka, ka ! nai ki gu ma ~pa ra _|ka o 

I was a grown-up woman, when the lion took my father and ran away. |xu a ~ma, ka ||gaude ka ||naa 

] xu i% the younger, and ||gaude is the elder. ~|gu a, ka !noli d3U night it is, then the cpun- 

try is dark. CI. (Do.) Ex.: Igire e kwa khao |gweai, ka khao ke gaie | goaha the jackal watches the 

leopard, when the leopard has killed a springbok. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ikwa akwiti jako, ka it/e 

jak"amba — one is the female and the other the male. amaje:ga mogi, ka _adza atonena a boku 

unmarried is Mogi, but will soon marry. 

ka, n. arrow. Sllb. (Mh. ) k^. Slle. (And.) a-ka-||na. SIVb. (St.) kd ||y. 

_ka, n. water, s. kha. SIVb. (St.) 

ka, n sand, s.k"a. Nil. (Pa.) 

kaa, V. to want, seek. CI. (Do.) 

kaa, V. to suck, 5. ka. CI. (Do.) 

kaa, V. to be poor. CI. (Do.) 

kaa, nice, clean, pretty, s. kaba, kaao. CI. (Do.) 

kaa, n. arm. Slid. (Arb. ) 

ka:a, n. needle, s. gaa. Clb. (Pa.) kaa. 

ka:fa, today. Nil. (LI.) k|a. 

kaan, v. to crawl. CI. (Do.) 

ka:lar), v. inhale. SII. (D.B.) 


ka&T^, n. chief, s. jkaggan. Slid. (Arb. ) kaang. 

kaao, n. beauty, clearness, s. kaa, kaase. CI. (Do.) 

kaase, quite, clearly, s. kaao. CI. (Do.) 

kaba, kalba, v. to walk, to carry, s. ||kaba. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: golna a ta kaba |ne tJ*ohakan — the Tswan 

is carrying the whip, e te e kafba fi, kafba ||Ante kanje it is he who walks, walks from Kanye. 

SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: kaba si — walking come, kaba oa walking go. 

kaba, v. to dig. Slid. (Arb.) ga kaba. 

_kaba, new, s. ksia. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: _kaba Jkani/a a |hu ko o^a a new book the white man brought. 

kabaa, n. calabash, s. kaba:la. CI. (Do.) 

kaba:la, n. waterbag, s. kabaa. SV. (D.B.) 

kabba, v. to descend, come down, s. kaua, ! kabba, to climb. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ta ti ! ka "u, ta ti ! kabba 
!kag, ta |kAm fnau:, ta (kAm tanki ~|gi,ta \xwe kabba — and (he) ran off, and climbed a tree, and 
the sun set, and another sun rose, and | xwe descended. 

kabba, n. clothes. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ga ro ! nAm, kabba re t/i — rain has fallen, the clothes are wet. 

kabe, v. to knead. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mademke ka kabe bupi Mademke is kneading breaJ. 

kabe, unjust, s. kae. CI. (Do.) 

kabi, n. ostrich egg, s. ibi, ty^i. Clb. (Pa.) 

_kabi/e, to-morrow. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: misis |na: ko !ku, _gwa~ka ko kurikwas kwe ko ~/i, ha ga ||k'!'uin, 

kabi/e ! '''uka toe kovis kwe a Missis has gone, this evening to Kurikwas comes, there sleeps^^ to-mo 

morrow early goes on to Gobabis. 

kabita, abbr. of hakhabita, they go, they come, they bring. CIII.(D.B, ) Ex.: kabita ha f^aka — they 
come to dance. 

kabukabukute, n. wings. SVI. (D.B.) 

kade, n. a small lizard. NI. (D.B.) 

kae, V. to bind, join, tie up, inspan. CI. (Do. ) 

kae, V. to slaughter, stab. CI. ( Do.) 

kae, just, s. kabe. CI. (Do.) 

ka^:, n. apron, s. ~!kai. Clb. (Pa.) kae'. 

kae ! goe, n. month of December. CI. (Do.) 

kaga, v. to drink. Slid. (Arb.) ga kaga. 

kaha, v. to be satisfied. CI. (Do.) 

kaho, n. knife, s. kaxo. Clb. (Pa.) 

kaho, n. satisfaction, goodness, s. kaha. CI. (Do.) 

~kai, V. to grow, swell, s. ~kei, xai. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: .H^u ||e | gwi e ~kai — the flower opens and 

kai, V. to abuse. CI. (Do.) 

kai, V. to kill. Cla. (Pa.) 

vkai, V. to cover, bury, pile on. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ||kau ||na a kai a "t/u ko — he the bushes piles o^ 


the hut. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kweba ~||o, a vkai, faroaba /i, a faba fkau/e /e:, a ! ku |kwa ||ai/ kwe; ha 

t/oroba \k£ii ||gauwad3i |kwa jkSate a man dies, is buried, and the wind the heart takes and goes 

with (it) home; the skin is buried, the body comes out and with the spirits walks about. 

iai:, kai:ja, v. to complete, used as adv. SI. (LI.) kkai, kkaiyg,. Ex.: hag ka ha se ||nau:, tija ||kho he 
kai: ||khou fka:, ha se |e: !ko:a — it (porcupine) thinks it will do this, (when) the place seems to 
become wholly light, it will enter the hole, hir) tatti e:, hir) |ne 9pwoin kai:ja hi — they feel that 
they have had their sleep out. 

"Icai, n. mother, s. ~ai, khaia, ||kai. SIV. (D.B.) SV. (D.B.) /em. ending. Ex.: la, man, lakai, woman. SVI. 
(D.B.) ~kai, mother-in-law, ~kai~kai, grandmother. 

cai, n. child. Nil. (Wil.) 


}£a i, n. poison caterpillar. Nil. (LI.) kdf. Ex.: ta ti o ||gom tsema, ta ti taba ! karra; ||gom tsema !ku 
e ka~i and (they) gather little caterpillars, and make poison; the little caterpillars' name is 

i&i, n. fingerring. NI. (Pa.) 

cai, n. river. NIII. (D.B. ) 

i&i, much, s. ~kei. CII. (Schi.) 

:ai, lean. Nil. (Wil. ) 

lai, but, s. ke. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a !ku, kai tira ka kama ha — you go, but I stay here. 

fcaia, V. to bite, s. kaa, k"a. NI. (D.B.) Ex. : xam ko m, gu~t/i, ka o m, a kaia a m si — a lion eats, 
catches a thing, then eats, bites and eats it. 

caide, old. CI. (Do. ) 

caie, V. to get a fright. CI. (Do. ) 

caie, V. to be agreeable, nice, pretty, s. kaa, kaba. CI. (Do.) 

caie, n. a fetter, a hammer. CI. (Eb. ) 

:aie njaa, n. wintry weather. CI. (Do.) kaie nyaa.. 

caie ||kae, v. to tie together. CI. (Do.) 

:aihe, v. to put on a belt, s. kaie ||kae. CI. (Eb.) 

:aiho, sweet, s. kaa, kaie. CI. (Do,) 

:aii, v. to yawn. CI. (Do.) 

^:aija, v. to be like. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! goo kaijo naroko — ! goo is like a Naron. 


:ai joka, outside. CI. (Do.) kai yoka. 

cai ka, v. to make nice, pretty, s. kaie. CI. (Do.) ^^ 

|:ai:o, n. head. Clb. (Pa. ) kaiio. 

:ai tsaa, n. cold water. CI. (Do.) • 

:ai t/om, t;. to rejoice. CI. (Do.) kai chom. ; 

pal t/uri, long ago. CI. (Do.) kai churi. 

:ai t/uwa, v. to start. CI. (Do.) kai chuwa. 

:aka, when, then, s. kama, ko. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bahije amoso dzeremani, kaka mogera misi ko — still 


were the Germans here, when Mogera died. 

ksik^dje^ V. to shoot. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ea tabe kakddje, si _3we — he wished to shoot, (it) flew away 

kakdn, v. to come from a distance. SI. (LI.) kSkaiin. Ex.: i ta |ku | ou !xo:, au ! xo |ku ! naunko kakdin s. 
we shall see the porcupine, while the porcupine is still coming from a distance, 

kakane, n. ring, s. kekele. Slid. (Arb. ) 

ka~kao: v. to be silent. SI. (LI.) kSkao. Ex.: hi ta ti, ||kwalr) ka |ku kakaio, au hir) k"auki |kwe|ida 
~!kuttsn ||na ||neir) they are used to be silent, and not to sing like this at home. 

kafkafri, shining like glass, metal, or varnished surface. SI. (LI.) kakani. 

kakaro, n. a small bird. Nil. (LI.) 

kakase, v. to emigrate. Slid. (Arb. ) ga kakase. 

ka?kaulaka, kalkaulakan, v. to take aim. SI. (LI.) ka-kauaka, ka-kauaken. Ex.: g |ku-g |ne kalkaulaka k 

||a: ha, au hag |ku— g |ne ~koa, hag ||a: I was taking aim at Fier, while she turning aside went. 

|xAm-ka !lcwit8n s: kalkaulakon !khe:, o ts'^a a, ti:ti: !khe: a: — a Bushman is standing aiming at 
this thing which stands looking at him. 

kaksn, v. part., form of ka, apparently emphatic. SI. (LI.) kaken. Ex.: har) ha:l kaksn fi:, g ka:l se t 
|ki, g di ? he thought, what shall I do. ? 

kakur), n. pumpkin. Slid. (Arb. ) kakung. 

kakwa, there, that. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a kakwa i/o ko tuku_tu — there the sun sets, i kakwa at/u wakb, 
kakwa ||'?anako that is the string, that is the arrow. 

kakybi, n. summer. SV. (D.B.) 

kak"le, v. to bite, s. kaa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweko |ki ena, iko kak" le na — when (it) sees me, then' 
(it) bites me. 

kala, n. impala, s. galla. Clb. (Bal.) 

kala, n. Indian hemp, dagga, s. kana, _khana. NI. (Pa.) 

kalabu, n. watermelon. [Tsw. lechapu.jCIa. (Pa.) 

kalaipe, n. pi. stripes. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kalaipe ma doggo — stripes of the zebra. 

kalee, n. stars. SIII. (D.B.) 

kalikoa, v. to run. Slid. (Arb.) ga kalikoa. 

_kalug~ga^ n. ramgiver, a name for the new moon. [Ban.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex. : ~||nwi ~ma e e, ~||nwi ~ma 
_kalug~ga new moon it is, new moon raingiver. 

kam, V. to come to an end. CI. (Do. ) 

kam, kamma, v. to become soft, to lie down, crouch down, hide. Nil. (LI.) kamm, kamm, kamma. Ex.: ta tj| 

! na Am, ta Am ti t/ako kam and (he) waits for the food, and the food slowly becomes soft, ta |xwf 

s'^'a tsaba, ta kwal tsaba, ta kam and | xwe heard the bird, and was afraid of the bird, and croucJI 

down (under tall grass), ha sig d3U tanki, ta kamma k" a, ha kamkamma k"a he saw other people and 

crouched down on the ground, he was crouching down on the ground, ta d3U saa ha, ta ti t/ig, ta kam i 

kwa |xwe and the people heard him and were crying, and hid (their faces on the ground) fearing 

I xwe. 

kam, n. penis, urin. Cllb. (Wil.) kSm. 
kam, damp. Nil. (Wil.) 


canij kama, when, then^ because, for. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: ma ku u ka ts'^a, kam ~|gi, kam ~tsi I lay down 

and slept, when (it) dawned, then came. ~|ka guwa t/oma, ka 3U a |ko |kau do not take the milli- 
pede, because a person is afraid, a |ka: fka: ! kau, kama m |ka ho:a, mi |ka m (I) do not know the 

hippopotamus, for I have not met (it), I have not seen (it). CII. (D.B.) Ex.: naron |k'?au tama, gwe 

~u tama xu kama the Naron do not milk, because they have no cows. tu:m ko _daufan xa:a, kama m ko 

~k"wi the rain is galloping there, when it thunders, /aum kwe kama ~te, a ! koate tama, tu:/ ko tu^ 

i I nauba hal kam |na: kwe ~! ku in winter then it keeps shut, and does not come out; rain falls, 

spring comes, then here (it) comes out. 

:am, kama, like, used before or after n. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: | gora ko k"wi, ka t/ani 3U |nwa kam — the ba- 
boon talks and laughs like a Bushman, fneku ku ! gee kama |nu-k"auba a python is long like a sor- 
cerer. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kasa ||nai kama i — the ... is like tsama. kwe kama sa i tama — like a 
person she is not. duba keime e, a gwim kama xa i the eland is big, like an ox it is. 

:ama, v. to go a distance, s. kamaa. CI. (Do.) 

;ama, v. to cook. SIlc. (D.B.) Ex.: kama u e cook the food. 

:ama, all. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: n |k" ar-ka |nai kama — all my hand's fingers. Sllb. (Mh. ) Ex.: n ne kama 
fara they are all well, gukn kamatn all living beings. 

;ama, sometimes. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kama wa a, kama wa e sometimes it is a, sometimes it is e. 

amaa, v. to follow after, s. kama, to go a distance. CI. (Do.) 

.ama~ku, outside, Slla. (Mg. )(Dk.) ~ka~raaku. 

iamat/a, v. to find. CI. (Do. ) kamacha. 

ambala, kambara, n. housefly. CIII. (D.B.) 

ammariyfi. middle, midst, halfway, as adj , kammar)se. SI. (B. ) kamman. Ex.: har] | ne su:ksn !khau: |e: ha 

||kAnds-ka kammaq she sprang through her brothers' midst. (LI.) kamman, kamman-sse. Ex.: ha |ku-g 

|ne j)xa:, hag !xwonni, o ha |ku ||ag bai:~|khou a kammarj it (crow) again turned back, because it 

had gone and finished the fat halfway. ! hau kammarjse tukan e:, i | ne "Iki |e i |na:, 1: the 

strap's middle opening (loop) it is, we put in our heads to it. 

am~mi, noon. Nil. (LI.) kammi . 

suno, when, then, s. kam, kama. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kamo niggi xlako, atonen a ba tsakatsahe hak"ato — 

when the doctor had cut, we danced and sang, kamo dididina ts'^oko, kamo uwe tl'^ale, hii when 

burnt the fire, then he called, hi. 

amra, n. kraal. Cla. (Pa.) 

amua, n. river, pool, waterhole. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hama kamua this is a river. 

amwa t/wa, n. lip. CI. (Do.) kamwa chwa. 

'am fkowe, v. to be wide, kam fko kakho, to widen. CI.(Db.) 

r)> V. will, used as v. part. s. ka. denoting contin. action, a state, or stressed action. SI. (B.) kan. 
Ex.: |a:iti a !kwai: ha.-g |ne ||kao: tir) !kwitan, au |ka:gsn e: !ku:, hirj |ne kag ha: ||na — one hen 

(ostrich) lies on the eggs, while two hens are eating there, ha ||kande:ksn [hum ha, si karj sag, i: 

her brothers agreed with her, we will come, yes. (LI.) kan, kkan. Ex.: ! ku ko:kan fkakka ha, "n kar) ka 

a se ||ka: hi: Ikuttau" the other says to him, "I do wish thou wouldst burn for us (a stick towards) 

Sinus", ha karj ! kuita — it is white. ! kwi a !kwai:, ha kar) ||kuwa, ! k'^e e !ku:,he kag ||ku|lku:ka — 
one man is fat, two men are fat. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ka | na ! go: ne kia, ha kag ||a se |ke |na ha— ka 

|k"a he sees the man who sleeps, he goes to take the head with his claws. SV. (D.B.) kan. Ex.: 

gume kan /a the oxen are coming. |nyle na kan ||ke: the stones are three. 

in, n. sack. CI. (Do. ) 

ig, far, outside, yonder, s. kama~ku. SI. (B. ) kkSri. Ex.: to:i |a:itik9n a: ka-g |ne kag |u:g !kau:xu 

the hen-ostrich is the one who sleeps outside on the hunting-ground. (LI.) kaii, kkaK^. Ex.: toi ta 

!ku:xe ||koe ho whai:,ha: se ||a kag: an ostrich runs passing through the springbok, it will run 


far. |hokan |ku kar) !xwai:, hig kda ! gei the pigs were yonder carried away, they and the sheep. 

\kana, kaSna, v. to twist, twirl, roll, s. ||kana, kano. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: ! khwi t/i^ 3U o ||kai, ko ||ko, 

ka ||nai, ka "keise skana, ! nau tsi a the fibre here, people hold (it), and pull, then roll, then 

strongly twist, a thong it is. Nil. (LI.) k^na. ' Ex.: na ti kalna ! nu~e I twirl the fibre grass. 

kalna, to roll (a stick) under the hand (upon something). kar|kani, to roll down. 

kana, n. Indian hemp, dagga, s. kala, _khana. NI.^CII., Clla. (Pa.) 

kana, n. knife. Slid. (Arb. ) 

kana, to-morrow. CII. (Schi.) 

kana, perhaps, either, as, s. kama. CI. (Do. ) 

kanakute, v. to jump, hop. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: inga kanakute kind3a eway jumped the insect. 

kanda, v. to pour. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a doa ~||gu, kanda |eja, kand _||a — takes water, pours it in, pours 
it on. 

kandolowa, n. sweet potato. CIII. (D.B.) 

kane, n. spiked cucumber, Citrullus caffer. (D.B.) 

kar)ee-ha, yes. SI. (Lich. ) kangee-ha. 

karjgiti, n. box. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hama ta ka kar)giti — you sit on the box. 

~kani, n. a creeper of which the root is eaten. Nil. (LI.) kani. 

kani:, n. letter, paper. Nil. (Wil.) kini. 

kanja, n. hyena. Hyaena crocuta. SVI. (D.B.) 

kanka, behind. CII. (Pa.) 

kar)kafmu~si, n. leaf, s. kanJAi. Slla. (Dk.) kar)kafm-u~si, kakalmu~si. 

kankwintuke, n. flowers. SII. (D.B.) 

kano, V. ought. CI. (Do.) 

kano, n. rope, strap, s. kana, to twist. CI. (Do.) 

kanJ\i, n. leaf, s. karikafmu~si. Slla. (Ck. ) 

kan||kan, n. hair of caterpillar. Slla. (Ek. ) 

kao, V. to look for. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kao ta karimu I look for game. 

kao:, V. to turn. SII. (D.B. )^ Ex.: ha kao: ha |na — he- turns his head. 

kao^, kau:f, v. to be warm, kaofkaof, to warm, s. kauir|, kaSru. SI. (B. ) kkSi, kka^k^u. (LI.) kk^, 
kk^kksfc). Ex.: r) r|a |ne se kuqkur): r) |k"a|k"a hi se ! hAm kaof, au hi tatti e:, r) a kaofkdo^wa i) 

|k"a|k''a^k"aofwa se |hir) u hi I will warm my hands, that they may be a little warm, because I 

warm my hands, that the cold may go from them. 

kao, n. justice. CI. (Do.) 

kd,okao, k^ukau, v. to run, gallop, s. |ka|kao, to gallop. SI. (B. ) kaokao, kdiukau. Ex.: ! gwal se ! hammi 

ku kdokao sir] ||e ! gweCi-ta ||nair) the hyena fearing galloping runs to the hyena's house. to:i |ku- 

|ne !u:xe: ku k^ukau sir) ||e — the ostrich runs away. 

kaokho, v. to befall. CI. (Do.) 

kaone, better. CI. (Do.) 


kaoo, V. to throw down. CI. (Do.) 

kaoo, n. the open country. CI. (Do.) 

kapa, V. to shoot. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kapa karibu — has shot game. 

kapurte, n. goats, kapuriwa, kids. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: kapurte Qpoinja 0poin |ki the young goats are a- 

sleep. kapuriwa /a ~/i the kids are coming. 

kara, karra, v. to spread out, to roll, s. kafre. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U ku ||geri ~t/u, kara ||esi ko k"a --- 

people build a hut, spread grass on the ground. Nil. (LI.) karra. Ex.: Unir) t/i kwe k"a.,, karra "t/i 

put down a thing on the ground, spread out the thing. NIII. (D.B.) beidi-ka ! kwi kara ~si 

Beidi's hair is rolled. 

kara, v. to kill by shooting. Nil. (Wil.) k&ra. 

_kafra, v. to be stupid, to forget. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 30 eri fke:, 30 eri _kafra this man is clever, 

that man is stupid. CII. (D.B.) tira ko_kafra, ne ko kuru I have forgotten, whether (they) make 


iara, nothing. Nil. (Wil.) k^ra. 

ia:ra, n. beads. SI. (Lich.) kSra. 


[£araa, n. cattle post, kraal. CI. (Do. ) 
.-caraa, rhebok, s. karaka. CI. (Do.) 
:araka, n. blesbok, s. karaa. CII. (D.B.) 

,cara mahe, v. to choose. CI. (Do.) 

j / 

paramo, n. iris. SI. (B. ) kdiramo. Ex.: tsaxu-ka karamo — iris of eye. (LI.) kkdnnammo. 

Icare, v. to cut up meat to dry. CI. (Do. ) 

Ikaire, hollow, curved, s. kara. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nwi e _ka?re the moon is hollow. 


pare, a little. CI. (Do. ) 

tare, nice, sweet. CII. (D.B.) 

care, n. hakdoorn tree. Cla. (Pa.) 

jcaree, n. toes, claws, heels, hoofs, spoor made by feet. CI. (Do. ) 

rareko, full, satisfied. Cll. (D.B.) 

:arie, thick, strong. CI. (Do.) 

:ariepe, soft. CI. (Do. ) 

:arii, v. to be excited. CI. (Do.) 

:arii, n. trunk of tree. CI. (Do.) 

:aj'i'?i, cold. Slla. (Dk. ) 

ari kakho, v. to drive carefully. CI. (Do.) 

arikuse, quietly. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: karikuse Nt/Amre — go quietly.' 

:arimu, karibu, n. game, something to shoot. CIII. (D.B.) E^ : hakabita ba |ki:ta karimu — he goes out 
to look for something to shoot, kao ta karimu, look for game, kapa karibu (he) has shot game. 

ariroi, n. Indian hemp, dagga, s. kana. Cla. (Pa.) 


karisi, difficult, much. CI. (Do.) 

kari simu, v. to attend. CI. (Do.) 

kari siro, v. to stand by, stick to. CI. (Do. ) 

kari t/o, n. a brave man, pride. CI. (Do.) kari cho. 

kariu, v. to save, hope. CI. (Do. ) 

karkn, n. horse. Slid. (Wu.) 

karo, n. boy. CI. (Do. ) 

karo, n. stone, large hail stone. CI. (Do.) 

karo, when, s. ka, kama. CI I. (D. B, ) Ex.: |k"aren ko i:, karo ko nama k"wi kum — small (I) was, when 
the Nama language (I) heard. 

karra, v. to talk over. SI. (LI.) kk^rra. Ex.: ! k'?e ka ||nau:, hs: hs: ^x6a, ti e:, |nu-ta:rra ka |kwe:i 

k"o, ir, he ||nau:, hs: |au: karra o |nu-tarra |ke the people did this, they intended to describe 

what the old woman did, they did this, they talked over the old woman's name. 

karraka, v. to examine. SI. (B. ) Ex.: m 0a0aide we, 8*^0611 ~|ko: s'^a: a se karraka ke t] |na:, ta g |na: 

|ku dola ta !nau!nauugsn au 0moer) o my granddaughter, come and sit near, thou shalt examine for 

my head, for my head feels swarming with lice. 

karre, young. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: daba karre, a young child, an infant. 

karu, V. to come down, descend. Nil. (V.) kar^. (LI.) Ex.: ha ba sir) ~||ku ha kwe Ikarj, ta ok"wi ha, 

'kdru" his father saw him sitting on the top of the tree and said, "come down". (Wil.) karu, dis 


karu, V. to strain. CI. (Do.) 

Nlcalru, V. to burn, s. kau, karu /a. CII. (D. B. ) Ex.: |e/a ~|nu ka ko vkalru — the fire at night burnt 

karu, n. stem of leaf. CI. (Do.) 

karu/a, hot, s. \kalru. CII. (Pa.) karuscha. 

kasaza, n. a big beetle. CIII. (D.B. ) 

ka Be he, v. to justify. CI. (Do.) 

ka ee hejo, better, s. kaone. CI. (Eb. ) ka se heyo. 

ka se ho, v. to provide for. CI. (Do. ) 

ka se t/uwe, v. to be safe. CI. (Do.) ka se chuwe. 

kasi, n. box. [Eng. case.Js. keis. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n sn si ! kc kasi I brought and put down the box 

NI. (D.B.) Ex.: anni~u ko |nwi kasi i Anni-u has brought a box. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ka:si i, him-tis 
ka:si i a box it is, a wooden box it is. 

kaeubi, n. name for a short Herero. Nil. (LI.) 

kata, rel. where. CIII. (D.B.) Ex: Idlamu ako, kata a xlubana ati the edge it is, where is shallow 

the water. 

kataikwa, n. bead. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tase hadzabe e kataikwape buy for the Bushman beads. 

kati, then, s. ati, kawa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.; o seme poijobe, kati ela bu:e, ati ! noo — (it) eats ants, 
then makes a hole, and digs. 

ka:ti, n. cat. [Afr. kat.] SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ka:ti ||he: Unelr) the cat comes out of the hut. 


catse:ma^ a little, s. t/itseima. Nil. (Wil.) katsema. 

catsina, n. sugarcane. CIII. (D.B. ) ha-kha pi ati na si J&, ^ha me katsina na — they went to fetch 
water, he went for sugarcane. 

catu, but. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapina bita onebi _dza, katu pagad3i, kwako i/oko |ki i: he, _dza ... in 
the morning we came, but the porters, when the sun was there, came. 

tail, V. to rain, fall, s. kaua, kauwa. SI. (B. ) Ex.: ||nair) ||kai:e |ka:l, au ||nainjar) tatti ~!kwa: |ka:ti 

kau the house inside is wet, because the house feels the ram has newly fallen. (LI.) kkau. Ex.: 

!kwa: k"auki ta arro:ko kau:, !kwa: se kau ki ! xwonni se whai: the rain does not quickly fall, 

that the rain may falling bring back the springbok. ! gitan |ki ka'u:wa he a: ! kwa the sorcerers 

make fall for them ram. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: _!kal ka~u tia:ke rain falls (from) clouds. 

^kau, V. to light (fire), burn, s. _kao. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: | ho ~t/i, ka 3U ||ei, ka go t/xo, ka vkau da, ka 

soa the steenbok comes, people catch (it), and skin (it), and light a fire, and roast (it), skau 

dori d3i burn the eland-beans. 

"kau:, ka~u, v. to disappear, descend, s. kaua, kaue. SJ. (LI.) kk^, kSii. Ex.: tail t/wer]jar| ha:l |k"oen, 

ti e:, ~||khalg Hkwalrj kui ~kau:_,u ! khe ||a: T/wegj ar) saw, that the lioness disappeared going away. 

uksn ka, u se turn:, ti s:, Ikwalttsn |no k"au se !gau:, o ha: kda ~kau: u sir) ||e — you wish to list- 
en, whether the star fell straight down, as if it disappearing went. |a— ka tija-g | ne ta ka~u a 

fight's thing is coming down (danger is threatening). 

I'kau, V. to throw. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _|kxo: _goba ti "kau dice the Mbunda throw. 

:au, V. to live, survive, rear. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kug kwe ko 11°' > ko Ikwisa kau an old man dies, the 

name survives, kwem taba /e Jii, a ko |kwan Je wexaa, a xaba kau u, a fuwan au ~u — a man marries 
her (a widow), and takes all the children, he rears them, and gives them food. 

au, V. to disbelieve. CI. (Do. ) 

au, V. to remain. CI. (Do. ) 

kau, V. to be motionless, quiet. SI. (LI.) kati, kkau. Ex.: i | ne |ku yk'^oaksn kwe:, ~kau 8*^0:, au i 

k" auki da^rraksn we continue altogether still, sitting motionless, while we do not stir, i | ne 

~! ku te ha ! khwi '~||kaumksn, he i |ne ho u:i ||kha 1:, au hi |ne kui ~kau — we hold down its (porcu- 
pine's) tail's rattle, and we lift the stick off from it, when it becomes quiet. " 

au, later. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: k"arik"au _si |ka m, kau tseme m, xabitsi kau ! nwe m the youths do not 

eat, later a little eat, but later next day eat. 

au, pron. thou, you, pi. kare. CI. (Do.) ' ' 

au, and, connecting words, s. ka, ko, tau. SI. (B.) Ex.: hir) ! auka kau & hi |ka:gan g they beat and 

allowed their mates (to beat) me. (LI.) ksCu, kkau. Ex.: !kuksn!kuksn he sir) |la ha a:, he tau ||khwai:, 

he kau ! nwir) the shoes, they must go after him, they and the quiver, they and the kaross. toi |ke 

ta tai kau ||k" oen |kao:^ |na: ts*^! the ostrich is used to walk looking back at the Brinkkop's 


laua, kauwa, v. to settle, run down, climb down, fall, s. ~kau:. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: | ga ~u _kaua rain 

has fallen, fka: | ne kauwa N||no the river runs down to a waterhole. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ta tne~^nebbi 

sir) llgu, ta kauwa ||gu k"a-- and the woodpigeons saw water, and settled on the water's edge. 

laula, kaua, tomorrow, s. !kaua. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: m/e ka _! gwa "ka _hal, _kaula m/e _hat — perhaps 
(he) will to-night come, to-morrow perhaps will come, kaua ra ka t/e: to-morrow I will work. 

auaba, n. body. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ykama ||goraba a l|o, a ko koa, i ko kauaba jkwi _ha, se !ku:/a [kwi _ha 
the locust is dead and broken, here the body stays alone, its head stays alone. 

luba, n. Cape hunting dog. Cllb. (Zuk.) (Bal.) (Wil.) 

icaue, V. to gather, come together. SI. (LI.) kaue, kkaue. Ex.: ! k'^e Ikuitan "kaue au ||neig — people 
return gathering at the hut. t/wer) |kwe|kwetan sair] ! halmma ||kwa:f, "kaueja hi 1:, i sair) kAm: hi, o 

hir| |ne "kaue o !khwa: 0pwa ! nwaxu the old springbok rams will first approach coming together for 

us there, we shall go gently to them, as they gather at the small rain's spoor. 


_kaule, together, s. "kaue. NI. (D. B. ) Ex.: donkeri ku _are ~!gu:, ka 5U s|nwi, ka ku ~tsi, ka ku fka: 

_kaute the donkeys go to the water, then people drive, then (they) come, then bind together ( in- 

span) . 

kauir), v. to singe, blacken, s. _ka^o, kalru. SI. (LI.) ka~uin. Ex.: | itan |ne ||ka ka'uir) har-ka ti e: a, 
nar| |ne ||khou |h6aksn the fire burns blackening this part of it, it becomes black. 

kau:ka, v. to be wet, s. kau. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! xei kau:ka — the clothes are wet. 

kaukau, v. s. kaokao. 

kaukau, n. a plant, Solanum Bangei, U. Damm. NI. (D.B.) 

kaukau, n. vulture. Cllb. (Wil.) 

kauki, "kauku, interrog. where ? SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: kauki be: ha a ? where is the man ? "kauku ||r) sa 

ki ? where is your home ? 

"kaukwe, among, used after n. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: fnu hi/ "kaukwe kweba sits among the bushes a man. 

kaug, prob. V. part., s. kwar). SI. (Lich. ) kaung. Ex.: a xa kaug ! ain ti de ? — where do you go to ? 

kaurru, v. to sprout, s. kerru. SI. (LI.) kkaurru. Ex.: he !khou:, ti e:, ti tar) Qhoikan kaurruwa — 
they smelt that it seemed the bushes were sprouting. 

kaurukan, v. to have heartburn, to have an uneasy stomach, pass, derived from kaurru. SI. (LI.) 

kkauruken . Ex. : mama-guksn karj |k"e:ja si a:, si-g |no k"au ta:, ti e:^ si ka kaurukan, o si: ha: na 

~a 0pwa, o sitan ta: l|ka ti e:, ! kwi-ta ~a |ku e our mothers said to us about it, did we not feel 

that our stomachs were uneasy, if we ate that little piece of meat, while we felt that it was human 

kau se konja, v. to stick oneself up. CI. (Do.) kau se konya. 

kau t/o, n. man, person, s. k" au. Cll. (Do.) kau cho. i 

kavandza, n. sweet potato, [prob. Ban.] NIII. (D.B.) ! 

kawab, n. Rhynchosia totta, a plant of which the root is used as a charm for shooting. CII. (D.B.) j 

kaxale, perhaps. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kaxale na d50 kavikise, kaxale na ! kau goleba — perhaps give black t 
(stuff) to Kavikise, perhaps give white to (joleba. 

kaxo, n. knife, s. kaho, CI. (Do.) kagho. Ex.: kako r)|ka a knife handle. 

kaxu, V. to teach, CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||o ||kuq kwe ykwa ko |gi kaxu te dead are the old men who taught' 

me the , . , dance 

kaxukan, n. chest, of body. s. ||ka:xu, ||ka:tu. SII. (D.B.) . 

ka:2i, n. chest. SIII. (D.B.) 

ke:, ks:, v. to want, be willing, when followed by se indicates future or habitual action, s. ka. SI. J 
(LI.) kke. kke, kf. Ex.: ||kha:l |ne !k»'wai:fn, ti e:, ! kaukan !xwa: ke: ||gwitan o ha |k"e — the licil 
is angry, because the children seem to want to play with his mane . 0pwaitan |kwe:i k"o, x: , o ||k'^: el 

hs fen:na, ti e:, i ! gau: ks: se |hir) the game acts thus at the time when they know, that our 

blood shall flow, mamma— gu k"auki ke: a he a: q-g, g se l|na||na he my parents were not willing to J 

give me to them, that I might live with them, mama sir) ka, hag |k"e:, ti e:, !khwa:^a ! k'^e ke: se !kjl! 
jhig !khwa:-ka xoro o !khwa:, he se |ki tai:fja — mother used to say, that the water's people are 
accustomed to pull out the water' s bull from the water, that they may lead him away. j 

ke, V. part, different meanings. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n ke ||ko:be:nje, a ke |no ||ko:be:nje — I must go 

home, thou must go home quickly. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tutai, ha ke ||ale tai a lutsipi Tutai, he has 

gone away to Lutsipi. f^we-^ h^ ke tsu |nu:a --- the wind, it is blowing from the Kalahari. SV. (D.B. 

Ex.: la ke /a f^ana the man is going to speak. ||ana ke ka ||gwa the sun is setting. NI. (D.B.) 

Ex.^ !ga ro t/i, ka ||gaike ke |nAm --- rain is coming, and to-day will fall. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsaba! 
ke m |ku:i jnesig — birds eat the ... berries, e-sig ! ku a kilikitu, me ke ~sig a ||na: hn — we s* 

84 1 jl 


Bushmen at Kilikitu, I shall see and talk to them. 

~ke, V. to become, s. ki, kei. S NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: dzoma tsi fkere ||gauwa ~ke — women who die become 

ke:, ke, v. to be there, be that, here, there, s. ka. SI. (LI.) ke. Ex.: ! gaufa |u ke:, toi-ta '! gaufa 

|u a wing- feather root is that, an ostrich's wingfeather root. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: biri ke:, o 

andres biri kie ke: goats are there, old Andnes' goats are there. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: _||kuru ke 

the path is that, a xanki ke n thy mother am I. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea ke ! kw'^'e it is one. NI. 

(D.B.) Ex.: a ! nau ka ||'^ora ke ---in summer he was born here. Nil. (LI.) ke, ke. Ex.: f^i, f^^i ^^'' 

a sneeze, a sneeze is that, ha fkum sa ha |ui-sau |nu, ke ha fkum taba his father-in-law's 

and his mother-in-law's vessel, that his father-in-law made. NlII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nule ke d30 that 

country is dark. 

ke, pron. me, s. ki, ka. SI. (LI.) ke, kke. Ex.: rj x6a a fkakka ke, ti e:, !kwi-|a koafr) |hir) — my 
mother told me, that the girl arose. Ihaiu: ||kwalr) |ku a:, !kwa: xu:wa ke !khwa:-ka xoro — the 
thong it was, that broke letting go for me the waterbull. SII. (D.B.) Elx. : misis ha sa ke ~! xe e |na: 
— Missis will give me a cloth for the head. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! xar| ke |lxau-|na, n /i t/un — give me 
tobacco, (that) I may smoke. 

ce, p.ron. they, s. ken. Slla. (Mg. ) 

-ke, n. suffix, used in sing, with some words, in pi. with others. Slla. (Dk. ) (Mg. ) Ex.: ! kuke kja ||koe, 
ka ! ku kja ! "^u — one shoe, two shoes. |kwisi e ||koe, |kwike ne ! "^u — one bird, two birds. 

-ke, poss. part, following n. & pron. s. ka. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: maki-ke gome a /a ||na ke kanje — Maki's 
oxen have gone to Kanye. n— ke |nwa: e ta ti e — my stick is this one. 

£6, prep, different meanings, sometimes follows noun. s. ka. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r| | utu 80 ! au ke my 

back rests on the ground. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: q ©pwol ke ||gau — I sleep at night. ! wara tane ~khaa ke 

~xuu the girl is carrying water on the head. |no kwikie ke |u:sa let us go to the Tswana. SV. 

(D.B.) Ex.: ea /a ! na ke kanje ke be: rake ke misis — he is going to Kanye to work for Missis, ja 

ga Ijk" um ke ||nyle — I pound with a stone, ea |kun |ki ke |k"a he holds it in (his) hand. 

xla:8i fkabe ke |nyle — the glass lies on the stone, fxaii a k"aa ke kotele the dogs have drunk 

from the dish, ke kAmte /i a Ukaba 0moi ||ki to-day we have brought wood. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~|gu 

ke --- at night. QII. (D.B.) Ex.:' e ta t/et/e ke --- lay it aown. 

le, but, s. "kesi, kai. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tire |u titi, ke tj*a |u kau kono — I cannot eat, but you eat, 
if you want. 

ce, n. rhinoceros, s. k'^'le. Cllb. (Zuk.) 

le:, n. arm. SIII. (D.B. ) 

:eba t/a karee, n. animal's paw. CI. (Do.) keba cha karee. 

ce be ka, except. CI. (Do.) 

icebese, good, pretty. Slid. (Arb. ) 

'kebbi, v. to peep, watch, s. ~ke:ja. SI. (LI.) kkibbi, kk^bi. Ex.: ha |ne ~kebbi-i, au ha ||k" oen 
llgaufe !k'^e, ksbbi-i ||neir| ||xa]|xa — she was peeping, while she looked seeking the people, peeping 
out of the hut's sides. Ik'^e ||kwalg |ne kebbi !kwi-|a, i:, o hig ka, he se Ijk" oen !kwi a: 8*^0 doJa 

se 8^ !kwi-|a people watched the girl because of it, for they wanted to see what man was coming to 

the girl. 

cebi, V. to throw. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 3e, ea kebi a stone, it is thrown. 

cebono, n. mortar, s. !ke:. Cla. (Pa.) 

fee, this, that, s. ke. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: kee ! wara dreee famku, kee !wara ti^ xwoi — this girl works 
nicely, that girl is bad. _||haku sn ||n ki kee ||haku' s hut is this 

cega, v. to go. Slid. (Ai-b.) ga kega. 

kegnia, n. needle. Slid. (Arb.) 


ke:ha, v. to run. Cllb. (Wil. ) keha. 

kehe:, keihe:, ho there. SI. (LI.) kke, he^ kkei he. Ex.: toitan !ku:xe ui, har| |k"e: toi, "kei he:" -■ 
the ostrich runs away, he says to the ostrich, "ho there". 

kehe, n. grass. Slid. (Arb. ) keh^ 

kei, V. to grow, be big, used also as adj. s. ki, kai, ke:ja. SI. (B. )' kei. Ex.: |kyrri |ku a:, |ne di: 

Ikau'.kauru 0wa, ha |ku a:, |ne kei: the backbone it is which becomes a little new moon, it is 

that which grows. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |a "kei, a ki ~uki ||An ~fke the girl is big, sits on the hut 

floor. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ga~i "kei, ha-ka ||hau/a --- a big tree, its twigs. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /i ||kai 
! au/ia ha:l:a "kei ko ~|gi-||kwa, ||kur) kwe-||kwa, !au:J*i tama — we all were afraid; the big ... 
dancers, the old men, were not afraid. ||nweba ||o, mi tamba !kei, ||nweba ~kei, ||ais kwe ||naua debi _h) 

the moon dies, another comes, a full moon home he then returns, t/oro a |na:, |na:, i ~(kwa, a 

~kei a |nutaxa i, ~kei ko ~ako nabbo the tobacco we water, water, water, it sprouts, grows as bi| 

as this, big enough to gather. ||axas ~keis old ||axas. 

kei, V. to keep up (fire). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/au a /wa ||e:, a kei _daa a woman pulls grass, keeps i 

the fire. 

keia, both. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: keia dame ! om — both little boys. ' 

"keiaba, grown up, s. kei. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: k"au |kwaba "keiaba — a grown-up young man. 

kei:'?e:, n. iron. Nil. (Wil.) ket'e. 

kei~ja, yes, s. ki~ja, kjeja, kjija. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: g kjan ||ku si ku 'tei~ia g|ga" — I shall not sa; 
"yes, be with you". 

keim, ~kein, when, then, but. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |e:/a ko _kalru; keim tamaj" ko _hal, |ni/ ko t/ane — 
the fire is burning; when no more there is, then we will bake, keim ko xaba mi, "keim ko ||o:ko kweme 

iger" then he said, "when a man dies, arises". ~kein ko ||au-|ena ko kobe, ti ko ||e, ~kein ko ||xau] 

ma te, a ko /u/a ma te, a ko |kau/a ma te, kei rako tira debi _hal, a ko |nu — when the Auen visit, 
I buy, then a spearhead (they) give me, and a pot give me, and a wooden plate give me, then I return 
and sit. 

keis, n. case, chest. [Eng. case. Afr. kist.] SI. (LI.) kkeis, pi. kketenkketens. 


"keise, "keisi, ~kei/e, much, very, many, s. kei, kai. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: Ini, 3U ku khau:, ka "keisi tal 

the berries, people pick, (they) are very good. ! khwi t/i 3U o ||kai, ka ||nai, ka "keise vkana --■ 

a rope people hold, and roll, and twist much. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ka:m kwe "keise fQxwoin _hafnaha 

on the flat there is much food. | nauba |ku ra ko ko, a ko ~kei/e |ku the duiker I killed, I kill- 
ed many. 

"keira," old, prob. derived from, kei, big. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a se "keira se, n ti^ ku ~k" u haa — you 
are old, I will not marry you. 

~ke:ja, v. to stare at, s. "ksbbi. SI. (LI.) kkeya. Ex.: ! khwa Qpwa |ne ~ke:ja a, au ha ||k"oen, ti e:, 

ha |kwei k"wa, r:,--au ha ! gabba the little child stares at it, when he sees what it is doing, 

when it nods its head. 

ke:ja, v. to grow, be big, s. kei, kai, ki. SI. (LI.) kkeja. Ex.: r) sir) |ni: !kau!kauro ||khe:, au ! kiii 
ko:, g sir) ||xa: rj ||k" oen ha au !kui a, au har) |oko ke:ja — I saw the moon's horn the other day, I 
saw it again yesterday, when it had grown a little. 

ke~ja, yes, s. kei~ja, ki^ja. Slla. (Dk. ) 

ke~kakho, v. to play an instrument. CI. (Do.) 

keke, i;. to hoax, s.k"ek"en. CI. (Do.) 

kekele, n. earrings, s. kakane. Slid. (Arb.) 

keia, kslako, n. river, riverbed. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kslako pakapa^ko, ksla atibi t/i a broad riverb 

river water is there, olanakwe a "khamo ksla tina children go to the riverbed. 


kelee, although. CI. (Do.) 

ksme, long, a long time. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: i/owa keme e all day long, tsatsaije ksme danced a 

long time. 

ke:r), v. to lie down, s. kia. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: koba a ke:r) Koba is lying down. 

ken^ pron. they, themselves, s. ke, ku, kja, kjen. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: kjakja |r)hai ken they see them- 
selves. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ken ke snsn aki ~-kha they are working at the water. 

kenarigu^ n. ostrich. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i/aakwete kenaqgu njambulu like a hen ostrich (is) the ., ., 

bird. . , 

kenderi, n. metal bracelet. CIII. (D.B.) ; 

kenena, kenina, formerly, long ago, with plosive k" very long ago, s. ksme, keni. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

maruku kenena mu misi, ! ungu e ma ||kauwa Maruku died long ago, the Masai killed him. misi t/ojo 

k"enena T/ojo fell very long ago. |jko||kot/eja dzapi a kenina tambi ka ||kut/ija pictures Bush- 
man long ago on rock drew. . , 

keni, old, s. kenena. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: buruku keni mumu — Buruku (is) very old. 

kentu, n. teeth. Slid. (Arb.) ... 

keoa, much, s. "keise. Slid. (Arb.) " • ■ 

kere, pron. you, emph. sing. CI. (Do.) 

keregeta, v. certain little birds. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ko ! kobota keregetabi _hadzabi Bushmen shoot the 

little birds. 

keri:, v. to be cool. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ja keri : i it is cool. 

kerre:, kerre:, v. to go along, used as along. SI. (B. ) kerre. Ex.: ha se ! gel! geitan kerrs: ! khe 

Ikuirri: he would moving his arms fast run along the little riverbed. (LI.) kkerre. Ex.: ! khwai : 

||kwalr| ha:a kerre: Ike sa: Ikhwirri: the gemsbok ate going along the riverbed. 

kerru, i;. to be green, become green, sprout, n. grass, foliage, vegetation. SI. (LI.) kk^rrii, kklrru, 
emph. kerruk^n. Ex.: 0hokan se |ku-g | ne i: kerru, au hi |ne kerru |hir) kerru ||ka:r] — the bushes 

will then become green, when they sprout new foliage, ha kerrukan ||koakan |hiri ! xae-ta ku:, a: 

that foliage always comes out in all places, hir) e:, !khwa: |ne ksCu:, i:, he tiksn \^e "kerru 

hence the rain falls, and the place becomes green. 

kesi, n. box, s. keis, kasi. [Eng. case. Afr. kist.] CI. (Do.), 

kesi, and, also. NI. (D.B.) Ex. :ku nabbo toa kesi |ni: they are collecting cucumbers and berries. •:' 

kekanketans, s. keis. 

ketn, n. bone. Sllb. (Mh. ) ketn. 

"kettau, now, yet, longer. SI. (LI.) kk^t-tau. Ex.: ha ! nwa! nw^ |ku ~i : | ke : kui tsuruku sir) |kwafgan, 

ha i k"auki ~kettau-g |ne |ni: ha his footprints really are lost there in the clouds so that we no 

longer see him. 

Je'^u, V. to burn, roast. Nil. (Wil.) ke'u. , . ., .- . ,,-.... 

Jewa, V. to run. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: hr| k^wa, hr) sa: they run, they come. .■. . .: , ■ 

Kha, V. to grow, s. kei, ki . NUT. (D.B.) Ex.: dor)go ki a kha, _bala ja kha, monkeynuts grow, in rain- 
time they grow. 

kha, V. to go, fetch, short form of "hakha. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~kha me tsinana se kwa tjetje — he went 
for sugarcane to suck it. 

cha, V. to set a trap. CI. (Do.) 


kha, V. to beware, be accustomed to. CI. (Do.) 

kha, interrog. part. s. ka, xa. SI. (B. ) Ex.: tikha a sir) ||na hi ? where hast thou been ? (place 

what thou sit stay at it ?). 

kha, n. master. CI. (Do.) 

kha:, ~khaa, ~khai, n. water, s. _||kha:a. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: n |ko:wa, kha: n |keo — I am thirsty, wate 

is wanting. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ken ke snsn a ki ~kha: they are working at the water. ~khai si 

fkasi ki ! howa water is filling up the vlei. 

khaa, v. to be perplexed, astonished. CI. (Do. ) 
khaa, v. to be right, good. CI. (Do.) 
khaa, n. neighbor. CI. (Do.) 


khaama, v. called. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: !kor)ga ! noo budi nina, kamo khaama, "mo/aiaii" — the hare popped 
into a hole and called, 'Mo/aiaii". 

khaanja, bright. SI. (Lich.) k'haanya. 

khai, V. to be angry with, s. kbaikhai khaja. CI. (DO.) 

khai, n. cloth. |Tsw. | CI. (Do.) 

/khaia, n. mother, voc. /khaijo, s. ~kai, ~ai, ||kai. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n /khaia ke ||AiDaro a ke txobaku: 
txobaku ka fgoba "n /khaijo" my mother's niece is Txobaku; Txobaku calls (me) " my mother". 

khaija t/o, n. conqueror. CI. (Do.) khaia cho. 

khaie^ n. a poisonous berry. CI. (Do. ) 

khaie ka, n. night. CI. (Do.) 

khaii, v. to please. CI. (Do.) 

khaija v. to be angry with, s. khai, khaijo, khaikhai, CI. (Do.) khaiya. 

khaijo, n. anger, s. khai, khaija. CI. (Do.) khaiyo. 

khaikhai, v. to provoke, s. khai. CI. (Do.) 

khainje, n. frost, coldness. CI. (Do. ) 

khakho, v. to pour out from. CI. (Do.) 

kham, n. lion, s. xam. [Na. xami.] CI. (Do.) 

kham, poss. part, after pronoun. CI. (Do.) Ex.: ebe kham aie khoaha he (to) his village has gone.] 

khama, n. hartebeest, s. ||kama. CI. (Bry. ) 

khana, v. to plunder. CI. (Do.) 

_khana, n. wild hemp, dagga, s. |kana, kana. CII. (D.B.) 

khano, n. red mierkat. CI. (Do.) 

khao, n. cheetah. CI. (Do.) 

khara, both, a pair, used as dual ending to nouns of com. gen. or two genders . ^Na. masc. dual end. khfl 
fern, dual end. ra.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe-khara, two people of different sexes, doqki uwa kweba _hal 
khara of donkeys the man had a pair. 

kharaa, v. to spread out, s. khoraa, kora, kuana. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |xe:an kuriko nabbo xau ta ko, a 


kharaA, i !o: the leaves only gathering I cut up, spread out, they dry. 

khari, n. shade, s. ?karise. NIa. (Leb) ch. sp. 

khatea, n. name of a Bushman tribe living N. S. of the |auni, 'Kattia' . SIV. (D. B. ) Ex.: khatea si ke o 
makopo a 'Kattia' is that old Makopo. 

jkha t/a, v. to sprinkle, s. t/a. CI. (Do.) kha cha. 

khau, n. boundary. CI. (Do.) 

khaua, khauwa, v. form of kaua, to get down, also used as down. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: mihi khaua |kwa ha: ko 

~|gu I take the horse down to the water, khaua alru toa ke get down and run away (said to a 

climbing boy) . 


ikhauru, n. hawk. Sllb. (Mh. ) 

khauwe, sour. CI. (Do. ) 

khethi,n. secretary {prob. worker). CI. (Do.) 

~khi, V. to tear. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /ilk'-an-ki ~! num, /i ka ~khi /i|k"an's boots, they are torn. 

ikhii, n. long-horned rhinoceros, s.|khi. CI. (Do.) 


Ikho, V. to go, come from, s. khoo. Q. (Do.) 

kho, n. water, s. kha:. Slid. (Arb. ) 

Ikho, n. white man. Slid. (Arb.) 

kho, n. gun. Slid. (Arb. ) 

kho, n. springtime, CI. (Do.) 
kho, great. Slid. (Arb.) 


khoa, n. duikerbok. CI. (Do.) 
khoa, unripe. CI. (Do.) 

khoaba, khoas, khoes, n. terms of relationship. Nil. (Leb.) Ex.: khoes-ke khoaba — mother's brother. 

di-khoab-khe father's brother. di-khoaba father's sister. | goa khoaba mother's brother's 

son. ||khum khoas mother's sister, sister-in-law, daughter of father's or mother's brother. 

kho?ar), v. to arise, s. ko?ar). SI. (B. ) kh^aA. 

khoboi, soft. CI. (Do.) 

rkho:e:, v. to peel. SO. (B. ) khoe. Ex.: rj |ne sir] ||ka !hoa: !kuisi, r] |ne ~kho:e: |hir) !kuisi — I did 
roasting place the . . . . , I peeling took out the .... 

,khoe, n. pitfall for game. CI. (Do.) 

khoes, s. khoaba, 

khokho ||kwai, n. stamping pestle. CI. (Do.) 

khom, n. spider. CI. (Do.) khSm. 

khom, n. country. CI. (Do.) kh^. 

kho:ma, n. knobkerrie. CII. (Ek. ) kho:ma. 

khom gee, n. a circumcision ceremony, s. khom ke. CI. (Do.) 

jhom kakho, v. to make quiet. CI. (Do.) 


khom ke, uncircumcised, s. khom gee. CI. (Do.) 

khon^ V. to grind. CI. (Do.) 

khonwa, below, on the ground, s. khaua, khun. CI. (Do.) 

knoo, V. to go away, travel. CI. (Do.) 

khoOj V. to catch an ox. (CI. (Do.) 

khoo, n. evil. CI. (Do.) 

khope, n. bachelor. [Tsw.J CI. (Do.) 

khora^ v. to inflate. CI. (Do.) 

khoraa, v. to spread out, khorae, to be spread out, s. "kharaa. CII. (Do.) 

khori^ n. stump of tree. CI. (Do. ) 

kho t/uu, V. to make an agreement. CI. (Do. ) kho chuu. 

khou, V. to veil. CI. (Do.) 

kho ||kae, v. to put side by side. CI. (Do. ) 

khu:, V. to jump. Nil. (Dk. ) 

khu, n. loins. CI. (Do.) 

khubi, V. to flower. CI. (Do.) 

khuerrekhuerre, v. to blame, s. kwerre, kore. SI. (LI.) kkhuerrekkhuerre, Ex.: ha xoa |kwei:i kuitan 

! kwi : ha |ke i:, o ti e:, ! k'^e khuerrekhuerre-i : ha i: his mother called his name after the thi 

about which the people were blaming her. 

khui, n. man, s. kwi. Cllb. (Wil.) 

khun^ under, s. khonwa. CI. (Do.) 

khuu, V. to put on the head, carry. CI. (Do.) 

~khwa, V. to be hot, burn, s. ~khwi, ~kwi, _kalo. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: | kAm na ~khwa the sun is hot. 

khwai:, v. to dawn, break (day), occasional form of ! khwai : . SI. (LI.) kkhwai, kkhwata . Ex.: he tata 

||nau:, ! gauetan ka ha khwai:, tatakan |ne !hAn: and father did this, (when) day was about to br 

father hunted, ha: ! gaue khwai:a |ki sa ha o ||neir) that day breaking brings it home. 

~khwe, V. to collect: SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | ee ~khwe i |kaa let us go to collect berries. 

khwe, i;. to avoid. CI. (Do.) 

khwe, n. wind, asaally !khwe. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: khwe se ! ka wind brings rain. 

khweai, v. to defy, tempt, beware. CI. (Do. ) 

~khwi, V. to play a game. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kau||en dzosi ko ~khwi ka ko \fni Auen girls play the wa 

snake game. 

~khwi, V. to be hot, s. ~khwa, ~kwi. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~||gu ~khwi the water is hot. 

khwi, V. to pain, s. ~kwi . Nil. (Ui.) khwi. 

khwii, V. to terrify. CI. (Do.) 

khTmmma, khwumkhwum, v. to stand up, erect (hair). SI. (LI.) kkhwumma, khwummkhwuinm . Ex.: jkukan |kwe 


hir) khwumma the hair does like this, it stands up. 

~ki, ki:, v. to grow, grow up, let grow, s. ~ke, ~kei, kiki, "kiise. [Na. kai] SI. (B. ) ki. Ex.: |kyrri 
|ku a:, |ne di: !kau!kauru 0wa, ha |ku a:, |ne ki: — the paxwax becomes a little new moon, it is 
that which grows. (LI.) kki, kki, kkiya. Ex.: ha ka ||ga||g^ haf |ku-g |ne ||khou Inwafrarj, au sagsn haf 

|ku— g I ne ~ki, di kui ||kho xoro those nights became three, while the eland grew, becoming like an 

ox. roitar sir) ki: tig |hu: — Ruyter grew up among the white people. har| |ne fouwi "Ik'^okan "Ikarrsu 
s'^'o, ~!k'^ok8n|ne ~"kiya he saw the blue crane sitting in the sun, the blue crane had grown. 

ki, V. to 'be, often used as narr. part., usually present, s. ka. SII . (D.B. ) Ex.: |khfc: ki ~!ne: 

grass is plentiful. ||r) fe;g8n ki haka Bushmen are four, four Bushmen. Ikenje ki ~|a, i ki ||a:, i 

ki |kau ha the steenbok dies, we go home, we carry it. Slle. (And.) Ex.: e ||ka ki he is tired. 

SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ki /owa, i |na: we are sitting, we see (each other). SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: kalahari 

ki twaa fkoa, ki twaa eimersi -- the Kalahari lacks pots, lacks buckets. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: makudgi ki 

t/u ke 0moe Makudzi. sits on wood. Nil. (LI.) usually ti. Ex.: Hgu ki t/a fkwe: rain falls upon 

the dog. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ki t/xai people dance, m ba ki -||ke my father is dead. 

ki, V. to have, prob. derived from |ki. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: si ki ! hake r) ! oa we have water in the pot. 

Ici, V. part, used as if, even, although, or for emphasis. SI. (LI.) ki, kki. Ex.: i ||kwafr) ka 6, ha, ha ki 

||khoa au ||gwa||gwara tu: we are wont to give to him, even if he be rich in catskins. r) ||kwaf q oa 

e !gi:xa a:, ka sir] ||nau: |ko:l ol-ti, ha ki sa Igija, rj |ki |hir)ja — I really was a sorceress who 
was- wont to do this to a magic thing, although it was strong, I took it out. r) kar) dofa tar), ta:, a ki 
|ku ||i:, akan ||k" oen, ti e:, r] ||kwa||kwan: |kwe:i u, i: — I have been ill, for thou dost thyself see, 
that my neck is like this in consequence. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! oh^kia ||kan su |kha ha, ki he ||kan au |lk"U 
||kwe: the lion would have killed him, if he had stirred. 

ci, pron. me, s. ke. SI. (LI.) ki, kki. Ex.: a |ke xa te: da, |xAin-ka a |ke ? |ne !kwija ki he — thy 

name is what ? thy Bushman name ? call it for me SII. (D.B.) Ex.: misis saa ki !xe: r)— r) |na: Missis 

brings me a cloth (for) my head. 

si, pron. it. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: jkxei ki put it in. 

£i, conj . joining verbs, s. ko, kau. SI. (B. ) Ex.: r)-r) a |ne fkakksn ki |wajf ||a: au r) tse — I talked 

turning backwards behind me. (LI.) ki. Ex.: !kwa: se kau ki Ixwonni se whai: the rain will fall 

bringing back the springbok. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) ! 6e ki tai I can walk. 

ci, poss. part. & copula with numeral SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: r)-ki fs, r)— ki fss— ki ! "^uti my arm, my two arms. 

SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i|k"an-ki ~!num, /i ka ~khi — /ijk"an's boots, they are torn. ||gwe: a ki e ~!num — 
two ostriches. 

d, ~ki, dem. here, this, that, s. ki~i, ~kisi. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) so:en ~ki — I sit here, ha kya (na: 

~ki he cannot see this. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: be ki ke e a man that is. kuto se ||kan ku kxau ki 

all the people are sitting here, ki ki'a_tjaba here it lightens. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: i /a ki we go 


el, prep, different meanings, s. ke. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: o toa ki ! ga (he) lies on the ground. SV. (D.B.) 

Ex.: /a ki ! nau go to the waterpit. ea /i l|kai ki tobolo he has shot with the gun. 

da:, V. to lie, sleep, stay, in pi. kiwa, after v. part. kier). SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) kia:, a kia:, ha kia:, 
Pwa kia:, si kiwa, u kiwa, hr) kiwa, |wenjsn kiwa — I sleep, thou sleepest, he sleeps, the child 

sleeps, we sleep, you sleep, they sleep, the children sleep, r) xir) kier), i xir) kiwa I have slept, we 

we have slept, r) hag kier) I shall sleep, ehe: kiwa we shall sleep, g |ni kier) I do not sleep 

sleep, u |ni kiwa — you do not sleep, ha |e kia: 0bo: — he lies in the bushes. |kwi |i kia ha ||nai 
— the bird stays in her nest, r) xn Ixainse kia: I have a short time stayed. 

Cia, V. part. prob. derived from above, denoting unfinished action. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n kia tiaq ||oJ%a, 

I am feeling cold. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 0pwa:a kia tana — the child talks, /i-^pwo kia t/u e twi: — the 
fly sits on the wound. 

!cia, poss. part, after noun. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mad3unki-kia ||xa:la Madsunki's needlecase. 

da, dem. this, here, s. ki . SV. (D.B.) Ex.: misis ha | ne Inwoifo kia Missis has seen and heard here. 

dd, npg. not, s. ti^, ta, SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n ||kaxe se ||An e kid kause ~us, n ke ||ama ke n kid ~us — my 
sister's hut is not very big, I have built one not big. 



kiai, kiafi, v. to be good, sweet, nice. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: Igeigsn nin kiai the juniper berries are 

nice., ha kia§i he is good. 

kiair) v. to run, s. kian. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ke:njan ! '^u kiair) — two wildebeests are running, ha kiai: 
||xrekia he runs fast. 

kiSm:, v. to listen. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: n kiam: e, n ~tu I am listening, I hear. * 

kian, v. to walk about, s. kiair). SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: khora |e kie "la, e api ki ! a, ke a kian, |e|Ani 
txobaku Khora is dead and Api is le:^t, walks about, looks at Txobaku. 

kia:r), v. to be ill, ache, be sore, s. tiag. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: a !nwe:n-tu kia:r| — thy ear aches, ha 

tsa:xur) kiarg, ha kia:r| ha tsa:xu ko:ke his eyes are sore, he is ill with his other eye. ha 

kia:r) ||di he is ill (with) the sun (thirsty). 

kia_tjaba, v. to lighten. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ki kia_tjaba, ~||kani ki kia_tjaba, _!kauuki |i — here it 
lightens, much it lightens, make up the fire. 

kibi n. staff. Slid. (Arb.) 

kibi, tomorrow. Slid. (Arb.) J 

kibiriti, n. matches. [Swa.] CIII. (D.B.) 

kie, V. to intend, be willing, try, used also as to be or v. part. poss. contraction of ke he. SI. (LI. 
kie, kki^, kkie . Ex.: fxoa ! kuxe titouiitsn au |kaggsn, au ti |ke: a, au hir) kie, he ||ke:n te |kaggai 

the elephants ran together round the Mantis at that place, for they intended to stab the Mantis 

death, a |ku se |ki)ki !k'?ee:kie tai:^ hi a thou must take people who are willing to go with thi 

xoaksn ha:l ||nau:, ~||kha:^-ka ! kauksn kie: (ks hs) ||e ha, ha xoakan ha: I |ku !kolag |ki |hir| 

||kha:l— ka ! kauksn the mother did this, when the lion cubs tried to go to her, their mother picke( 

up the lion cubs, r) ||kwalr) ^i:, ti e:,r) kar) ! kar)-a ||gau^e, ti e:, kie: ||ko;wa — I thought I would 

feel about, seeking a place which was dry. r) se ||e ! k'^e e: kie ||ke: ||na I will go to the people 

who are making fire there. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: !ko kie !nwa: ~^kai the man shoots the gemsbok. q ki( 

xr) ||kwa: ||na I have finished there, o andries biri kie ke: old Andries' goats are there. ||ne: 

kie ? where is the house ? |hu: kie ? where is the master? | gaiki 0pwi kie |ke ?--what is this w( 

man' s name ? 

kie, prep, different meanings, s. ke, ki • SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: motor |e ~khaf, ka n ||a kie "khala — the 

motor enters the water, it goes near the water, /orti a fgsn. si kie kofi Shorty gas supplied us 

with coffee. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: kolui a ! hante lihititu, wa /a ! na kie kanje the wagon which came 

from Lihutitu has gone away to Kanye. 

kier), s. kia!, to lie.. 

kihe:, exclamation of rejoicing. SI. (B. ) klhe. 

kii, n. assembly. CI. (Do.) 

kii, n. fire. Sid. (Arb.) 

ki~i, kii, dem. here, this side, is that, s. kike. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: dina |e so: Hoi, so: ki~i Dina 

sits in the sun, sits here. ||kabe kia ki~i ha |na ! kau the leopard is this side, he is on the 

mountain. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! wara kii a girl is that. 

~kija, s. ~ki, to grow. 

l^i~J9'> yes, s. ke~ja, kei~ja. Slla. (Dk. ) ki~ja. (Mg. ) ki-ja. 

ki~ja, here, s. ki~i. Slla. (Mg. ) 

kike, is this, are these, s. ki~i. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: gudom kike a cucumber is this. 

kike, dem. that. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |ni komi kike --- just like that. 

ki:ki,^v. to grow, make grow, kiki:ta, grown up, kiki:t8n, to grow up. s. ki:, to grow. SI. (B. ) ki-ki, 
kikita. Ex.: har) ki:ki ha, ha se ! ham ki: he lets himself grow, that he may first be grown. (LI. 


ki-kklten. Ex.: tata-guksn ta: ||ka ti e:, sisi se kikiitan, si kola-g |ne ||i:, si ||gaule ha: si — 
our fathers felt that we should grow up, we should then ourselves seek food feeding ourselves. 

ki ki kakho, n. poison for an arrow. CI. (Do. ) 

kilopi, n. cows. cm. (D.B. ) 

kimb^kupi, n. boxes. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kimbdikupi unu bnepi epeme boxes men carry on their shoulder. 

kir), V. to be, s. ka, ki. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) kig |hu:, ha |ki r] I am cold, it is killing me. 

kirj, V. part. 7 intent ion. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: nkje kir) g ! koe (nou'^a I .... now marry you. 

kindu, n. calabash, a small kind. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwamo ke ka ! uma kindu a bottle is made of the 


ikinja, v. to live. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ko kinja white people live (there). 

kinjamsala, n. metal. CIII. (D.B.) 

kind3a n. insect, ant, scorpion. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i nga kanakute kind3a it jumped away the insect 

I (locust). 

hkira, old, s. "keira. SIV. (D.B.) 

kiriviti, n. small box. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kiriviti o mazako — box for the pen. pukute kiriviti — shut 
the box. 

ki:-se, v. to teach, advise, n. education, s. ki:. SI. (LI.) kki-sse. Ex.: |xAm-ka |nu|nutattsn |ki e: 

ki:-8e ha, ha: sir) !k'''oase ha ||neir)-ta Ik'^e Bushman old women are those who teach her (a girl), 

she should take care of her house folk, ha ||kan-de 3*^0 do^a |ku ki:-se ha, ta: he ti hi do^a e:, ha 

k"auki sir) ka: ha 0pwoin his brothers must have advised him, for that must have been why he was 

not willing to sleep. ! kaukan e: si |na he, he kar) k"auki k" e:nk" e:n si, ta: tik"wS,q, he fenna 

ki:— se the children that we saw, they did not mock liS for it seemed they knew education (were 

brought up well). 

kisi,' interrog. what ?, s. ki. SII. (D.B.) Ex. : ~kisi e: ? what is that ~kisi myri 0pwar) a xan |a:? 

j what has killed the kids ? 

kita, rel. which. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: budakwe a _dzana alako kita ta kenene t/a:kwita — Budakwe has 
brought a sheep which you formerly ordered. 

ki:t©n ki:takan, n. growth, s. ~ki, ~kei. SI. (B. ) kiten kitaken. Ex.: ha ki:t8n ki:tak8n ~te: u ? — 
how tall was she ? (her growth what ?) 

kitie, interrog. where ? SII. (D.B.) Ex.: kitie ||r) a ||na ? — where is the house ? 

ikitulu, n. stool. [Eng.] SV. (D.B.) 

kit/a, V. to fetch (?) CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kit/a tsokopi, elatipi, fetch (?) wood, boys. 

kiu, too, too much. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ku se kiu ti^xwe you are too bad. 

kiuke, about, around. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ii |kama kiuke look at the veld around. 

kiwa, s. kia, to sleep. 

"•J^^ "'j®* '^t^i KJan, forms of v. to be, used as auxil. to show action is begun and not finished, or as 

copula, possibly as to be, s. kia. Slla. (Mg. ) ca, ce, c9, can. Ex.: kofb kja ku, r) cje 8'?wi'?i 

jackal ... say, I (am) ill. na kja | hu — I am cold. !kuke kja ||koe — one shoe. ||gaT. kjan sija 

!kae ||kei|ha wolf ... come run (to the) girl, ha kja kj'^em ||ke|ka — he . . . make(s) love, (to 

the) girl. ||kei|ka ku:, q kje |na --- girl say, I shall see. r] agkje ha:si kje g ||ga"i --- my father's 
horse is wolf. 

kja, kjakja, pron. they. Slla. (Mg. ) ca, caca. Ex.: kja |='?aikje — they sing, kjakja |r)hai ken — they 
see themselves. 


kjaxokje, however (?). Slla. (Mg. ) caxooe. Ex.: r)a !gwi: |naa, kjaxokje g IkaJ'a I springbok doe, 

however (?) I refuse. 

-kje, pi. ending, variant of -ke^ also used as emph. ending to pron. Slla. (Mg. ) ce. Ex.: |kwikje or 
)kwike, birds. r)kje kin qlkoe ~|nou "^a I now marry you. 

kje, kja, kjan, s. kja. 

kjebekje, many, used after copula. Slla. (Mg. ) cebece. Ex.: ka !ku kja kjebekje — many shoes. |koba ne 
kjebekje many children. 

kjekje, kjekjxai, where, whence ? Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: fko: kjekje ? where is the man ? 

kje:ja kji~ja, yes, s. gjeja^ ki~ja, kei~ja. Slla. (iMg. ) ce:ja, ci~ja. Ex.: g ||ko el ku kjerja ||na — II 
shall not say 'yes' there it is. a l|ga"i _ku kji~ja r)||r|ke wolf say 'yes' tie it'. 

kj'^em, V. to court, make love to. Slla. (Mg. ) 0*^6111. Ex.: ha kje kjPem ||ke|ha he . . . makes love (to 

the) girl. 

kjxan, V. to go, s. ka, kja. Slla. (Mg. ) cxan. Ex.: na kjxan Ikaika — I go to-morrow. 

kl'?aa, V. to sing, s. ~||kaa. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: hako i/oko, iso kl'^aa nirjgi here is the sun, then 

sing the doctors, kl'^aa'^i ja he sings. 

kl'^akl'^a, dark (?). (D.B.) Ex.: kwete hama, tsifikia so kl'^akl'^a, iko dza, ita ||ak'?eta — when there, 
if night is dark (?), it comes, they shoot it. 

kl'^asi, V. to talk, chat, s. kl'^aa, kl'^odzo. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsa aa, obi tsa aija tina, kl'^asi te 
aijako (we) have come, we have come to mother, to chat with mother. 

kl'^opota, V. to scrape. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kl'^oako sa akwitive popoko, ise kl'^apota me akwitive, ee 

tupu:ta , me ko fa kakeia—a kaross for women of buck (skin), first scrape it the women, then rub it to« 
soften it. 

kle, n. rhinoceros, s, ke. Cllb. (Bal.) k'le. 

kl'^ekakau, n. plain. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ista k"okula, t/ia mi so kl'^ekakau runs the herd, they run' 

on the plain. 

kl'^eko, kl'^ekwa, v. to bite, s. _kaa, kakl'^e. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.:i/owa ko kl'?ekwa ! napa — by day bites 
the horsefly. 

kl^embit/i, n. pictures. CIII. (D.B.) 

kl'^ijo, n. porcupine. Cllb. (Bal.) k'liyo 

kl'J'ikweu, v. to go, s. ikl'^ikwa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kiona kwa si kl'^ikwa — they see it go. 

kl'^odzo, V. to talk, tell, s. kl'^asi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akw^na ono dza kl'^odzo a mama — I have not 

come to talk to madam, zaikuni bami na kl'^odzo a r)o/ar)giri of the south is what was told by 


klolo, n. moon. SIII. (L.B. ) 

kl'^oma, n. head. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ngala ti jako kl'^oma tina a crest is on its head. 

kl'?omasa:ko, n. pipe, s. tl'^omaso. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hakhd, me ti t/ete kl'^omasaiko, ka to dza — he weni 
to fetch the pipe and came back. 

kl'^ueta, V. to knead, to squeeze. CIII. (D.B.) 

kl'^uma, V. to fill in, to close. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: misia mo hadza, kotuate bada nina, it/e ka sai, 

kotuwa, kl'^uma ja pipi dies a Bushman, bury (him) in a grave, carry him, bury, fill in and cry. 

kl'^u/u, V. to grab. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso kl'^u/u ta, iso k"esse ta when (he) grabs it, then (he) j 

devours it. 


ko:, V. to prepare, make, build, s. kuru, k"o. SI. (Li.) kko. Ex.: i se tabba ko: hi, !nwa: se ||xa:, hi 

||xau |k"wai we shall work preparing them, that the arrows may again become plentiful. SII. (D.B. ) 

Ex. : |kho:sa ko: |k"099n the bee makes honey. ~|kwi ko: ha ||nei the bird builds her nest. 

ko, ko, V. to say, scream, s. ka, ku, k" u, koa. Slla. (Mg. ) kof. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: o api ko, "|na", a 

tseki I geki ; a ko ko, "he'^e, he'^'e, he'^e" old Api says, "wait," catches by the leg the woman; 

she screams, "no, no, no 

ko:, V. to be fond of, cling to, s. ko:ka, also used as would, should, s. koo. SI. (LI.) kk5 Ex.: mamma 

||kwal r] ko: o-g g, o he ka, r) ||na||nd he, g se k"a: se he mother clung to me, when they wanted me 

to live with them, to seek food for them, har) |ku se ||nau:, o ka: |k"eja ha a:, ti e:, ! kwi |ar-ka 
!nwa: e, hag |ku se te: !nwa:, tija ko: |ku k" wag ha !k"werrit8n, ha koo |ku ! kAn |ki ||kho:e ha |na: 

it would do this, if I told it, that a girl's arrow it was, it would lay down the arrow, it would 

seem to be ashamed, it would hang down its head. 

ko, V. to have, also used as v. part. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ko |kwana u si ~|kam, a ko ||ama are kia "us --- 

thou hast two children, thou hast built one (hut) not big. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: du ||kare ko ||ku you 

all go. NX. (D.B.) Ex.: dama ~u, ko Nine, ko ~^ni:, namani oasa ke t/i tsike ko s!ne, ko "f^i — the 
Herero went out, fought, were defeated, the Nama all round here fought, were defeated, a ko ! n/un _ 

_! nau he is playing the bow. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: naman ko /i gunij" kwe, tire ko m the Nama came 

in wagons, I saw it. ||kug kwe ko ||o, ko |kwisa kau an old man dies, the name lives. | geruba kok"a 

te a wasp has bitten me. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: it/ame a ono ko dzaita alone I have come. 

\ko, V. to clean. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: naro kwe/a ko ! nu/a ~|nou, a ko xko a Naron woman sweeps the hut, 

and cleans ( it) . 

~ko:, V. to start, be startled. SI. (LI.) ko. Ex.: ha -k6: | ku k"wag ! kwi a: swailswaif ho ha, ha ~ko: 

kwokwat |hig, ~ko: |ku tali it (the game) starts up as if a man were drawing it up, it is really 

startled, it starts up and walks. 

ko:, full, filled, s. ~kowa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ka _ti ka, ka _ti, ka ko:, ka _! gum te ko: — it (bucket) 
is heavy, is heavy, is filled, is half full. 

ko:, light, not heavy. Nil. (LI.) kko. 

ko:, n. pot. Nil. (Wil.) ko. 

ko:,n. ostrich, s. kue. SIV. (D.B.) 

ko, n. gemsbok. CI. (Sel.) 

ko, n. elephant, s. koa, kwa. Nil. (Zuk.) 

~ko:, n. cottonwool. Nil. (LI.) kk6. 

ko:, n. skin, pelt, s. kob, koa/a [Na. khobj CII. (D.B.) pi. ko:o, dual ko:t/era. Ex.: k"oaln ko: kwe ko 
||naud3i !xe: namani of game skin the Nama sew shoes. Clla. (Pa.) ko. 

ko:, ko:, other, another, one of s. kuitan. SI. (B. ) ko, kko, ko. Ex.: |ai:ti ko: a: xarra, hag | ne ! ho 

laui ko: another hen which is different, she lays another egg. (LI.) k5, kko, emph. kogen. Ex.: g 

kag se |kaa u ! nwa, g se Ija |kaa |hig u-ka !ku ko: o 9pwoin — I will trace your spoor, I will go 
taking out one of your men from sleep. SII. (D.B.) emph. ko:ke. Ex.: |ge:gsn ka~uwa, |ge:g8n ko ka 

|nauwi the children stand, the other children are sitting, ha kia:g ha tsa:xu ko:ke he suffers 

(in) his other eye. ||we ko yesterday, the other day. ||kdi ko the day after to-morrow. 

ko, ko, and, s. kau, ki. SI. (B. ) Ex.: hag te:g, hag | ne te:g ko ||k" oen ||gau:e koro — he lies down, he 

lies and looks seeking the jackal. (LI.) kko. ! nwig, he ko ||khwai sig ||a ha a: the kaross, it and 

the quiver must go to him there. 

ko, when, then. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ono ko ko k" omi, ko taiako sima, ko pakapa^ e, ko bawa mwegga — when 
I was small, then mother (called me) Sima, when (I) was big, then father (called me) Mwegga. 

ko, prep, different meanings, s. ka. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: nie lisa ko _duru I look after the sheep. Nil. 

(LI.) Ex.: ma ti |a e sa ko ! num thou dost present us two with the stone. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tl'^oa 

se ko kl'^oma tied onto the head, elatibi ko | idza mu:a boys on the little finger are cut. 


— ko, poss. part, after n. or pron. s. ka. SIIc. (D.B. ) Ex. : r|— ko ||g3tu my shoulders. 

— ko, /em. ending, sing., also used as pron. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a edzeko piepeko simako and the seconc 

was Sima. 

k(5a, V. to talk to, generally ka. SI. (B. ) Ex.: i |ku sar) fgouwa, ta: i k" auki e: kda ! kwi ~|ke: s'^a 

we shall be quiet, for we are not those who talk to the man yonder coming. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: na 

kda a ||r| ! kwi I speak as a Bushman. 

~koa, V. to make room for. SI. (LI.) k6a. Ex.: |ai:tik9n hal |ne kiii, "| ne ~koa ki, n |ne !khwi" — th( 
wife said, '\nake room for me, that I may make the bed. ". 

koa, V. to give. Slid. (Arb.) ga koa. 

kda, v.. to go this way, do like this, often used as adv. SI. (LI.) kda. Ex.: ha ||kaxai sir) ||k" oen 
|khe:, au Ikhweja tj'u:i |khe:, au !khweja kda ha tsu:wa |khe:, au ha !ke:i ta: ha ! naun kda ha ||a: -- 
his sister should look at the grass, when the wind blows the g^-ass; if the wind going this way (away 
from the house) it blows the grass, then he does the same, he still this way (away from the house) go 

koaf, _koa, v. to fear, be afraid of, respect, refrain from. [Na. !ao.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: e oasi o ts'^a, | 

~tsi, e koal dgi, "keisi koal d3i we all were asleep, the white men came, we feared them, greatly 

feared them. ! ku ~dzau ka __koa _|hu:^ ~|ka guwa a Bushman woman is afraid of the dice, does not 

touch (them). Nil. (LI.) ko^, kod^, k9a. Ex.: ~!ki3 ti koal ~! ku l|ke Bushmen fear dead Bushmen, ha 

fkhumm e ||gdo, ta ti kod ha fxe, ta |kui ok"wi ha fxe ||goo ~!ku his father-in-law was a man and i 

spected his daughter, did not utter his daughter's man's name. ! gaul ti m ||e go tsema, ta ti |kua ml 

||e tar)'^a, ta ti koal ||e tag'^a the grasshopper eats small grass flowers, does not eat the grass st 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ke \koa: _! nau --- people fear the winter. ! ku de ki _koa |xo, |kwi gu --- a , 
Bushman woman is afraid of dice, does not touch (them). | 

kSa, V. to break, finish. CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) Ex.: ||kama ||goraba a |o, a ko kda, i ko kauaba |kwi hal, 

se Ikut/a |kwi hal the short horned locust is dead, it is broken, the body stays alone, the head 

stays alone. 

ko:a, koa:, kolal, v. part, often fo'llowed by another part, or by a v. of motion, expresses must, shoult 
would, ought to, s. ku:la, k" ola. SI. (B.) kda, koa, koa. Ex.: rj ko:a tae |ha !xwe:, u ko:a ta:e 

'kur) /o g I must walk to wife first, you must walk behind me. u ko^ sa tam-0pwa you mus,t come 

gently. (LI.) kda, k9a, kkoa. Ex.: ha hal |ne ta, "tarraksn !ko!koir) ko~a: !khe:, ta: r) lAhi ta 

||kau:" he said, "the old pot must remain, for I lie m the old house", mama-gu, hir) kar) ki:se sij 

ti e:, whai: ka ha se ||nau:, ||kha:l ola !hi:r)ja, ha kola |ki ! kuxe i, o: hs ti e: ||khal: ta: he --- 
our mothers used to teach us what the springbok was wont to do when the lion was near, it would take 
us running to the place where the lion lay. 

ko4:, n. man. [Na. khoib]^CIa. (Pa.) koS. 

koa, n. elephant, s. ko. Cllb. (Zuk.; 

koa, n. sable antelope. Cllb. (Zuk.) 

koa, and, joining nouns or pronouns, s. kau, ko. SI. (B. ) kda. Ex.: he ||ka |ku dola sir) e'^a:, hi !khwa:' 
-ga Ikaukan, hir) koa !ku: ko: | ''hau ^-- this stick did come with the hartebeest's children (the bag), 
they and the other, the bow. 

koa, there, apart. Nil. (LI.) koa, kod,. Ex.: |kAin ti | gija kod the sun rises there, e ti o~k"wi, 

"!nwerre ka te ma ti sig'^a t/i ?", ta ha ti ok" wi, "kod, na ti siq'^a t/i " --- we ask, "in what 
place didst thou see this thing ?", and he says, "there, I saw the thing". I 

koa:ba, n. day, s. go:ba. CII. (Pa.) koaba. 

kolailn, kol ailq, v. to be lean, make lean. s. ko:lir|. SI. (LI.) kkoain, kk^-ain. pronounced with musi- 
cal intonation. Ex.: ||k"oen ju, sa: a:, i ||ka: fkakka hi a:, ti ef, ha k^lailn --- look ye at the 
eland which our brother told us about, that it was lean, hir) |ku ||k" oen | ki ti e: |xarra, hir) 
k^' auki ||k" oen ti e:. ! ku ko: ! k'?all |ki sa:, i:, ta: hs |ki IhAinmi:, ti e:, he tsaxau ||li'oer 

kolail n sfl: they keep -looking at a different place, they do not look at the place where the 

other is approaching the eland, for they fear lest their eye may look making lean the eland. 


coalkki, s. kwakkan. 

colalko^al, v. to cough. SI. (LI.) kdakoa. 

coa, kuru, n. bottle. Cllb. (Wil.) koa kuru. 

coar), V. to arise, get up, s. k"oar|. SI. (B. ) koan, kkoan. Ex.: ha xoakan |ne koar) |hir), ha xoaksn |ne 

fxamma !kui:tan kwitsn his mother arises, his mother fetches the other eggs. (LI.) kk6an. Ex.: 

ha Ijkwalr) sir] koalgkoafr) ui — it had been getting up. 

[oar|koag, n. stars. Slid. (Arb. ) koangkoang. 

:oara, s. kora, to lack. 

kofalra, v. to pour away, empty. CII. (D.B, ) Ex.: fubi/e ||ei/ kwe Ji, fku /i a, a fkam, a _kolalra /a 
/u/ kwe eggs in the nest find, roast them, and make a hole (in one) and empty it into a pot. 

:oal/a, n. kaross, blanket. CII. (D.B.) pi. koa^/i. Ex.: ! geiba ! num, na |nou/a ! num, na k" o, na 

koal/a ~kuru, na ||keina _ha trap steenbok, and trap duiker, and eat, and make a kaross and sling 

it on. 

:oatu, n. button. Slid. (Arb.) pi. kokoatu. 

coa fne, n. knee, s. ! kwa ~|ni. NI. (Pa.) koa 2ne. 

fob, n. skin, s. ko:, koal/a. CII. (Schi.) 

oba, V. must, ought, SV. (D.B.) Ex.: a koba /i thou must come. 

:o:be, morning, to-morrow, s. !kobe. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: n ga ko:be sa I shall to-morrow go. 

obe, kobi, v. to visit. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tira ko kobe, a ||e:, a ko debi — I go visiting, get goods, 
and return. 

obo, n. partridge. Cla. (Pa.) koboo, CII (Do.) Cllb. (Wil.) kobo, pigeon. 

:oe, n. zebra, s. koha. NI. (Schi.) 

oe:, n. insect, s.k"oa. NI. (D.B.) 

oe, n. place, s. kwe. Nil. (V.) (Wil.) kqp. 

oe, with, to, s. kwe. CII. (Schi.) Ex.: si arugu koe k" oxo uha — my dog with meat serve, saz koe — 
to thee. 

:oe:n, v. to be heavy, s. kwe:n. SI. (B. ) kkoen. 

oe/e, perhaps. Nil. (V.) k9ege. 

oeta, V. to drive. CI. (Do.) 

organ, emph. form of ko:, other, SI. (B. ) kogen. Ex.: ha te: korgan !ku:xe u s'^a: — his other thigh 
came running. 

ogia, contemporary. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: elati ja sar|ga, kogia pe a harjgo the boy is Sar)ga, contempo- 
rary with Har|go . 

koha, V. to use, have. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: nama ! abu _koha the Nama used guns. 

oha, n. zebra, s. koe. CI. (Do.) 

oha |kee, the Sansokwe Bushmen. CI. (Do.) 

oho, n. meat, flesh, s. k" oxo. CI. (Do.) 

oi, n. ostrich, s. ko:, kue. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: koi e si ||ka:de a male ostrich. 


koii, n. pace. CI. (Do.) 

kof-ig^ V. to be lean, become lean, s. kolailn. SI. (LI.) kkdin, kkgi'^^ musical intonation. Ex.: 
|k" oinjar) a: ha kol~ir) a: grief was that on account of which she became lean. 

ko^i:ta, kotfitan, kolritja. v. to ascend as smoke, smoke, fumigate, raise, s. ||ko:let8n. SI. (B. ) 

kkdita. Ex.: ha ||kuru-ka ! aur) a |ku-g |ne kolicta ||a:_, au ha [jkollkottan ||a: his (ostrich's) 

nails' dust ascending goes, as he running fast goes. (LI.) kkoi'ta, kkoiten, kkoitya. Ex.: !k^e— ta 

|kag9n ka kol-ita hi !nwa: au ~sa women are wont to smoke the arrows with ouchu. ha, ha:l |ku 

Ikaukan, koilitan te ||kha o ||khwi he beat, raising and laying the stick on the quagga. ha ||xAm 

|ne koHtja o:a \:, o sa: she also fumigates her father with buchu. 

koje:, n. bridle. Cllb. (Wil.) kSje. 

~ko:ka, koka, v. to love, cherish, he fond of, s. ko:. SI. (B. ) kokaT.Ex. : ~ka a: ~ko:ka tabbaku ha e 
— Ka is one who is fond of tobacco. (LI.) kd— ka. Ex.: r) fni, ti e: sinna koka sartje, har) koka 
griet 1 think that Cinna loves Saartje, she loves Griet. 

kokag, n. copper. Slid. (Arb.) kokang. 

koketd,, no. Cla. (Pa.) koketa. 

kok6, altogether. SI. (LI.) kSko. Ex.: |khe: koko, he ||kwalg |ne !khe: tir) — the grass altogether, it 
does stand still. 

koko, V. will. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: sa, sa, i noi koko ! kau ha sit, sit, or Missis will beat you. 

ko:ko:, v. to look out, look round, seek. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nauba ko fu, ko ko:ko:, a ko fxwe — the 

mierkat eats, looks round and runs, ko hiba ||koa, ko wafreba ko:ko: (he) carries a stick, seeks 


koko, n. cock, s. kokwa. [Eng.] SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha koko, han xexelai that is a cock, it crows. 

kokda, k6ko:a, v. to cross over, go round, go this way, he this side. SI. (B. ) kokda, kkdkSa. Ex.: 

||6:igjar) kok6a, hag !khe: — the sun crossed over, it stood. ! kaukakan fkakka hi oksn-gu, "ha ||kwar] 

sir) kdkoia:, han !k"i-a" the children said to their fathers, "he has gone round, he ran fast". , 

(LI.) k6-kk6a, kokdS. Ex.: si sig tS: Ikukan ! nwa o ti e: a, hs |hir| ti e: a, hig kokd:a o |k7im ||a: tii 

e we had seen 'hair's' (the lion's) spoor at that place yonder, it came out from the place yonder,) 

it this way went to that place. 

ko~koa, V. to lift up^ raise, throw up. SI. (LI.) kokda. Ex.: ha ko~koa |na:, au hag tatti e:, he: ha 

xu-ka ti 0pwa, hi ~||ou e: ||wa||wa(k) ||khoa hi ^ he ti hig e:, ha |ne ko~koa a xu — she lifted up her I 

head, for she felt that this little part of her face was really beautifully white, that was why she 
lifted up her face. i 

koSkofn~n, v. to swallow, s. kolnn. SI. (LI.) kgkonh. Ex.: .'kuitan |ku a: ! nu~! num ikuitan, kolkoln~n 

Ikvritsn. a man was the one who ate eggs, swallowed down eggs. { 



kokoso, n. hail. Slid. (Arb.) ! 

koku, V. to listen. CII. (Schi.) j 

koku, n. grandchild, paternal grandfather. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: koku-mibi mutlepi baijipi many grand- : 

children are living. 

kokummi, n. pi. o/ kum, talk, tales. SI. (LI.) kkokkuiftni. ! 

kokwa, n. cock, s. koko. [Eng.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: kokwa a ||k"a — the cock is crowing. 

kola, V. to write. CI. (Do.) 

kolakola, n. a white-necked crow. CI. (Do.) 
kolathi, n. writer, s. kola. CI. (Do.) 

kole:, n. fingernail, s. ||kulu. Clb. (Pa.) kol^. t 


kolexe, v. to harness, inspan, s. kolui, koloke. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: J*i ka ! gwa koloxe we have inspanned. 

kolir|te, n. blesbok. Slid. (Arb.) kolingte. 

Nkolo, hollow, s. kolokolo. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~gau \kcilo, e /ka kula tree hollow, they (bees) swarm 


kolobe, n. pig. [Tsw.J CI. (Do.) 

ko~loi, s. kolui. 

koloke, V. to drive (in wagon), s. kolui. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /e ||Ante kanje, /i koloke ke gume — we came 
from Kanye, we drove with oxen. 

kolokolo, turn round, to drill a hole, s. kolo. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: Ugai/a ka kolokolo, ti ! kur) ta 
! kau the weathercock turns round, and Bushmen prophesy (by it). 

k(51ui, ko~loi, n. wagon, s. koloke, kolexe. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea /a ke k61ui /a !kAm ke gume — he has 
gone to the wagon, sat down behind the oxen. 

kolm:, V. to suck, drink, s. kolnn. SI. (LI.) kkomm. Ex.: ! khau ka |k" u: |ne kolm: Qhoksn Ikauitsntu: 
the bees drink (from) the bushes' flowers. 

kom, V. to curl the hair. CI. (Do.) 

kom,. faded. Nil. (V.) kom. 

koma, _koma, "korna, \kuma, morning, to-morrow, early. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: u si /i, koma /i — you will come, 

to-morrow come, misisi wa /e /a ke lobatsi, \kuma ke ke ||num Missis is going to Lobatsi mornings 

which are two (in two days.) NI. (D.B.) Ex.: !nu!nuri _koma ka ~u, ka ge ho: a t/a, ka tane /i — 

snails early come out, will get them, will bring them. \! gwa ka kuru, a ka _koma ka ~so to-night 

make (it), and to-morrow bake (it) 3usa o ! kai daa., e oasi ku khou si, \koma tji 5U kofra — people 
carry firewood, we all burn it, this morning people have none. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~k5ma~koma 3U o tsi 
kwe muje to-morrow people will come from Muye. komakoma a it is morning. 

koma, V. to be like, s. kama. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: looko koma biso the horn is like a widebeest's. 

koma, n. knobkerrie. CII. (V.) koma. 

koma, n. bowstring, bow, s. komaa, komba, !koma. CI. (Do.) 

koma, komma, little, s. tkoma, komik"ona. Nil. (V.) kom-a. {LI.) komma. Ex.: ta /a ! kur)-a daa kwe ||gu^ 
llgu komma tserma and poured putting out the fire with water, a very little water. 

komaa, n. bow, s. koma, !koma. Clb. (Pa.) 

komba, n. arrow with metal point. Nil. (LI. ) 

komba, n. bead kneeband, s. !koma. CII. (D.B.) 

kombe, n. round bag, worn on left hip slung over right shoulder. NIII. (D.B.) 

komi,v. to swoon. CI. (Do.) 

komi, small, young, s. koma, !koma. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ssiako i/i ako komi a gogogoko — the ... bird is 
like this smallet than the .... bird. 

komi, like, s. kama, koma. Nil (D.B.) Ex.: |ni komi kike — just like that. 

kom kakho, v. to swear. CI. (Do.) 

kom tsikho, n. lid of box. CI. (Do.) 

ko^g:, V. to loose hold of, let go. SI. (LI.) kkofm, kkonn. musical intonation. Ex.: Igwalr-we, a koal 
k"auki se !kan: koln: o !ha~u: o hyena, thou must not loose hold of the strap. 


kor), n. man. Slid. (Arb. ) kong. 

kor), n. canna. Slid. (Arb.) kong. 

kona, V. to live, reside at. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: |u||ei ~|ka kona kurikwa, a kona korixas |ul|ei does not 

live at Kurikwa, she lives at Korixas. 

kDni,n. child. Sllb. (Mh. ) 

koni, side, aside. CI. (Do.) CII. (D.B) Ex.: ! nir] koni k"o put aside the pot. 

koninja^ n. blindness. CI. (Do.) koninya. 

koni njira, v. to whistle. CI. (Do.) koni nyim. 

koinn, V. to swallow, s. ko?ko^n~n. SI. (LI.) kkoipT. Ex.: si k"auki se ||kwai toi sosoikan, si |ku se 
koinn ! ho he we must not chew the ostrich lungs, we must swallow them down. 

konno, n. button. [Afri. knop.] SI. (Lich. ) Nil. (LI.) kkonno. CII. (D.B.) konove. 

konse^ past, across. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: i ts'^use ke konse — it is blowing past. 

kon !ko:e:ej n. small wingless locust. Sllb. (Mh. ) kon lo'e's. 

koloi, V. or V. part, will, would, should, must, often used with another v. part. SI. (LI.) kkoo^ kkoo. 
Ex.: mamar-gu kar) fkakka si a,:, si kolol se ! hjumni kwokwar], o !hu!hu:wa: !ka?rroka |ki ||a: "S'^si, o 
||koir) |et8n|et9n ; si kolol fenna, ti e:, ||kha:& a: !hu!hu: da: si a:, ha |kwe:ik"oa: — our parent 
used to tell us about it, we must be very much afraid, if an owl went snatching at us at sunset; we 
should know, that a lion was that which the owl was showing us, it acted so on account of him. 

koo^ V. to stand up, arise, unfold, s. kora. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: jar) koo ki he stands up. Nil. (LI.) 

ko6, koo. Ex. : ha zau sir) ||gu, ta ko6, ta fe ||gu, se ti /ir) his wife saw w^ter, and arose, and 

dipped up water, came t'o drink. xAm gu t/i tanki (|nolo:), ta koo, ta ||xur)-a k"a the lion took a 

other thing (a skin) and unfolded it, and laid it on the ground. CI. (Do.) to get up, to force a way 

koo, V. to surround. CI. (Do.) 

koo, n. song. Slid. (Arb.) 

kooje, n. burrow, s. kolo. CI. (Do.) kooye. 

koo/o, V. to roast. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: koo/o tsoko nina roast on the fire. 

kopi, n. basin. [Afr. kopi, cup. J CI. (Do.) 

kora, kora, koara, v. to lack, not to be, to vanish, s. ka, kia, kuanna, kula. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: !kwa: ko 

ha:, ! kwa kora |no:si the man lacks horses, the man lacks skins. ^! gu \kora the water vanish 

ma a |ne~e ku \tsi, koara dzo \ka --- I alone have come, there is no woman (have lost my wife). Nil. 
(V.) k9ra. 

kora, V. to spread out, put aside, open, unloosen, s. koo, kwere. NI. ^(D.B. ) Ex.: \guwa, \ guwa, ka te 
kora ei --- dig, dig, and throw it aside. Nil. (V.) kvra. (Wii.) kora, unloosen. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 
ki t/u a kora ~||r) --- it sits at the side of the hut. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa ko ~|keise kofra --- th 
child the apron takes off. 

kora, V. to be quiet. Nil. (Wil.) kSra. 

korai, n. a red bead, necklace. NIII. (D.B.) 

korana, dead, deformed. CI. (Do.) Ex.: korana t/o a dead thing, corpse. 

kore:, interrog. where, s. koe . Nil. (V.) kor^. 

kori, t;. to herd. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 9pwa sa kori the boy is herding. 

~koro, V. to look out. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: namte kuni ga ~tsi:, misis > ga ~koro,Nga ~koro ku-tsi — Namte' 


wagon is coming, Missis looks out, looks out (for it) to come. 

:oro, koJ^, n. jackal, Canis mesonelas. SI. (B. ) k6ro, koro, emph. kdrowa, k6rowakan,k6roken Ex. : korowakan 
||nau, koro |ku:kan, korokan |ku:ksn tare the jackal does this when the jackal dies, the jackal dy- 
ing goes away. (LI.) kdro, kkSro, pi. k6ro, kkdttenkkdtten. Ex.: koro we^ ! atta ki — o jackal, can- 
ter for me. ha !kwi:ja ||gaue koro kwitan — he calls seeking other jackals, kottankottan ||khoa se 

~te:n jackals, (i. e. jackal-like clouds) seem to be coming. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: koro:, ha |keja 

"myri — the jackal, he catches the goat. Slla. (Mg. ) koj'o. Ex.: ||gai|ka ku, "kqj'o kjen gkuwa " 

girl say, "jackal ... say (so)". Sllb. (Mh. ) koro. 

oro, n. cliff, precipice, krantz. CI. (Do.) 

ore, n. pitfall. Cla. (Pa.) 

oro, n. hole in tree, s. kolo. CI. (Do.) 

OTO, num. five, seldom used. [Na. goro.J SIV. & SVI. (D.B.) 

oroe, n. wagon, s. korohi, kuni. [Na. goro-his.] SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: koroe fk"ei — wagon road. 

orohi, n. wagon, s. koroe, kuni. [Na. goro-his, old word for guni .] SI. (LI.) k6ro-hi. Ex.: har| |ne ||a: 
korohi, |hu:n |ne |ni ha he goes to the wagon, the white man sees him. 

'olrokan, ko^roki, v. to grind, pound, destroy. SI. (B. ) kkoroki. (LI.) kkdroken. Ex.: !kwi|a ||nau, ha 
|ne se !k'?ai: !khwa:, ha |ne fkamQpwa |ku !kau:, ha |ne kolrokan sa: — a girl does this, when she 
approaches the. rain, (when) it falls gently, she grinds buchu. 

orokan, v. to wriggle. SI. (LI.) kkdroken. Ex.: ha |ku tAmee korokan ha !kau:ugan e:, ha ta:, ti e:, 
t/wer) tsi:— 1 ha he merely wriggles his body, when he feels that things are biting him. 

oro-twi:tan, n. a certain little bird. SI. (LI.) k<5ro-tuiten, emph. koro-tui taken . Ex.: koro-twi:tan 
||kwalr) e k"ani-epwa, hag |ne |hoaka hag |ne ||kau||kau ||khoa |kukan |e: ""Ikuita a: ||kur| Ijkur) | nag — the 
.... is a little bird, it is black, it has white feathers on its shoulders. 

orre:, v. to cool, become cool, s. kwerre, kworre. SI. (B. ) korre^ koi^re. Ex.: g |ne ||kwarre korre: g 
!nwa — I spitting cool my foot, he ti hig e:, g sa: |ku-g |ne !khai korre: ||koe/o: u, i: — there- 
fore I shall cooling lie upon my back among you. 

orre:korre:, korrekorre, v. to cool, n. coolness, evening, s. above. SI. (B. ) kdrrekdrre, kdrrekdrre. 
Ex.: he e:, g |ne korre:korre: |i i: — then I cool the burn there, he tikan e:, to:i |ai:ti ta-g 

|ne sukan ||kau u Ikuitan, i:, au gwaija a:-g |ne te:g au korrskorrs therefore the hen ostrich 

springs off the eggs, for the cock it is who lies down in the evening. 

orre:korre:, kolrritankorre:tan, kurrikuffi, n. ball, used as round, s. kworrekworre . SI. (B. ) 
kdrfe-kdrre, kdrritenkd/reten, kurfikufri . Ex.: ||gwattakan a: |hag Jo: ||gwattan |a:iti, ha a: |na: 
0pwa korre :korre : , hi-ta ku: |nag-ka ! kaukakan ko^rritankorrertan — the cat marries a female cat, 
she is one with a small round head, all their little heads are round. 

ornrja, broad, wide. SI. (B. ) kdrriya. Ex.: ! khwi ||nweintu e: ! xwa !kwi:ja, ! xwa korri:ja — a field 
mouse chest is one that seems big, seems broad. 

o/a, V. to let go. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ti | ua ||nau t/yri, ti ko/a pulls the bowstring , lets go. 

o:/a, n. skin, s. ko:, koa/a CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nau ko:J'a --- duiker skin. 

'O/e, V. to eat, devour, s.k"o. NT. (D.B.) Ex.: _gwaba \| ga _da /tsi a, t/i dore: kora, a 3U ko/e, 
|nwa gu the Makoba are bad people, roast and eat, eat people, Bushmen. 

kossig, n. paths. Nil. (LI.) kkossin. 

o:so, there. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i-i ko:sb --- look there. 

ote, when. cm. (D.B.) Ex.: kote |ki:ta akwe ||na, kl'^aata when (it) sees a person, (it) sings. 

otdga, V. to set (trap). CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kotega ko b^ba ka siggiri mabe — set is the trap by 
father with rope. 


kotele, n. dish. [Afr. skottel.J SV. (D.B. ) Ex. : fxaii a k"aa ke kotele the dogs have drunk from the 


koftkofn, V. to swallow, s.kolnfi. SI. (B. ) kotkorin. Ex.: he Ikwarjlkwar) hir) e:, a a: hAm s'^oer), akan |ne 

sar) koHkoln akke hi these pots are those which thou, who art the Devourer of things, didst come 

to swallow for me. 

kotosi, n. rain sorcerer. SIIc. (D.B.) 

kotosi, n. mealie cob. SIII. (D.B.) 

kotsia, kutsia, n. hat, s. hut~si. [Ger. hut.] CIII. (D.B.) 

koltten, n. partridge, sing. & pi. SI. (LI.) kkotten. emph. kkdttaken. voc. kk6ttau-wwe. Ex.: he 

kolttan hal |ku-g |ne |kwe:i |ki, kolttaksn ||khou sa: — anB the partridge did this, the partridge 
came flying. 

kottankottsn, s. koro, jackal. 

kotuwa, V. to bury, be buried, s. kum. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kotuwa hama i/o, kweso i/oko |ki i e — was 
buried the same day when the sun was there. 

kotwa, V. to put on. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kotsia ko kotwa txlepi a hat to put on the hair. 

~kou, V. to pick. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! num e ~fkhi, 5U ~kou, 3U si-t/i ku t/om ~kou — resinki bushes are 
many, people pick, people thus gathering pick (the berries). 

kou, ko~u, V. tr. to burn, warm, roast, s. ku'^'u, ka^o, kalu, _kalru. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi |kai|kai, 3U 

|u:wa da:a !k\iku, da kau kou me I was ill, people put into the fire a knife, and burnt me. Nil. 

(LI.) k6u, k6u. Ex.: ta ha. fgum, ta sxo |ou, ta ko~u ||kha tsema, ta Am — and he was silent, and 
skinned the buck, and roasted a little meat, and ate. ka~ru gu da^, ta fne'^Am ha zau, kou ha zau kwe 

da^ Karu took a firestick, and beat his wife, burned his wife with the firestick. ||nwai ti ok"wi 

|kAm, "|u ! nwerre e, |na a fhSt-sir) tsema |ne ~fkhi, ||ke|lkeja l|hAm, |na ko u d5u" — the moon said to 
the sun, "go into that place, let thy arms be little and many like the spider, warm the people". 

~kou:, n. mate, friend. SI. (LI.) kkou. Ex.: ykwalg ~!kwi: !khwa:, ||kwalri !kwi:~!kwi: ||khoe ||kho au 

!khwa:, hir) |n^ ta, "~kou:-we, ~kou:-we, ~kou:-we, |ne ! kAn koa ta ||garak3n||garaka ki ikhwa: ||ki" — 

(they) call out to the rain, calling out in the rain, they say, "o mate, o mate, o mate, keep on mak-(, 
ing fine for me the rain" . j 

ko~u, gently. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: e ti |hu ||nir) e !k"a, ta e !k'B. |kua kou ~! nu, ta |kua d3a — we sigh loweil 
ing our hearts (in the body), for our hearts do not gently stand, and are not comfortable. 

kouko, among. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: kanasi te fQ kouko gudo one girl among boys. 

ko-^urtwa, there. Nil. (Dk.) ko'?u:twa. 

kove, V. to dawn, break. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~|gu o kove the dark breaks. j 

kovekove, morning, s. kove, koma, !kobe. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kovekove ma oa t/u, to ke "sir) debe — (this 
morning I went home, and have seen the children. 

~kowa, full, raised, s. -ko, to start up, ko:, full. SI. (LI.) kk6wa. Ex.: ! gwitakan e: !khwi k"auki 
tserre, ha ! khwi gwai ||khoa, ha er|er)~jar] k" auki ~kowa — the caama fox is one whose tail is not 
small, his big tail seems as if his body is not full. 

kowe, V. to cut. CI. (Do.) 

kowerni, v. to go home. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.': an teani te a: koloni, a kowetni — I am going back to the 
colony, going home. 

koxa, n. horse. Clb. (Pa. ) kocha. 

koxo, n. game, meat, s. k"oxo. Clb. (Pa.) kocho. 

ku, ku:, V. to speak, say, exclaim, s. ka, kui, kwa. SI. (LI.) Ex.: ! ku ko: a: ku, "a ||kwalr) ||k" oen. 


tikan ||khou |hoakan" another person exclaims, "thou dost see, the thing (raincloud) becomes blackl' 

Slla. (Mg. ) ku, ku:, ku:wa. Ex.: a ||kei|ka ku, g fkorkje g||gai, kjan kje ||ku si ku "kei-ja" r| | ga — 
girl say: my lover (is) wolf, (I) ... not shall say: "yes", be with you. Sllb. (Mh. ) Nil. (Wil.) ku. 

~ku, ku:, V. to pour. SI. (B. ) ku. Ex.: korokan |ku a: sir) akke ! kwa e:, r| sir) tare tau ku: ||ka:||ka: g 

! nwa i: the jackal shall give me water, that I may go to pour wetting my foot. (LI.) kku, ku. Ex.: 

i |ne ~ku |e !kwiri tu, he !kwir)jar) |ne kolkoln~n hi we pour (water) into the dog's mouth, and the 

dog swallows it. | hag ku |e ||xao au ! koa the wife pours the yolk into the pot. 

ku, V. to strike. SI. (LI.) kkii. Ex.: ! kou karj do^a ~koa ku au g-ka ti e, he tikan e:, |gu: |ne Ihirj hi 
a stone must have struck on this part of me, because a bruise comes out there. 

~ku, V. to run. SIV. ( D. B. ) Ex.: fnansi e ka talteCi, e ka |ke ||k"wi n ||ara a, ti ~ku, ti ka |ke ||k" wi i 

||ara, ti~ku, ti si fkhau ||ara a fnansi walks along, he will pick up the stick there, runs, picks 

up the stick, runs, then will throw the stick there. 

~ku: V. to jump. NI. (D. B. ) Ex.: a "ku: ri ! ha~u he jumps down. Nil. (LI.) ku. (V.) ku. 

ku, V. to carry (on the shoulder). CII. ( D. B. ) Ex.: ^uxWoine kumaj" kwe fka, a \! gwe, a ko ~|e:/a ku, a 

~!kau, a ~||gu:, a fku, a wolre, a fu vegetable food in the bag put, sling (it) on, then wood (on 

the shoulder) carry, throw (it) down, light (it), roast, take out of the ashes, eat. 

ku, V. to be, used as v. part. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: r) ku ! kwe I am black, tu ku fi the mouth is small. 

||r) tegan ku ||gaikia the Bushmen are standing. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | gweki ku fxaa children are 

naughty, r) ku se ki |ksn su _dau I will come here the day after to-morrow. | humsa ku Hgwisi, |e ku 

llgwisi clouds come up, rain comes up. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: u ku ||ke: you are three. NI . (D.B.) Ex.: 

sau ku o tsa — they are two. mihi ku ~tsi, ku tabet^ a: — I have come to greet you. gome ku~gu 

kuni ~to: the oxen take the wagon along. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pembe ku tsi ||ka:ti goats have come 

there. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kai /a ku !kai, !gu:/a ku ! gu,koal/a, ko hal — the apron tie on, the petti- 
coat put on, the kaross sling on. Evidently ku & ko express habitual action. 

ku, to do, make, s. kui . 

ku, pron. you, pi. s. ha, ka kwa. Slla. (Mg. ) 

ku:, pron. each other. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kad3i ta ko ~||ns:, a ko ~ma: ku:, a ko "khovi ku:, a ko /ama ku: 
-- (of) goods we speak, give (them) to each other, visit each other, divide with each other. 

!ku:, all, follows n. or pron. preceded by poss. part. SI. (B. ) ku. (LI.) ku, emph. kugen. Ex.: !kwa: 

kau:wa ! x6e-ta ku:, ! k'^e-ta ku: se-g | ne ! xaa whai: the rain falls (on) all places, all people 

will shoot springbok, he e:, ! nabba-ka ku:gan |ne ||khau ! kuitsn then all the thornbushes become 

white, hi-ta ku: they all. Slid. (Wu.) Ex.: tsuq ku ||kau |xo||ka~un q |xo ha things all not 

great as I great am. 

ku, prep, different meanings. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /ia ||a:ke ku kakia we live at Kakia. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

muako ku tl'^uniko a stick for pounding, hema unu ku dza call the person to come. 

kuy and, joining verbs, s. kau, ki, ko. SI. (LI.) kku. Ex.: hi se ||ke: ||kau: ||ko au ! k'^au se di' ku ta |i 

they will make a fire on the earth, that the earth may (make and feel) become hot. SIV. (D.B.) 

Ex.: _|gwa i ||kAm, ||kau ta, k"se ta, k"se ku ||kaisi ta shoot a springbok, cut it open, cut it up, 

cut and slice it. 

pni:, n. sheep. [Na. gusj SV. (D.B.) Ex.: misis i kohute ku: Missis has bought a sheep. 


'ku, ku, n. footprints, road. Nil. (LI.) k^, ku, pi. ku-ssin. Ex.: d3u |nee tsig'^a, d3U fkhi ku-siri--one 
person's footprints, many persons' footprints, ta ||xa |Ah^ ku for (he) merely showed the road. 

"ku, n. neck, occasional form of ~!ku:. SII. (D.B.) 

ku, ~ku, n. milk, breast. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a ko |k"au gome ku --- he milks the cow's milk. Nil. (Dk. ) kA:. 

(LI.) ku, ku. Ex. : i~we zau— sig, i~we, /a me | gaa kwe ku o ye women, o ye, bathe my eye with milk. 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e gu ! naba m te, na mi na hiwa ~ku, daba me ||ko they carried off my mother, and 

me at the breast, a baby boy. _gomi ~ku cow's milk. 

^) n. person, occasional form of !ku, also, k"u. NI. (D.B.) 

ku, n. warthog, s. t*?u. Cllb. (Zuk.) 


— ku, fern, ending, variant of—ko. CIII. (D.B .) Ex.: tsahoba ko obe a mamaku we talk it to mother. 

ku:?a:, v. must, shall, s. koa^^ kwa, SI. (LI.) kua. Ex.: |kwammar)'^a |ne fkakkan, "|ni: we:, a ku:la: 
sar) te:n_, he e:, akan |ne ©pwoin 1:, a ku;la; sa: ||k" oen, a kula: 0pwoin ta:, a ku:la: l|k" oen" — 
Ikwammarj'^a said, "o ichneumon, thou shalt lie down, then thou sleepest there, thou must watch, thou 
must lie sleeping, thou must watch. " 

kua, k\ia, v. to lack, to be unable, s. kora, kwanna, k" xou. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha kua ||'^hi he lacks 

clothes, ha kua |na; ~ki he cannot see here. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kua ma tl'^oa tseheja lacks 

clothes the youngster. 

kuandika, v. to write. [Swa. andika.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsetija sako kuandika /aniku — a stick it is t 
write writing (pen). 

kua^ri-|l, naughty. NI . (D.B.) Ex.: dama ko kualri-|i the child is naughty. 

kua-ai, n. grey- footed squirrel. Nil. (Schi.) 'kua— si. 

-kube, ~kuve, n. tree of which the bark is used for cloth. NIII. (D.B.) 

kubu, n. hippopotamus. CI. (Do.) 

kue, n. ostrich, also pronounced kwe:, SII. (D.B.) pi. kuen. Ex.: kue ! go: e a male ostrich it is. 

kue, upon, s. kwe. Nil. (Wil.) Cllb. (Wil.) kue, pot. 
kuenia, n. dog. Slid. (Arb. ) kuenia. 
kuenta, v. to sleep. Slid. (Arb.) kuenta., 

kuerre, interrog. where ? Nil. (LI.) Ex.: e ti o~k" wi, "i nuerre ka te ma ti sirj'^a t/i ?" e ti o~k"wi, 
"kuerre^?" ta ha ti ok"wi, "ko^ na ti sir]'?a t/i" --- (when) we ask "(in) what place didst thou see tH 
thing ?" we say "where?", and he (the one asked) says, "there I saw the thing". 

kugar, n. impala. CI. (Sel.) 

kugia, v. to be followed. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: /ikariki a~khape ati nina, kugia pe a boi — the askaris aQ 
going to the water, they are followed by the boy. 

kui, ku:i, v. to say, think. SI. (B. ) kkui.Ex.: ! kwar) ku:i, "'.k'^wa: a:, ha |na: kag do^a fkakksn" — t\i 

child said, "this hartebeest, its head is able to speak". (LI.) kui, kiiitan, speaking. Ex.: ha 

||kaxaitan |ne kuitan |k"e: — his sister speaking answered. har| |ku-g |ne ku:i, ha |ka r|-r) — he 
thought he would kill me. 

ku:i, kui, ku, v. to do, make, often used with other verbs in imitative phrases, or in the phrase di kua 
ta, to make feel, i . e . to become, used before adjectives or verbs expressing a state. SI. (B. ) kui. 
ha: fko:wa ku:i k" war) Ikwija a: |xa: i ha — he sprang aside as if (making like) a man were shootii 
at him. (LI.) kui, kii. Ex.: ha di kui ta 0pwoin — he became sleepy, he !khwa: 0pwa ha^ |ne kui , 

!kwobbe tau |hir), he ha hal |ne kui ||nipp, a then a waterchild sprang out, and she nabberf it (meJ| 

nip to It), ha jne ! kauka |na:, ha |ne kui xupp, i: she beat the head, she hit it (made whack to^ 

it). ||neir| ko: hal |ku ku !xwap(p) au ti e ~||kou another house broke in the upper part. CIII. (D.j 

B. ) Ex.: aku a kui ta hamana ? who has done this ? ! 


kui, V. to ache. Nil. (V.) (Wil.) i 

kui, V. to spread. CII. (Schi.) 

kui, hot sullen. Nil. (Ml.) i 

kui, prep. with. Nil. (LI.) kui. Ex.: e ti te goba k"0 kui te: we smear the Makoba pot with .... ..mI 

kuirri, n. time, s. kukuerritsn. SI. (LI.) kku^fri. Ex.: kuirri a:, i sir)~||k"e: a:, ha kar) a:, ti |kwe:: 

|kwe, hs: di a: the time in which we were together, that is the one in which the thing thus happ( 


kui-sau, n. mother-in-law. Nil. (Wil.) ' 

kuita, V. finished, prob. participle of kui, to do. SI. (LI.) kkuita. Ex.:- he |ne Ijk" oen ti e:, hs ||kwai 
dia kuita i, hig |ne tai:f they saw that they had finished fighting with us, they went away. 

kuitaksn, s. kuitsn, other. j 

104 I 

kuitan, s. kui, to , to say. 

kuitan, kwitan, other, others, pi. o/ko:. SI. (B.) kuiten. (LI.) kyit§n, kkuit^n, enph. kkuitaken.Ex. : 
Ike kuitaksn turtii:, "ha xa^g |ne te: u ?" hag fkakka !ke kiiitan, "ha kag Ik^ita" --- the other 
people questioned him, "how is it ?" he said to the other people, "it is white". 

ku jea, V. to turn one's back. CI. (Do.) ku yea. 

kuka^ there. SV. ( D. B. ) Ex.: a ku tsa k\aka he slept there. 

kuka, kukalal, all, s. ku:. SV. (D. B. ) Ex.: tu kuka^al — all the men. gome kukalal — all the oxen. 
masarwa kuka ~e all the masarwa eat. 

ku ka Ikhoe, v. to recline. CI. (Do.) 

kuke, copula used before numerals. SV. ( D. B. ) Ex.: ||gwe: a ||gai kuke "llnum two hen ostriches. 

kukn, each other. Slid. (Wu. ) 

~kuko, V. to fly, flutter. Nl. (D.B.) Ex.: zebizebi ~kuko the dragon-fly flies. 

kukii, V. to do thus, speak thus, used in opening clauses before the main verb, s. ku, kui, kukui . SI. 
(LI.) kukku. Ex.: si |ku se kukii, si IkAn: si |k"a:, o si: ka si fkakka he a:, ti e:, si sir) |na: 

||kha:l ! nwa we should do thus, we should hold our hand (like a claw), when we wanted to tell them 

that we had seen a lion's spoor, si se kukii, si !kw'?i: ||kha:l | ke ko: we should speak thus, we 

should call the lion's other name. 

kuku, n. fowl, s. koko, kukurusi. [Eng. cock.] Nil. (Wil.) kuku. (LI.) kuku, kuku. Ex.: kuku !k"wi — 

a fowl's feather, kuku ~de hen. kuku ||go cock. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~ku_ku !k"wi --- a fowl's feathers 

kuku, n. knife, spear, usually Ikuku. NI. (D.B.) 

kukuerritsn, n. time, s. kuirri. may be pi. of kwerre, evening. SI. (LI.) kku-kueriten . Ex.: ha ||kwa: su: 
howa !kwi a:, ha sig ta: o kukuerritsn e: |k"wai:ja — she (sorceress) would snoring raise up the man 
who had lain (ill) a long time (? evenings which were many). 

kuku:i, kukuitan, t;. to speak, reflect, s. kui. SI. (LI.) kii-kkui, ku-kkuit§n. Ex.: ||kha:f kuku:i, hag 
|k"e:, "|ne tkAm 0pwa'.' — the lion spoke, he waid, "wait a little". !k'?e kukuitan |k"e:^ "!hau: ti xa 

a:, u |ki|kija a: a ?" the people speaking said, "what sort of a thong is this that you have been 

using ?" . 

kukuku |khe:, n. scorpion. SI. (LI.) kukiiku |kh^. 

kukummi, «. kum, story. 

kukuru, n. knee. CI. (Do.) Ex.: kukuru ||kaihwa knee joint. 

kukurusi, n. hen, fowl, s. koko, kuku. [Eng. cock.] SII. (D.B.) pi. kukuri . Ex.: kukurusi ||eja the 

hen is running, kukuri ~koma many hens. 

kukusu, V. to crumble. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: jamuape, pusu e tako, kukusu e take earth, break it off, 

crumble it. 

kukute, n. bat. SVI. (D.B.) 

kukuwa, very, much, quickly. Nil. (Yk.) kukuwd,. (LI.) kukiiwa. Ex.: |kAm kwi, ta kuu ha, ta ha,/o, /o 

kukuwa, Jo |nu|ne||^ the sun was hot, and burnt him, and he perspired very much, perspired greatly. 

ma |nu t/a ko ta gu, g a |nu gu kukuwa — thou takest up slowly, I take up quickly. 

kula, i;. to lack, not to have or be, s. kora, kwona. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ke |ko ! nobu, ke kula — 

Bushmen smoke tobacco, it is lacking, kambinda de wa vi/aka, vi/aka kula Kambinda's mother is 

Vi/aka, Vi/aka is not (is dead). 

_kula, V. to swarm. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~d50 _kula ~||galu bees swarm into the box (hive). 

kutlai, V. to be ill. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hag ku:lai --- he is ill. 


kuli, interrog. where? Nil. (D.B. ) Ex.: ! ku oa kuli ?-♦ where is the man ? 

kulu, s. ||kulu, nail. 

kululu, n. klipspringer. CI. (Sel.) (Bry. ) 

kum, kum:, n. story, talk, history, news, s. kumna. SI. (B. ) kumtn, kku^, pi. kukummi. Ex.: hag k"o^a 
k"auki se tu r)-r|, g a: .'kalkarro rj-ka kum, rj a: fkakka ha r)-ka kum e: g |ki hi: g a: ^enna kuk\immi-ta 

ku: e: r] |ki hi he cannot hear me, I who am the moon, my story, I who tell him my story, which I 

have; I who know all the stories which I have. (LI.) kumm, kumm, pi. kk6kkui6mi . Ex.: he |ne lki|kija 
ke kokummi e: |k"wai:ja, o ka: lk"e:ja he a.:, he kworj ||khwi:ja ke — they give me much talk, when I 
tell them that they should pay me. i se tu kum, o whai : a: a, ha-g |ne |kwe:i |kwar) di o a — we 
shall hear news, as this springbok acted thus to thee. 

kum, V. to hear, understand. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tire |u:wa ha, ra ko ko kum, kwana ko burite — I do not 
know that, I have heard people speak (of it), naron ko gome dama sese na ko k"wia:na kum — (some) 
Naron worked for the Herero, and understand the language. 

k\im, V. to bury, cover in, s. kotuwa. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m ~te ki ke, a ga t/i.-, a gu k"a, ma kum d3ili,,, 

gu ||na||na, ke kum d3ili m ~te my mother dies, (I) dig a hole, dig the earth, I bury filling in, 

dig out and bury covering my mother. 


"kum, asunder, in two. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |huba ko ~!xo, kweba ko ~!xo, ||e:xaba ko xau ~kum, a kwena bsri, 

"! geid3i~/s", a |hu||kwa, "gwad3i ~/s" the white man pulled, the Bushman pulled, the captain cut 

(the rope) in two, and said to the Bushmen, "take the bucks", and to the white men, "take the cattle' 

kum, n. porcupine. Nil. (Zuk. ) 
\kuma, s. koma, morning. 


ku:ma, v. to clap hands, used with ||nai, to sing. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: wa ka ||nai ku:ma they are singing 

and clapping hands. 

ku:mi, n. hole, s. kum, to bury. SIII. (D.B.) 

kumma, v. to tell a story, s. kum, story. SI. (LI.) kkumma. Ex.: u kar) k" auki se kumma ke, ta:, u se i: 
l^kakka ke |xam: you shall not tell me a story, for you shall merely talk Bushman to me. 

kur), V. to warm oneself. SI. (B. ) kkuri, kkunkkunna. Ex.: ! kei! keljar] ~|ke: Jo, au hig k" auki kur), ta: 

r) dofa fni: .||k"e:ja |i, au r) tatti e:, hi-ta so ko kug, au ! geija |a ta, hi kur)kur)r)a ! (k)au: /o |i ti 

! khou the ticks yonder sit, while they do not warm themselves, for I have taken away also the fii 

for I felt that they would sit warming themselves, though the sheep were cut up, they would sit warm- 
ing themselves by the side in front of the fire. 

kug, V. to carry, only used with other verbs. SI. (B. ) kun. Ex.: ha |ka:kaksn ||kwar) xarra si jkammer) 
har-ka tsuitsui:, hi kur) |kammer) ti |kam ||e hi au-g ||nair) — his mates should really carry off his 
things, they should carrying take them to the house. 

kuq, bitter. SI. (LI.) kkun. Ex.: si dofa k"we: ! kwa tu !ker~ri, he tag |u:, he ta kug — we have drunt 
at a big waterhole, which is salt, which is bitter. 

kuna, almost. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ke kuna ||ke a ! ku — I was almost killed by the men. 

kun^. n. duikerbok. Cllb. (Bal.) kune. 

kuni, n. wagon, s. korohi. [Na. gumis.] SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: kuni hig |e: k" eisi — the wagon has gone dc 

to the ravine. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gome ~ku gu kuni ~to: the oxen take the wagon along. Nil. (LI.) 

kuni. CII. (D.B.) kunis, kuni/a. Ex.: kuni/a ko mu, |kam kuni/are — (he) saw the wagons, two wagoni 
||naum kwe tako )|neri kunis |kwa in summer went away in a wagon. Cllb. (Wil.) kuni. 

kug ka, v. to kill, s. !kug. NI. (Pa.) kung ka. 

"kunnigju, v. to dive, dropdown. SI. (LI.) kunninjru. Ex.: he ha^ |ku-g |ne ~!ka!kan !khe, !khe, !khe, • 

!khe, hag |ku-g |ne kiii "kunnigju ! k'?{ii he (Mantis) flapping his wings hovered, hovered, hovered 

hovered, he dropped down. 

kun:no, n. button, s. konove. [Afr. knop.j SI. (LI.) kkun-nS. Ex.: ~||khaf ha:f e ts'^a a: k" auki tAm-se 



! hAmmi kunrno— ka baitanar) the lion is a thing which does not a little fear a button's sparkling. 

kunuwa, below, s. kunnir)ju. CI. (Do.) 

kuonni, v. used in the phrase kuonni ku sir), to dive aside, duck down, s. -kunnirjju. (SI) (LI.) kkuonni 

ku ssin. Ex.: Ikaggen ||xa:q ! kauka, he ha kui kuonni ku sir) the Mantis struck, and he .dived aside 

(like diver birds). 

kupana, kupane, v. to be near, approach, reach. CIII. ( D. B. ) Ex.: |etsa kupana kela tina the hut is 

near the riverbed, kupane pe, kupane ja unu they approach, a man approaches. 

kupela, V. to go away. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kamo ali ki sohaija, "kupela ~koe" — then he said, "go away 

kurandom, n. waterbuck. Cllb. (Bal.) 

kure, interrog. part, used with others, where'i' s. kuli. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: anni~u ba o kure ? where is 

Anni~u ? Cllb. (Wil.) kure, kure'ua. 

kuree, n. offering. CI. (Do.) 

kuri, n. year. [Na. gurib.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kuri o |nee t/u o tsa: kuru (in) one year two huts (we) 

build, kurisa |khi m o ||nwa tsike many years I have stayed here. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kuri tsetse 

kavikise _gua mi — this year Kavikise married me. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta kuri ka ||k\ikaa, na ||kwa ~|gi 

another year he learns and can dance the ... dance, wem kurim kwe fuxwoine kei the whole year 

there is much food. 

kuri, merely, only, CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gan |kim tsako toe kuri only in grass it crawls, tira ko nabbo 

|xe:ani, |xe:an kuri ko nabbo I gather leaves, leaves only I gather. 

kurihe, n. bluntness. CI. (Do.) 

kuri/e, n. policeman. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | kwim kuri/e a ~u, a !kebi one policeman was mounted and 

rode, kurit/era two policemen. 

kuii/i, interrog. where, s. kure, kuli. Nil. (Dk.) kuli/i. Ex.: kuli/i kage ? where do you live ? 

ikurri, broad, wide. SI. (B.) Ex.: ||kha:r) |nek"wa: tata: ha ||nweintu, ti e:, ha ||nweintu |nu kurri 
kwdkwar]ga the lion roared trying his chest, whether his chest were not truly broad. 

kurrikurri, s. korre:korre: , ball. 

kurrikurri:, n. a bird, Francolinus. SI. (B. ) kurrikurri. 

kurriikan, kurriitsn, kurri:ta, v. to mock, laugh at, s. kwerre, kwerritsn. SI. (B. ) kurriken, kurriten, 
kurrtta. Ex.: ! kwarj Jo ko kurrirtan si-si — the child sat mocking us. 

kuru, V. to work, make, do, build, s. kutu. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kuri !ge:xa a kuru, a ki ~|kha n kia — 
the cut (on forehead) the medicine man makes, he cuts here (pointing). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U ku kuru, ku 

\|nwa people are working, are pounding, ka anni~u kuru dama ! goma tsema, ka kuru ! gu then 

Anni~u works for the little boy, makes an apron. Nil. (LI.) kuru. (Dk.) kArJ^u. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nu/a 
kuru — build a hut. naman ko mee, "! xom sa ta kuru", na teme, "| gore ma Je", koko mee, "! xom kwe 

I gore ma /e" the Namas said, "the Lord has made you", so they said, "say a prayer" , they said 

"to the Lord say a prayer". 

oiru, n. wild cat. CI. (Do. ) 

oiruke, v. to burn, s. ku~u, kuru/a. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: |i kuruke the fire burns. 

kuru/a, v. to be warm, s. ku~u, kuruke, kuruwa. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: daui a kuru/a the path is warm. 

niruwa, v. to be warm, s. ku~u, kuruke, kuru/a. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: han kuruwa — it is warm. 

curu ykar^tan, n. shrike, Lamus collans. SI. (LI.) kkiiru ||ka'iten. 

icu:se, n. locust. Nil. (Wil.) kuse. 


kuta, n. den of wild beast, form. CI. (Do.) 

kutele, n. dish. [Afr. skettel] SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ha wa |k" abe kutele he is bringing the dish. 

kuti, n. daughter. CI. (Do.) 

kutiku, V. to stick in. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweto ssme udzameko kutiku k" u then the food of the hyenjj 

stuck in his throat. 

kutlwana, n. threshing stick. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

kutu, V. to make, s. kuru. CII. (Schi.) 

kutukutu, V. to set, go down. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kutukutu ka i/o the sun sets. 

kutiite^ V. to put in, s. kutiku. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kutute itla put in the knife. 

kututos, n. pi. people, s. tutos. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: kututos ||kani all the people. 

ku~u, V. to burn, grill, n. blister, s. kuruke, kuruj*a, kuruwa, ~kwi. Nil. (Dk. ) "ku'^u. (LI.) kuu, ku-u 

Ex. : ha taba daa, ~^nu daa, ta ku~u ||e he worked fire, rubbed fire, and burned the grass, ta |xw( 

sau, ta sir) ku~u, ta ku~u |nu |ne ||a and | xwe arose, and saw the blister, and the blister was 


kuu, n. kilt. CI. (Do.) 

kuue, formerly. Slid. (Arb. ) 

kuve, s. kube. 

kuwa, V. to be. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hadzabe wainet/a kuwa ita xlaku — all Bushmen are thus cut. 

kuwa, V. shall. CII. (D.B.,) Ex.: koma \\o kwe, kuwa ||oko^ si teme when a man dies, shall stay dead, 

they say. 

kuwa, V. to glow, s. ku-u. NI. (D.B. )'Ex.: a gu da ka kuwa — you fetch a stick which glows.. j 

kuwakan, s. ku:, all. , 

kAm:, kAmma, v. to move gently, kAmma xaitsn, to be gently minded, fond, anxious. SI. (LI.) kkamm, kkamiD| 
kkamma, xait§n. Ex. : ha ha? |ne ||kho kAmma, au har) ka, ha sir) k"auki |koroka sa:, tikan e:, ha ha I j 

|ne kAm: s'^~a: he approached gently, as he desired, that he might not come rustling, therefore hi 

came gently. |kuksn-te ha: I ka sir] Iku kAmma xai|tan o |ku-g!nwir), o har) ta: ||ka ti e:, |ku-g!nwir| ! 

a:gsn the anteater used formerly to be anxious about the lynx, for she felt that the lynx was j 

handsome. j 

kwa, V. to step softly, steal along, often used in reduplication, or with the endings — ksn, — raksn. SI. 
(B. ) kkwa. Ex.: ha |ku kwa |ha au-g ||nair), q ||xam |ku kwa u:i --- she stole softly out of the house, | 
I also stole away. (LI.) kkwS, kkwdkkwa, kkwakkenkkwakken, kkwakkenkkwakki, kwakw^raken. Ex.: r) |ku-i 

|ne -kwa Ixwonni I stepping softly turned back, har) kwakwa l|a: she stole softly along. UgauXj 

jku kwakkankwakksn |hir) i:, o ka: |ku |e: ta 0pwoig — the porcupine would steal softly away, if I j 
were asleep. j 

kwa, V. to go, used before another v. of motion, s. kwanna. Nil. (LI.) kua. Ex.: ha zau | ge gu ] OU |no{! 

ta kwa u, ta ha ~fkwi his wife went to get a buck skin, and went away, and he whistled. 


kwa, V. to make. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: si ku kwa ||r| a r] 0boke we make this hut of bushes, i ki kwa ! gu cjl 

we make bags (of) skin. j 

kwa, V. to say, s. ku. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: ||kai | "^a kja kwa "he'^e" --- girl .... say, "no". CI. (Do.) j 

_kwa, V. to wear, occasional form of _||kaba. NIII. ( L. B. ) Ex.: _kiva da: (I) wear a kaross. I 

kwa:, V. to be torn. Nil. (LI.) kwS. . | 


kwa, V. to strike, beat. CI. (Do. ) I 


kvraf, V. to be afraid of, s. koa? . NI. (D.B. ) Ex. : e o kwa? t/i we are afraid of the thing. 

kwa, V. to drink, s. k"a, k"a, kx'^wa. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwe: sas kwa the child comes to drink. 

kwa, V. to dance, s. kwi. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: si sa kwa we dance. 

kwa, V. to seek, s. k" oa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nwi ma |gi, ke kwa t/i, kwa m, t/at/am |ne txa — the new 
moon comes, let (us) seek something, seek food, stalk and shoot (it). 

kwa, V. to resemble. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwanavale ne kwa kutsi the Kwanavale resembles the Kutsi. 

kwa:, V. part, shows contin. or repeated action, or is used for must, should, s. ka:, kwa^r). SI. (B. ) 

kwS. Ex.: au ha fpo^ ki /o, n kwa: |kra i:ja, au ka k" auki fkakksn if it sat quietly, I should 

do the same, whilst I did not speak, a kwa: si !ka: g thou must wait for me. (LI.) kwa. Ex.: o ha 

||k" oen, ti s:, t/wer)ja kwa: ha: ||na, ha !ke ||e t/wer) — if he saw that things were feeding there, 
he went up to the things. 

kwa, pron. he, she, it, you, s. ka, ku. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: kwa f^aikje — he sings, kwe !koeja Gpwoe ku 

||koe he carries meat on his shoulder, a fnau kwa l|na I throw you away there. CIII. she, they. 

(D.B.) Ex.: _dza kwa mogiko — she comes Mogiko. ta ||ia Kwa ta me ome sa — she died 
with her husband, ta ||ia kwa, ta ||ia mo — she died, he died. ha~kha t/api |kii akwitibe, ha kwa t/a 

ssms nina are going to seek (food) there the women, they look for food, tsakatsija kwa:, muna |ki 

i/oko danced they, till the sun was here. 

kwa, interrog. after o, who, what. NI . (D.B.) Ex.: o kwa t/e ba ku t/a ? who is burning there ? 

kwa, prep, different meanings , sometimes follows n. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa T) here, kwa i there. 

jkAm na ~khwa, ta !u:a kwa g the sun is hot, and stands above here, kwa i ~||gu there (point- 
ing) IS water, kavikise te ~u kwa kwando, ma tanewa kwa rj — Kavikise goes to the Kwando, I stay 

here. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: aun/i tako ||koo vatoro kwa long have I worked with cartridges, kweba sdum 

kwa ko te the man by the eland stands. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: monjoda kwa a/ibiti salt is at the 


nra, when, then, where. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa mo komi e sar|ga, kwa mo pakaps;^ e balad3a — when he was 

small was Sarjga, when he was big, was Balad5a. saako ati nina ko a hama, kwa gogogogo hama the ... 

bird in the water sits, where the .... bird sits. 

kwa, n. roan antelope. CI. (Sel.) 

twa, n. elephant. Cllb. (Bal.) 

kwalbba, v. to unwind, unfold, s. kwanna, kwarra. SI. (LI.) kwabba, kuabbf. Ex.: hag ||a kwafbba ts'^a a: 
ha ||ke:r)||ke:r) te i a: he goes to unwind the thing with which he bewitches us. 

kwadiso, n. a large bird, prob. eagle. CIII. (D.B.) 

cwahama, n. a horse's head. CI. (Do.) 

vndii, interrog. what ? SI. (LI.) kw^i. Ex.: !k"wakk3n di kwa:i |k" W£iil ~||ag ?--- what decayed thing can 
it be that smells ? 

"kwai, n. a certain bird. Nil. (LI.) kw^i. Ex.: ~kwai ti d30 me ! nwerre the .... bird is black in my 


:wai:i, v. to distribute. SI. (LI.) kkw5i-i. Ex.: hi | ne kwaT.:i ! xo-ka -eg they distribute the porcu- 
pine's flesh. 

^iWfiCisir) V. to stoop down. SI. (LI.) kkwal ssin. Ex.: ! gwe!kweitan-tu fko: kwa'sig — ! gwe! kweitan-tu 
sprang aside stooping down. 

'kwakksn, v. to vomit, n. vomit. SI. (LI.) kkwakken, kki^akken, kku^kk^n. Ex.: ha |ne~kwakksn |i ~! k*^©, 
"Ik'^oksn |ne |ku ~!k'^aur) au kwakkan she vomited into the hole, the hole became full of vomit. 

nrakkan, kwalkki, v. to suck, suckle, give drink. SI. (B. ) kw^kkfn, kko^kki Ex.: ~!kwa: se kwakken g 

!kwai!kwai — the child shall suck my breasts. |ki kwalkki to suckle. (LI.) kkw^kkfn, kkwakken. 

Ex.: ha ||kur)||kur| tag, ha ka: ! kAn "kwakksn !khwa: — her arms were strong enough for her to hold and 
suckle the child, xoro k" auki ||na: ka, ti e:, g se |ki kwakkan xoro-ka Ikhweitan --- cattle were not, 
there, that I might give to drink of cow's milk. 


kwaJco, this one, prob. fern. GUI. (D.B. ) Ex.: t/ikuu kwako a |koti gave this one of the neck (meat) 

kwa koa t/o, n. writer, scribe. CI. (Do. ) kwa kola cho. 

~lcwa~kwa, v. to be angry, dangerous (?). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a a u -kwa-kwa, a ko \ ! ko 3U the thing i 

angry, it kills people. _ 

kwalkwalita, v. to dress up oddly, disguise, s. kwalkwalsikuritsn. SI. (LI.) kw^r-kks^ita. Ex.: hiq di s 
kwalkwalita hi, a:, o hirj ka, he: sir) ||k" oen, ti e:, i-g |no fenrna ki:se --- they dressed them- 
selves up oddly for us, for they wished that they might see whether we knew education. 

kwakwag, kwakwar)r)a, real, really, truly, thoroughly, much, s. kwo~kwar|. SI. (B. ) kwakw^n, kwakwan-ria. 
Ex. : har) k" auki |ki /o: ha: kwakw^r) — he did not put aside real food. ||kha:r) |ne k"wa: tata| ha 

ynweintu, ti e:, ha l|nweintu |nu kurri kwakwarjrja the lion roared trying his chest, whether his 

chest, were not truly broad. 

kwalkwaira, n. black knorhaan, 'korhaan brandkop' , Otis Afra. SI. (B. ) kwakkwara. (LI.) kwakkwara. Ex. 
kwaikwalra-ka kum: the black knorhaan' s story. "^ 

kwakwarakan, s. kwa, to step softly. 

kwalkwal~ri, kwakwa~ri, n. mantis, insect. Nil. (LI.) koakoari, mantis, kwakw^ri, insect. Ex.: ! kabba 
kwakwa~ri, na ~t/ane clap hands for the insect, I scratch (what the cocks say). 

kwa^kwafsiku:itan, n. an elusive thing, s. kwalkwalita, kwalkwa;lsiku:iton. SI. (LI.) kkuakkuassikuit^n 

Ex. : hin ||xamki ta, -|ku e kwalkwalsiku:itan, au hir) tatti, i |ke k" auki |ne |ni: -|ku, ta i ta |ku 

1: ||k" oen ~|ka ! nwa they also say, the proteles is an elusive thing, for they feel that we sel- 
dom see the proteles, for we merely see the proteles' footprints. 

kwakwattan, v. to break, fall off (as plaster from a ceiling), s. kwarra. SI. (LI.) kuaku^tten. 

kwa kwi be t/o, n. a dumb person. CI. (Do.) kwa kwi be cho. 

kwa :1a, v. to write. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: na |ka kwa :1a — I am writing. 

kwalada, v. spread out, pitch camp. Nil. (Dk. ) ki^lsda. 

kwalla, s. kwanna. 


kwar), kwag,kwa:g, v. part, must, therefore. SI. (LI.) kwan, kwan, kkw6n, kuan. Ex.: ha ||kwalr) se kwar) 

i:, o ha ka, ha se kwar) Ijk" oen "ti e:, si: ||na he she should therefore do so, if she wished, she 

should therefore look at the place at which we were living, ha hal ka sig |ku fkakka |ni Qpwa, |ni 
0pwa ~kwar) |ku ~Jka |kaggan, ta ha tui ti e:, |kakka ||ka sir) — he told the young ichneumon, the 
young ichneumon must leave the Mantis, for he heard the Mantis was obstinate, a kwa:lr) sag |ki ||e g, 
r) sar) \\k" oen ha thou must take me, that I may see it. 

kwan, V. to loose hold of, s. kwalna. SI. (LI.) kki^aiin. Ex.: ha ||ku|(ku |ne di kui ta ta~tarfa, he tikan 

e:, ha |ku-g |ne ! kAn kwan au t/wer) his arms became helpless,' therefore he loosed hold of the 


kwa:lr), v. to glide as a snake. SI. (LI.) kkwSn. 

kwalna, kwarra, v. to unfold, unloosen. SI. (LI.) kkwaEa, to unfold something crumpled up. Nil. (LI.) 

kudrra. Ex.: ta zau ti |ge, zau sir) ha, ta ti kwarra fno, ta ti ||xur) and the woman comes, the wo 

man sees it, and unloosens her skin necklace, and lays it down. 

kwanna, kwalla, kwarra, v. to vanish, disappear, not to be, be lacking, s. kora, koara. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 

||kabe kwarra, ha ku ~!kai /u ||kabe goats are not here, he looks round for goats. Nil. (LI.) 

kyd,nna, kudlla, kyarra. Ex.: |kAm tanki ! ku tanki ti ! kur) a, ma ti kwanna — another day another 

Bushman will kill thee, thou wilt disappear, me ~||ha ti ~u, me ~||ha ti kwalla my son has gone a 

way, my son has disappeared. XAm |na ta gu d3U e, | na ha kwanna e t/u may the lion take this per 

son, may he vanish from our house, t/i e kwarra ! nanni k"a this thing does not exist in Inanni's 

country. I 

kwapi, pron. they, them, s. kwa, okwapi . CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: Una eba kwapi kl'^odzo we hear them talk.] 

"kwappam, used in phrase "kwappsm !khe, to fall dead. SI. (LI.) kkwappem kkuappem. Ex.: ! ku ko: |ne 


~! kouksn tattan |kAm ||khal au !nwi:-ta ! khu i, he tikan e:, ||khal Iku-g |ne -kwappam ! khe — the 
other knocked down the lion with a giraffe's bone, therefore the lion fell dead. 

kwar, n. roan antelope, s. koa. SV. (Sel.) 

kwara, v. to lack, be lacking, s. kwanna. NI. (D. B. ) Ex.: haire ~!gu:, ! gu: krwara — fetch water, water 
is lacking. Nil. (Dk.) kwaja. 

kwara, v. to untie, s. kwalbba, kwafna. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: ahi ku Ijee x! gi, ahi ku kwara — you have tied 
the snake (skin), you have untied (it.) 

kwafraki, n. danger (?), s. ~kwa~kwa. SI. (LI.) kkw|,raki . Ex.: o ti e:, ha ||k"oen kwalraki, ti e:, !k'''e 
||khda si |kha ha, ha |ku ! ho ||gerre, ha |ku ||khou tai:l when he saw danger (?), that people seem- 
ed to be coming to kill him, he would get feathers, he would fly away. 

kwarra, kwarrakan, v. to break off, break out, break to pieces. SI. (LI.) kudrra, kkud,rrakfn. Ex.: J-kda 
|ku |e:ta: fgwaa:, i ! kai: Itan! kai.ltan ! ho ha, o i: ta, fgwgii: ha |e:ta: hs, he se |kurru, i se 

kwarra |hir) ha o fgwaCi: the .... root is in clay, we keep striking it (on the ground), for we 

wish the clay in which it has lain, to split, that we may break it out of the clay, tsa de | nu a: 
Ikwdglkwag kwarrakan a: ? why do the pots break to pieces ? 

kvfalrretan, kwalrritan, v. to gnaw, pick (bones). SI. (LI.) kkw^rretan, kkuarreten, kkw^rrit^n. Ex.: ! ku 

ko |ne kwafrretsn ! Ahi ||kho ! kwagan au ||goro the other person gnaws, putting the bones into a 

breast-bone (ostrich breastbone dish), i kr'auki ta !k'^ai:tsn ! xo— ka !kwa:gan, ta: i ta |ku kwalrretsn 
hi we do not break the porcupine's bones, for we pick them. 

kwaJta, V. to bind, trap with a rope. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso unu t/i:a akwitiko, iso ko kwa:ta nina 

kataikwape, ko kwa=ta akwitiko, so t/i:ta when a man takes a wife, then (he) binds her with beads 

binds the woman, then takes her. kot^ga notdna ko baba ka sir)giri mabe, a ko tselo^lo kwa:ta ono sam^ 
made is the trap by father with rope, and the paauw trapped I eat. 

Ofatl? abema, n. pi. shoes. CIII. (D.B.) 

:Cwa tsikho, n. lameness. CI. (Do.) 

<^a, t/ombe, v. to be deaf. CI. (Do.) kwa chombe. 

Jcwartu, V. to seek, look for. Nil I. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ke_kwa:tum people seek food. 

ewe, V. to be. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsifia kwe day it is. 

e, V. to say, s ku, kui. Nil. (LI.) kue. Ex.: ha ba dzor) ha, ta kwe, "me ||ha, ~wooo" — his father 
called him and said, '%iy son, wooo". 

ewe, V. to skip about. CI. (Do.) 

ewe:, ~kwe:, v. to be quiet, be still, leave, let alone, often used as quietly, s. kwa, to step softly. 
SI. (LI.) kkwe, kweya. Ex.: Ikwitan |ku ykoakan kwes , au hat] tatti e:, ha eger] dalrraken — a man is al- 
together still, when he feels that his body is tapping (inside), hi ~!ku ||khoe ||na||ndi !khwa:, au ti e, 

r) llkwalr] xara ka kwe:ja they hide away from the rain, while I merely sit quiet. (B. ) kwe, kwe. Ex. 

Ex.: t6:i a: a, ha |ku ~!kwa:f, ha ha |ku se ~kwe: ha — this ostrich, it is angry, so he will leave 
it. ha se ||a: kwe: so ko fkakksn — he will go quietly to sit talking. 

nre, pron. he, she, s. kwa. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe yk'^oa — she is cold, kwe sa, kwe ~davaba — he comes, 
he walks across. 

ewe:, each other, together. NI . (D.B.) Ex.: | hwia kwe: k"arikau mtsa ^sa are hugging each other young 

men there two. sa re tsa re kwe: |ga:si — those two lay together. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: lut/asi wa ka 
fnama kwe: the Luchasi fought each other. _dani ki kwe: |nali fire sticks rub together. 

"kwe, not, occasional form o/Jkwa, s. ~kwi . NIII. (D.B.) 

ewe, interrog. why ? what ? Nil. (LI.) kue. Ex.: kwe, a t/i r) a ||ko ok"wi '~!kur) ok"wi ? what, am I 

speaking the Bushman language ? 

^e:, n, ostrich, usually kue. SII. (D.B.) 
ewe, n. wildebeest. Cllb. (Bal.) 


kwe, n. river. CI. (Do.) 

kwe, n. place, s. koe. Nil. (LI.) kkw^, ku^ pi. kw^-ssiA, kue-ssin. Ex.: kwe tanki, ! nwerre tanki, 

! nwerre tsema tanki another place, another country, another little country, j nwai kwonna, e ti Am 

fgwe-||na sa ! khoro kwe kwesir) d30 the moon is not, we eat the ... plant and the ... plant, when 

places are dark. 

kwe, n. man, person, pi. kwena, kwene, kweane. [Na. khoii.J CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kweba, kweme, pi. kwedsi, 
male, husband, kwesa^ kwe/a, woman, female, wife, pi. kwe/i. Dual masc. kwet/era, fem. kwe/era, com. 
kwekhara. hi/e/e ko ~hal |nu ka, kwe kama sa i: tama, a \k"ej& i: — Hi/e/a came at night, like a 

person she was not, an evil thing she was. kweba ko ||ai a kwesa halnaha, a ko ha^ a man visits 

where a woman stays, (he) comes, xamxam Hor/a kwe ma that one gives illness to man. kei ko ||o:ko 

kweme, !ge: — when a man dies, (he) arises, aum ko kwena ko ma, "tira ko ]ai si teme" the father 

to the people says, "I the name shall call", namani ko haf, kel/e hal, Hei/e haf, kwe/i haf — the 

Nama came, many came, to the home came, the women came, kwedsi | gore ma /e people say a prayer. 

k"am-ka t/ere kwet/era — two mouth's people, i.e. two Bushmen. 

kwe, prep, different meanings , used before or after noun. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: U ka |kwai ! kha kwe they 

pass to the water, ea ||kabe kortele kwe ||gare he is bringing back the dish with the basin. NI. (D 

B. ) Ex. : kuni ku ~t/i, gwa tsia korikwa kwe the wagon comes, to-day comes from Korikwa. /ou 31, 

kwe da:a a /ou 31 — roast nuts, on the fire roast nuts. 30 gu !ko, gu ka kwe ~!ke — people dig 

ants, dig them with a digging-stick, o /u:wa kwe |kisi ga kurikwa (I) stayed at this (place) and 

Kurikwa. Nil. (LI.) ki^e. Ex.: ta n xa ha ! nue kwe ha fkofko — and drew from his bag his knife, e 

'.nwerre kwe XAm ti |habbo ha ~!ku in our country the lion takes offence about his name, i kwe d3U 

ye people there. ! kaq Hir) ha ! kh6a kwa ~|gu a stick pierced his knee in the dark, m ba e, me 

kwe; Ixwe — my father it is, of me, |xwe. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ka "sir) _gova kwe mulundui — I saw 

Mbunda at Mulundui. ~koma~koma 3U o tsi kwe muje to-morrow people will come from Muye. d30 ki ||ha 

_go, ti ||ha kwe _go — bees alight on flowers, sit on flowers. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! gani/ kwe,\|num/ 
|um/a !nea ~ha — on the chin the beard hair grows out. |o:as kwe ko namana ||e:ja ha — at Oas the 
Nama lived. | gore ma /e, koko m^e, ! xom kwe | gore ma /e — say a prayer, they cried, to God say a 
prayer. ||k"au-||en kwe ra ko ||ama — from the Auen I buy them, bo:/ ka ||xau/i k"am/a kwe — with the 

axe cut her across the mouth, a ko fga t/os Icwe t/a/ kwe he falls into the hole at the water, wen 

kurim kwe fuwoine kei --- during the whole year is much food, naman ko /i guni/ kwe . — the Nama came 
in a wagon. 

kwe, when, then. Nil. (LI.) kue. Ex.: e ti Am fgwe-||na sa |khoro, kwe kwesig d30 we eat the .... 

plant and the .... plant, when places are dark, ha zau sa ha, ta kwe /a ha his wife heard him, 

and then went to him. 

kwe, kwea, kweko, kwekwe, if, when, then, s. kwa, kweso. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwea uxlebi ko tl'^eketl'^eke, 

so hn fe olanakwe, kwe asuko Heke, teke, teke, " ko ait/a akwibi when the eggs are pecked, will 

come out the chicks, then the mother, "teke, teke, teke", calls the young ones, na fo t/a, kweko i/o 
xlaati, ako pelatita, kweko i/o xlaati, missi — I am ill, if the sun wants, (I) get well, if the 
sun wants, (I) die. kwekwe |kia unu, iko t/i when (it) sees a person, then (it) runs away. 

kweaha, v. to be alive, s. kwia, k"we. CI. (Do.) 

kwebbe, good morning, greeting at or after sunrise, s. kwobbe. Nil. (LI.) ku^bbe. 

kwebu, n. greyness, blue. |Tsw. | CI. (Do.,), 

kwee, n. bullfrog. CI. (Do.) 

kwega, n. roan antelope, s. twa. Cllb. (Bal.) 

kwegwa, n. sable antelope, s. hau. Cllb. (Bal.) 

kwei, V. to be hungry. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: n !kama, n kwei — I cook, I am hungry. 

kweitsnkweitsn, V. to whisper, speak softly, s. kwa, kwe:. SI. (LI.) kkw^itenkkw^iten. Ex.: !k'?wa: |na: 
k"o^Sa se daufko kweitankweitsn --- the hartebeest's head would go along whispering. 

kweko, V. to give, s. kwi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: aija, kweko seme, na same ta, kweko dtipi, na fu4 — moth-i 
er, give food, (that) I may eat, give water, (that) I may drink. 

kweko, s. kwe, kwea. 


icwekwe n. saviour. 01. (Do.) 

iwekwe, n. time. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||ama re koko |ne kwekwe, ako lonam kwe ||ama — (I) bought it at that 
time, from Lonam bought it. 

orekw^rritsn, n. pi. rings, arm & leg bands made from an edible root or of leather. SI. (LI.) 

kwe-kwerriten. Ex.: |[ker|-ta i, ||Ahi||Ahi |ki e, kwekwerritsn e:, he |kalrmnainja he — the magic dance 
dress it is, rings which they have put on. 

cwela, there, that. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha kwela |a:, ha kwela t/ui he there is tall, he there is short. 

cwe:r), v. to be heavy, strong. SI. (LI.) kkwen, kku6fi. Ex.: ! kaui ||kwalr| ta kwe:r) ! kaur) ! hoa ha au r| tu 

the egg is heavy standing on my mouth. ! khwe |ku ts'^u !a: sir] 0ho ! kerri |u, he ta kweiq ! hoa hi 

the wind blows past the great tree stem, which strongly withstands it. 

cwene, no, not, ahhr . from ^kwene. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwene ssme do not eat. 

cwene d3U, n. a Mochuana hut. CI. (Do.) kwene ju. 

cweo, n. life, s. kweaha, k" we CI. (Do.) 

cwerre, v. to go gently, s. kwa, kwe:, often reduplicated. (LI.) ki^drre. Ex.: hir) ~!kw'?ija, ! kuq 3*^0 

wai he e:, wai |ne kwerre, i: they call following the springbok, then the springbok goes gently 

in consequence. 

nrerre, kwerrekwerre, "kwerritan, v. to malign, blame, deride, s. kut'J^tksn. SI. (LI.) kkyerre, 

kku^rriten. Ex.: ! k'^etsn |kwe:i daksn kwerre ha, ti e:, ha |kai:f, ti e: ha k" auki se k" wa: o ha-ka 

Ik'^e people thus speaking maligned her, that she refused, that she would not cry for her people. 

|hu|huksn |ku-g |ne !k"wai§n ha, ti e:, ha "kwerritsn he, hag |k"e:, ti e:, he xiixu: ||kho |kou: — 
the baboons became angry with him, because he derided them, he said that their foreheads resembled 
overhanging cliffs. 

ytevve: v. to unloosen, untie, s. kora, kwalna. SI. (B. ) ku^rre. Ex.: ! kwar) talHailja kwerre: !hefu: — 
the child walking on unloosened the thong. (LI.) kkyerre. Ex.: hig |ne kwerre: !wig!wig they un- 
loosen the nets. 

TTsrre:, kwerre, v. to be cool, to cool. SI. (B. ) kwerre. Ex.: akke ! kwa e: g sir) ta:e tau ka: ||ka:l|ka: r) 
!noa i: , r) f 1: ti e: r) ka r) ! no^ se !hAm: kwsrrs: — give me water that I may pour wetting my foot 
with it, I think that I want my foot to be a little cool. (LI.) kky.^rre. Ex.: ||kdir)jari kwerre, 
Igwalxukan ||khou |kai:n the sun cooled, the sky waxed green. 

iverrekwerre, n. coolness, evening, s. kwsrre:, korekore. SI. (LI.) kkuerrekku^rre . Ex.: ha: sag |ne 

j Ikuitan sa kwerrekwerre — he will return in the evening, kwerrekwerre tuksn coolness mouth, i.e. 


Iirerrekwerre, round. SI. (LI.) kkudrrekkue'rre . Ex.: hag k" ola |ne egeg kwerrekwerre — (it) (sun) seem- 
I ed to be a round body. 

iiwesa, kweso, when, s. kwe, kwea, kwisi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwesa akwitibe |ki:a ssta, boko kowani — 

when women see the moon, (they) are ill. kweso boko unu, iso xlaka niggi when ill a person, then 

cuts the doctor, kweso t/i:ta seseme, so mudi:ga x^mbi when (they) kill a lion, then vultures 

gather. , < . 

ire/au, perhaps. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe/au !nwe: tsi, ! ga kwe/au liiAm perhaps to-morrow it comes, rain 

I perhaps falls. 

3reu zera, n. coot, waterhen. CI. (Do.) 

.■we |kwa, n. brook. CI. (Do.) 

rwe |kwe ho, n. a river flood. CI. (Do.) 


^i, V. to shoot. CI. (Do. ) 

kwi, ~khwi, v. to be hot, burn, ache, used as hot, n. illness. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kADi re ~k« i the sun 

is hot.k"o ~khwi the pot is hot. mihi ! kom |na: se ~khwi — my thigh is aching. Nil. (LI.) kwi. 


kwi, kwiya. Ex.: na ||gu ~kwi, n a t/a |xwe give me hot water, (that) I may pour (it on) |xwe. ||hi 

ti gu ||hi !nwe, ti |uwa !kur) ~kwi ~kwi e ! kug ti ~kwi ti ||ke the hare took the hare's bags, and 

put in Bushman illnesses, illnesses of which Bushmen are ill and die. me |ne ti ~kwi my head aches 

! nanni ti "kwija ha k"a Inanni was ill (in) his country. 

kwi, V. to give, s. kweko. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: monjoda kwi eta — salt give us. kweso dzane t/a seremani 
jnoku itabi, ta kwi a obe elatibi when Seremani brings shirts to you, you give to us boys. 

kwi, V. part, indefinite. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! xi : , ahi kwi guwa ~tsi a handkerchief, you wipe the mouth. 

mihi llkafma tji-la:, kwi ||i --- I wear a kaross, untie (it). 

kwi, kwike, there, prob. that place, s. kwe. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kurjku o kwike, 3U o nabo nuts are over 

there, people gather (them). CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwi ina dzapi over there (are) Bushmen (pointing). 

kwi, n. person, s. kwe, !kwi. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwi e kwela an | ge |i that person has fire. 

kwi, n. speech, words, s. k"wi, ok"wi. NI. (D.B.) Ex. : e ko ok"wi kwi kuma — we talk words of it. 

kwi, n. girl's initiation dance. SVI. (D.B.) 

kwi, kwe, so, like this. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: Ugau t/isi ka q, ka gu a _! gau, kwi ||kai, kWi ||ke si, te ||ha 

kwi, a kwe fkaude this hand it is which takes the wood, so holds, so pulls back, lets fly this wa^ 

this way lifts up. 

"kwi, not, form, of |kwa, s. ~kwe. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ~kwi /a:a — I do not know. 

kwia, V. to live, s. kweo. CI. (Do.) 

kwidza, kwiza, v. to rebuke, speak to. CI. (Do.) 

kwii, V. to pierce, bore. CI. (Do.) 

kwii, n. bull, male of anything. CI. (Do.) 

kwii, n. faction. CI. (Do.) 

kwija, V. to possess. Nil. (LI.) kwiya. Ex.: d3u e ||a kwija |noo ~^khija, ta me kwija |noo |kua "fkhija 
that person possesses many skins, but I possess few skins. 

kwi kwija kwere kwere, n. worship. CI. (Do.) kwi kwiya kwere kwere. 

kwikwirri:ta, round, pi. of kyrrirja, s. korrekorre, kwerrekwerre . SI. (B. ) kwikwirrita, ky,ik\i,irrTta.Ex. 
|6:i ts'^xeitan ||kwar) kwikwirrirta the nets' eyes (openings) are round. 

kwini, V. to suck. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso kwini idibabe, so seme a ||novare when (they) suck milk, 

then (the mother) eats baobab fruit. 

kwint/ep, n. oribi. Nil. (Sh.) 

k;wio, n. language, speech, tale, s. kwi, k"wi, ok'wi. CI. (Do.) 

kwisi, when, s. kwe, kweso. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwisi t/ate manako, si _dza:no when (they) find the 

game, will come back. 


kwitankwitan, n. pi. sparks. SI. (LI.) kkwitgnkkwiten. Ex.: mama-gu |ki kar) |k"e:, |kwaHtan-ka ^k"afn j 

|ke:, i ||k" oen he, hiq ka jfkho | i-ta kwitsnkwitan — our mothers used to say, the stars' lice are ! 

yonder, we see them, they resemble fire's sparks. I 


kwitsi, V. to stretch oneself. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ka fuata, kwitsi: ta he has yawned, stretched himii 

self, kwitsi amo haggu stretches himself Harjgu. 

kwi t/u, V. to condemn, dispute. CI. (Do.) kwi chu. 1 

kwiza, s. kwidza. j 

kwo:, light, not heavy. Nil. (LI.) k^o'. 


™^obbe, n. morning, s. kwebbe. Nil. (LI.) kuobbe. Nil. (Li.) ku6bbe. Ex.: kwobbe ti e — morning it is. 

i^olbbo, V. to rub, rub away. SI. (B. ) kwdbbo. (LI.) kkw^bbo, k^bbo. Ex.: i |ku arrotko ! kaukan ||kou: 
|e ha tsaxaittan, ha |ku |kum: !khe, i |ku-g |ne ! kauka ! khe fgou:, au ha jne kwolbbo ||na — we 
quickly beat dust up into his eyes, he stands blinking we stand beating undisturbed, while he rubs his 
eyes there, mama^gu |k"e: si, si |ki |e: si |k"a: o si tu, si se kwolbbo |khaimnar), |khammar) k" auki se 

tai : I our mothers told us, we should put in our finger to our mouth, we should rub away the sneeze, 

the sneeze should not come out. 

rvfobbo, V. to barter, exchange. SI. (LI.) kkyobbo. Ex.: ! kwi |aiti se | kwakkan | kwakka ha a: ||ho||ho, ha se 

||a |ke a t/wer), au ha kwobbo ~|kAin ||a ! ku ko: the wife shall rubbing make soft for him bags, that 

he may go to get things, when he bartering goes to another man. kwobbo ||kwarra, exchange mother, 

foster mother. 

rwobbo, V. to break. Nil. (LI.) kuobbo. Ex.: |xwe ||kija |ou ka ||kau, ta ||nau kwobbo | xwe aimed at the 

buck with the arrow, and the bow broke. 

■i ^ ' 

rwobbo, n. a coloured person, a black man. SI. (B. ) kwobbo, kkwdbo, pi. kkwokkwoboken . Nil. (LI.) kuobbo, 

:wobbo ! gau, n. a plant, Rhynchosia totta, of which the root is used as a charm for shooting. NI. (D.B. ) 

rwokweCi, n. a sudden disappearance, perhaps an earthquake. SI. (LI.) kkwo-kkwfiTi . Ex.: ! k'^aun tuko di ku:i 
ta holhola, o ti e:, i tai:l ||kau: ! khe he, u salrj fen:, ta: hurru-twi : tan tuko dola e, ha ka ha se 

|ku a: kwokwal se |ku koln: |e: |ku-g-!nwir| the earth now shakes at the place where we walk over 

it, you must look out, for the anteater it must really be, she wishes she may cause a sudden disappear- 
ance to swallow up the lynx. 

.TTOkwailta, v. to make scratch, prob. the contracted reduplication of 'kaillitan, to scratch. SI. (LI.) 

kwo-kkw^ita. Ex.: |kakkarj ||XAm r:ja, o hag di si kwokwailta hi the Mantis also does this, when he 

makes us scratch ourselves. 

iro-kwar], kwo^kwag'^a, real, really, thoroughly, very, quite, s. SI. (LI.) kwokkwdn, kkwokw^n, 

kv/6kw^n-a . Ex . : !koir) kwokwar), Ikoite kwokwag real grandfather, real grandmother (pat. for woman, 

mat. for man), hig |ku ! halm kwo~kwar) !khwa:, au hi ||na ! kauxu they are very much afraid of the 

rain, when they are on the hunting-ground. ha jna: ~! kuita, ha ha Ikerritsn kwo~kwar)'?a, ha |ne e 
|nu— tara kwo~kwag her head is white, she has really grown old, she is quite an old woman. 

wolkwa: Isiku: itan, n. an omniscient person, a spirit, s. kwalkwalsiku: itan. SI. (LI.) kw6-kw^ssi-kuiten. 
Ex.: r) kag |ku e |kaggi, a: u sag IkaTuija ha-ka- !khwa:, ha u k" auki se ||ha:ka, ta, ha |ku e 
kwolkwa: Isiku: itan I am the Mantis, from whom ye came to steal his child, to whom ye are not equal 

i for he is an omniscient person. 

wolm:, V. to suck. SI. (LI.) kkuomm. Ex.: hi |ne |a ! ho au i ||k\i-|na:, hi |ne kwolm: i ! gau: — they 
make cuts on our shoulders, they suck our blood. 

^wona, V. not to be, to cease, leave, lack, vanish, s. kora, kula, kwanna. Nil. (LI.) kudnna. Ex.: |xwe 

kwonna ! nwerre e [xwe is not (in) this country. ||gu ti | ge, fa ti kwonna the rain comes, the 

wind ceases, sa kwonna | gau, ta /wi^ sa jkua ti they (two) lack strength and are light, they are 

not heavy. . 

jworre:, v. to untie, s. kwalna, kwerre. SI. (B. ) kworrg. Ex.: hag | ne kworre: |hia ||ho:, hag |ne ts: ha 
she untied the sack, she put it down. 

worre:, kworre, v. often reduplicated, to cool, be cool, become cool. s. kwerre, korre. SI. (B. ) kwerre, 
kw6rrekw6rre, kworreya. Ex.: hig hi:tan i ||naig, hig ka |a: se fkam: Qpwa kworre:, hi se ! hau hi 

!kui:tan they looked at the house, for they wished that the fight should become a little cool, 

(that) they might later return, he ti hig e:, hig kworrekworre ! ho |k6al i:, oakan jjag turn: ! ho |k6af 

au !au, hag kworre ||ko:e: ! ho |k6al au ! aCu so they cooling place the waterbag (a stomach), father 

goes to cover the waterbag with earth, he cools putting the waterbag into the earth, g sig ! hau 

! Ahditan! Ahditan u:i, au n !nwa: |ne kworre:ja I did afterwards limp away, when my foot was cooled. 

■vforrekworre : , kkworrekworre-tukan, n. coolness, evening, s. kwerrekwerre . SI. (B. ) ku(5rrekyorre, 

kwdrrekwdrrS-tukan . Ex.: g sig ka ||6ig sag ! halm |e:, au !koig-gu !kei!keinja ||gaule ||na, hi sag ! halm 

ta:'?a kworrslrworrs:-ka |xworre I did wish, the sun should first set, while the old people the 

ticks sought there, (that) they might first feel the evening's cold. to:i gwaitan a:— g |ne s'^a 
kworrekworre:, kworrekworre :-tukan the cock ostrich is one who comes in the evening, at the be- 
ginning of the evening. 


kworrekworre, v. to be round, s. kwerrekwerre, korrekorre. SI. (B. ) kw<5rrekw6rre, kydrrekudrre . Ex.: 
lauija tatti^ ! aui kworrekworre — the egg feels, the egg is round. 

kwota, V. to catch, trap, s. kwa:ta. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kwota a seme goggoda — catches to eat a fowl. 

kwukwurri, n. pi. balls, bullets, s. kwikwirrita. SI. (LI.) kwukmirri. Ex.: bure-ka ~xuru ka |ku-g |ne 
llgwi, hir) tau kvmkwurri the Boers' gunpowder became exhausted, that and the bullets. 

kynnig"?!:, v. to examine, peep at, seek. SI. (LI.) kkii^nin-T. Ex.: ha ha:l kynnir)"?!: !khwa: x:, o !khwS:( 

||k" oen !khe: a: he examined the child, as the child stood looking at him. hag salg s'^o ko 

"kynnig'^r: !k^e e tai:ltai:f xa ta: she might sit and peep at the people who were walking about. 

kyrri:ja, wide, round, pi. kwikwirri : ta, s. kworrekworre. SI. (B. ) k\^riya. 

kxa, n. sand, s. ka, k" a. NI. (Pa.) kcha, 

kxabale, n. pi. humps (of oxen). SV. (D.B.) 

kxai, n. kudu, s. xeiba. CII. (Pa.) kchai . 

kxa:n, n. stick. SIII. (D.B.) 

kxau kwe, n. man, s. k" au kwe. CII. & Clla. (Pa.) kchau kwe. Cllb. (Sei.) kchaukwe. 

kxi, n. kudu, s. xeiba, kxai. Clla. (Pa.) kchi. 

kxi:ga, n. sister. SIII. (D.B.) 

kxo, n. pot, s. k"0. Nil. (Pa.) kcho. 

kxoe: 'ka, n. water. Clb. (Pa.) kchoe 'ka. 

kxoho, n. meat, s. k" oxo. CII. (Pa.) kchoho. 




The following words spelt kx'^ by Doke, Maingard and Anders I am putting by themselves, as I sj 

uncertain what sound is meant. j 

In his work, "An Outline of the Phonetics of the Language of the (-hy: Bushmen of North-West I 
Kalahari", Doke writes on p. 143: "kx*?. This sound, the ejective velar affricate, owing to its marked 
"ejection" has been mistaken for a click. It is, however, identical with one pronunciation of the Zulu | 
sound, variously written hx, kl, etc. The first element of this sound is k, with the usual velar contani 
of the back of the tongue. The release of the explosive, however, is slower than with the simple k, and; 
the tongue is moved forward allowing for a certain amount of friction after the enunciation of k, this i 
friction forming the velar unvoiced fricative x. The whole is pushed forward with a force pent up by tli| 
closed glottis, indicated by the glottal stop." j 

Yet Doke considers this sound the same as Vedder' s +, which is certainly the ejective k". Wo js 
written by Efoke with kx"^ occur in the writings of Vedder and Lloyd with + and^ respectively. 

ki?a:, v. to drink, s. k"a:, kx'^wa. Slle. (And.) kx'^a. Ex.: a r)e kx'?a: I am drinkin'g. 

"kx'^a:, n. earth, ground, s.k"a:. Nil. (Dk. ) kx'^k: . 


kx'^ai, V. to know one another, n. friend. Nil. (Oc. ) 153*^31, 

kx'^ai, kx'^eCia, v. to laugh, s. k" ai'^a. Slla. (Ek. ) kx'^'ai^a. (Mg. ) kx'^ai, kx'^eCia, kx'^aig, kx'^wei. Ex.: 
hS ||ko kx'^ai ||na he does not laugh, not at all. 

kx?a:Ja !!k'?au, v. to wait at bit. Nil. {Ik.) kx'?a: j^ f*^^. . 

kx'^'amkje, good, true. Slla. (Dk.) kx'^am~ce . (Mg. ) kx'?am~ce. Ex. : a Ugal kx'?amkje ||kai, a ||kei|ka ku, 
kx'^amkje wolf: "not true." girl say: "true." 

kx'?a:i\i> V. to seek, search, s. k" aru, kx'^wa." Nil. (Qt.) kx'^aiiy, 

kx'^eija, v. to weep. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: na kx'^eija I weep. 

kx*?u, V. to make, do, s. k" u. Slla. (Mg. ; Ex.: a kofo ku, q kjeg kx'^u - 

kx'^wa, kx'^a, v. to cry, s. k"a, kx'^eija. Slla. (Mg. ) 

kx'^wa, kx'^we, kx'^a, kx'^ei, v. to drink, s.k"a, k" wa. SII. (Mg. ) 

-kx'^wa, V. to bubble out, to seek, s. kx'?a: "Lu. Nil. (Ot.) kx'?wa. 

kx'^wi:, V. to be disgusted. Nil. (lli.) kx'^vfi:. 

jackal say: "I ... make (it)" 


The ejective k or glottal croak which I write k" is one of the most difficult sounds of the 
Bushman language to explain. In the preface to "Specimens of Bushman Folklore" LLoyd speaks of "a strong 
croaking sound in the throat", and "a gentle croaking sound in the throat". Bleek and Lloyd mark these V 
and tk respectively. In his work 'Grundriss einer Grammatik der Buschmannsprache vom Stamm der !ku-Busch- 
manner" Vedder writes on p. 13: "+ ist derselbe Laut, der unwillkiirlich hervorgebracht wird, wenn man 
einen im Schlund befindlichen Gegenstand durch Rauspern herausbringen will. Die Kehle wird fest ver- 
schlossen als ob man ein starkes k auszusprechen beabsichtige, durch plotzliche uffnung des Verschluss- 
es entsteht alsdann, jedoch ohne Ausatmung der Luft, der Schnalzlaut + von selbst. " 

That is the best descrij tion of the sound I have seen, though I should not call it a click. It 
is certainly not k with the glottal stop, nor is it kx*?. It is more. The throat is closed by pressing the 
back of the tongue against the epiglottis, then suddenly opened creating a croak, an ejective k", but 
with hardly any air behind it. 

I use k" for both the sounds written v and Sk by Bleek and Lloyd. They are generally both found 
in different spellings of the same word, k" is often found as an initial sound, also after the clicks |, 

Schinz uses J for the ejective k". 

k"a:, k"a, k"aa, V. to drink, suck, s. k"au, k"wa, k" wei, k"e, kx'^wa. [Na. a:] SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: misis 

a xan !'?e:je a, a ||e, a k"a: te — Missis has called you to go to drink tea. g k"a!kha: I drink 

water. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n ||a k"a: --- I go to drink. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: suke ki kha, si ke k"aa 

here is water, we drink, a ka ti kofi, n | no k"a you make coffee, (thatl 8 may drink. SIVb. (St!^ 

k"a SV. (D.B.) Ex.: wa /a ba k"a!nau — they go to drink (at the) pits, fx&i a k"aa!kha: --- the 
dog is drinking water. SVI. (D.B.) k"aa. Nil. (LI.) jE CII (D.B.) Ex.: Hgwe ko | ga fu, a ko 
t/a/a k"a: — the tor- 


toise eats grass and drinks water. 

k"a, k"a, v. to cry, sing, bleat, croak, s. k"wa, k»'ai, kx'?a. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: J gwa xn k"a:, ha xan |ki 

||kie:n the child cried, she had fallen down, si xa '"tu fger~ru 0pwa, ha ~k"a: we heard the 

lamb, it bleated, myri Opwa k"a: , k"a, k"a, tsama xeinki the kid cries, cries, cries, bringing 

the mother. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha k"a: she cries (a baby). SIV. (C.B. ) Ex.: txobaku ki k"a, ha |ki 

|k"ara Txobaku cries, she keeps struggling. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: 0pwai k"a the child cries. Nil. 

(Ll.)^^^ to creak, (as boots or the branches of a tree). 

k"al,k"a:a:, v. to bite, s. k"am, k"aun. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kauba a ~te, a te:, kwe k"a:a: — the 
cobra gets up, stands, bites the man. 

k"a, k"a:, k"aa,^ n. earth, ground, dust, clay, s. !ga:. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |xuru u, ga Ijkora ki k"aa — 

(she is playing, drawing on the ground. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kalra jjesi ko k"a spread grass on the 

ground. k"a re t/i : — the earth is wet. Nil. (V.) -^-a- (LI.) jra. Ex.: | kAm fnau, ta |xwe e |xwe, ta 
/uwa k"a^ ta ti tsa — the sun set, and |xwe was |swe, and lay on the ground, and slept, fa ti dgoq 

k"a the wind blew up dust. k"a|ui sau clay (pot's) ears. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ts'?a ki ||koa i 

k"a we two squat on the ground. ||ga ||k"ali a tali !noli ||ne||ne, ka t/a: k"a the raincloud 

drives over the country, and falls to earth. j 

k"a, n. heart, s. !ka:, -!k"a. NIII. (D.B.) i 

k"a:,n. meat. Nil. (Wil.) k'a. 

k"aba, yesterday. SV. (D.B.) 

k"abbi:, v. to break, open, tear, s. k"abbu. SI. (Ll.)jrabbi. Ex.: hag |ne | kAm ! kau, har) | ne !k'?ai:ltsn 

!khau:wi, hag |ne k"abbi: !khau:wi: he takes a stone, he strikes the egg, he breaks the egg. NI. 

(D.B.) Ex.: ga ||eja dzau k"abbi se ||gain ka (they) tie with bark torn from trees. 

k"abbi, n. a certain poisonous tree. Nil. (LI.) yabbi. Ex.: ! karra tanki ha ! ku ti o k"abbi, ! kan ||ne||a;| 
another poison, its name is a large tree. 

k"abbi^ ^. a Bushman tribe. Nil. (LI.) J'abbi. Ex.: tamme e k"abbi!ku Tamme is a k"abbi Bushman. 

k"abbik"au the name of the tribe. 

k"abbu, V. to hit, break, s. k"abbi:. SI. (LI.) yabbu. Ex.: hag |ku-g | ne kui txau, k"abbu te ! gwara au 

|ai:ti !ka:xu he shot, hitting the arrowhead against the woman's breastbone (breaking her breast 

bone). ; 

k"ada, n. poison from the pandzubi tree. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/iama ta k"ada, ta t/e: kamata atonen 

pick up the poison and put it back again. 

k"ai:l, v. to fall ill, s. ||kai. SVI. (D.B.) 

k"ai, V. to cry, roar , low, s. k" a:. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ahi re k"ai, dama ! goma you are crying, litt 

boy. Nil. (V.) 4^1, roaring of animals. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: [kwa/a InurJ" ! o-kwe "fnu, a ko k"ai -♦-^ the 
calf is in the hut, it 'ows. 

,~k"ai, k"ei, v. to have, possess. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a ~k"ai t/isi, ||kau||e: k"ai t/isi — he possesses 
goods, the Auen possesses goods (is rich), mihi k"ei tsi \ne6 I have one brother. 

k"aT., n. kudu. SII. (D.B.)- 

/k"ai, lean. Nil. (V.) +ai. 

k"ai'?a, k"a'i*?e, v. to laugh, s. k"wi?a. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: she k"ai'?a--- we laugh. 

k"ai-a, just now, formerly, once. Nil. (V.) ■f-ai-a, 

k"ai:se, v. to bring up, look after, s. ki:se. SI. (LI. ) jraTisee. Ex.: han ha4 |ne k"ai:sewai Opwa, waJ 
Opwakan |ne ~ki, au hag |ne k"ai:se |ki wai Opwa --- she brought the little springbok up, the littlt 
springbok grew up, while she was looking after the little springbok. 

k"ak"akka, v. to make a hissing noise, s. k"auk"au. SI. {B. ) ^ajalkka. Ex.: hag | ne ||ag k"ak"akka |e! 

!khwa: he (the Mantis) making a hissing noise went into the water (the hot stones attached to h^ 

made the hissing noise). 


i J 

k"ak;"ala, v. to pass by. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: makhalahadi k"ak"ala the Bakhalaharis are passing by. 

k"ak"an, s. k"anni. 

k"a~k"an'?i ,v. to exclaim at an evil smell. SI. (LI . ) ^yayani-i. Ex.: ! k*^© ha^ | ne kiii, "hmph, hmph", 
k"a'"k"an'^l hi the blue crane said, "hmph, hmph", exclaiming at the evil smell of it. 

k"akataibe, n. pi. small beads. CIII. (D.B.) 

k"k"wa,v. to hang. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: |xi, ha k"k"wa the jacket, it hangs. 

k"alaka, v. to wag the tail. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ka k"alaka he (dog) is wagging his tail. 

k"am, V. to wring out wet, s. k'B.rri. Nil. (V.) -»-^. 

k"am, k"am/a, n.mouth, hole door, s. Ikxam, fkam. [Na. ams.] QI. (D.B.) pZ.k"am/i, k"ame. Ex. : kam /e 

bo:/a, a ||kau k"amja then (the Moon) took an axe and split (the i4are' s ) mouth, kweba ko t/a, 

/ere |u: hak"am/ kwe a man is ill, they dose him by the mouth. k"_5Lm-ka kwe, k"am-xakwena — 

mouth's people, i. e. people speaking a similar language, Bushmen. |nu: kwe hanaha, k'«,m— ka kwe ko 
kuru |nu: kwe the black man was there, the Bushmen worked for the black man. 

k"am, right, not left. [Ko. k"am. Na. amj SI. (B. )jram. Ex.: ||ku k"-am right arm. 

k"iamba, s. jak"amba. 

k"amiki, t;. to hurt, s. k"amma. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: upukwa ko xlangaxlanga aieta, ta !no:o enabi, eta 
k"amiki aija the foot between the toes is thus, is pierced by grass, is hurt thus. 

k"amffla, v. to shot. Nil. (Ll.)^amma. Ex.: ta ka~ru sad, ta ti t/ir|, t/irj m ba, "me ||ha, ! xwe k"ammame 

kwe me fkhum, ~ja:i" and Ka~ru heard, and cried out, called to my father, "my son, chase and 

shoot for me at my father-in-law, oh". 

k"amsa, fastened to the head, a mode of carrying. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ke ka ke ta kani |na k"amsa tani ? -- 
why have you not carried it fastened to the head ? 

~k"ar), k"ar)'?a, i;. to speak falsely, conceal a fact, s. k'^ink'^in. Nil. (Ll.)^an, yan-a.. Ex.: ha k'«,r)'^a 

mi kwe t/i e, ta !kua ok"wi me kwe t/i !ku he concealed from me about this thing, for he did not 

tell me the thing' s name. 

k"ane, v. to sprout, swell, s. ki:, -kai. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: f^^s k"ane e, e |ka ~kai — the tsama melon 
sprouts and becomes big. 

k"ane, k"anisa, k'-ani/a, n. edible termites, called ants. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa gu k"anisa, t/au k'^anisa 
do not pick ants, dig ants. CII. (D.B.) Ex. : k'anij |nu:/a anthill. k"anana, ants. 

k"ani, n. bird, s. k"anni. Nil. (Ll.)^vdni. 

;k"an:kan:~na, v. to rejoice. SI. (LI. ) ^Snkanna. Ex.: ! gau:e |i:r) | ku-g |ne su:k8n ! khei |ja: ha, 
au har) k '» an : kan : ~na Jo: the Day's Heart sprang towards her, as she rejoicing sat. 

k"ar)k"U,n. hand. SIVb. (St.) k'arjk'u. 

k"anni, k"arri, k"arri, n. bird, little bird, s. k"ani. [Na. anib, anis.] SI. (B. ) j?-arri, j/-affi, pi. 
j^|yeiin, yenn^enn. Ex.: k'H,rri 0pwa a: !kwai, k'^nk'^n e: |k"wa:ja — one little bird, many little 
birds. (LI. )'jrSnni, p I . j/eyeAn , j/ayann . Ex.: ti |ke:, ykhabbo sir) ||na he, ||khabbo-ka !xo:e, he-ka 
! gitan ks: se |Ah^rri |e: hs ok"anni — that place at which ||khabbo lives, jkhabbo's place, its 
sorcerors will turn themselves into little birds, ha k"wei ||gwafttfn, au ha |na: ||gwaHtan, au 
gwaltta ta:~0pwoir) ta:, he ha k"wei Hgwalttsn, i: : k"ek"^n: kuita |ne ||kou ha, hi-ta ku:ja-g |ne 

k"wei llgwalttan it (a certain little bird) is laughing at the wild cat, when it sees a cat, while 

the cat IS lying down, lying asleep, then it laughs at the cat; the other little birds hearing it go 
to it, they all laugh at the cat. 

k"ao, V. to dry, s. ||ka:o, k"0. Nil. (V.) +ao. 

k"alo, k"a: lo, k"a~o, i;. to cool, be cold, opposite o/ kau, kafo, to be warm, n. cold. SI. {B. ) j^diO , j^E6 . 
Ex.: hi sir) tarlitaiHja ||koe tir) k"alo, au ! khwija k"a: ^o — they go about in the cold, while the 
wind IS cold. (LI . )^ao,^d6, emph. ^Sowa. Ejc. : r) a kafokafowa rj |k"a|k"a, k"a: lowa^ se |hir) u hi — 


I warmed my hands, that the cold might go from them, he si |ku-g |ne !k'?ai:Hi, o hir} ne ta |i: he e: 

si-g |ne !k'?ai:lt9n k"aohi, i^ then we beat it, when it feels hot, tkat is why we beat cooling 

it. ha: !khwe, hag a:^ k"auki ~tAm: 0pwa tsui, hag a: ta: !kaula ; ha k"a~o — that wind, it is the 
one which does not a little blow, it is one which lies in the east, it is cold. 

k"a:o, k"au:, v. to advance together, call a commando together, n. warparty. SI. (LI . )^Yao, ^Su,^d.owa. 
Ex.: |hu:wa: |ne |ni, ti e:, ha |kha: xoro, |hu:wa: |ne k"a:oha, |hu:wa: |ne ||a: |xa'?a ha — the 
Boer discovered that he had killed the ox, the Boer called a commando together, the Boer went to 
shoot him. hir) |ku e: ~! kuxe, hir) |ne ! hAinmi ||a:, u hi: k"au||kwa:l e: k"aowatig — they are run- 
ning, they go in fear, as if they had not advanced together, hag |ne |ku ||ag fkakka ! k^e kuitan, ti 

e:, k"a:odola a: ~epwoinja ha-ka ||neir) he went to tell the other people, that a war-party was 

sleeping at his home, he tiksn e:, k"au: |ku-g |ne k"au: !khe ||a hi, i: — then the war-party ad- 
vanced together up to them. 

k"ao-doro, s. k"au-doro. 

k"aona, v. to peel. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: !ne:sa, |ko si a, a k"aona si, a ^um si — wild onions, roast 
them, peel them, and eat them. 

k"aoun, s . k"aun. 

k"apakwako, n. cheekbone. CIII. (D.B.) pi. k"apakupi. 

k"appausig, k"ap''pusig, v. to hop into, pop into. SI. (LI. ) J^appau ssin,^ap-pu ssin. Ex.: !k'?e e: sig 
|k"wa:,hi |ku-g |ne sa:, hir) |ku-g |ne salg di !ga:, hig |kru-g |ne k"appa.usir) fhauru — the people 
who were seeking food, they came, they became frogs, they hopped into the pond, ha hal |ne ||ko:we:, 
har) |ku-g |ne kiii k"ap'?pu sig !khwa: — he (the Mantis) descended, he popped into the water. 

k"ara, n. impala. Nil. (Ll.)^^ra. 

k"are-k"are, v. to dry meat. Nil. (Wil.) k"are-k~are. 

k<'ari, n. a food, a ground thing, s. k"arri!ku !kwi, k"eri.NII. (Ll.)^dri. 

k"arik"au, k"arikau, n. young man, boy, youth, s. k"au. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: k"arik"ausi oasi ||nam yabi — 

all young men throw sticks, ka tsa'ke ku ||a: ||ni, a k"arikaum tsa those two are playing the war 

game, two young men. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: keim k"arikau i, a ko ! gwiba ! num when (I) was a boy, (I) 

made traps. k"arik"au ||kwa ko, namani ko /i guni/ kwe young people (we) were, the Nama came in 

the wagon. 

k"ariku5i,n. young man. SVI. (D.B.) 

k"arri, v. to wring out, s. k"am. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tu wana ko tu, |ka i ko, ko k"arri — rain has fall 
fallen, wet they (clothes) are, wring them out. 

k"arritji, v. to melt. SI. (B. )^dirrityi. 

k"arri!ku ! kwi : , n. a kind of sweet food resembling honey, s. k"ari, k"srij Nil. (LI.) ,^^rri ! kii !kwi. 

k"aru, k"atu, V. to seek, search, look f«r. NI. (D.B.) k"a:ru. Nil. (LI . ) ^^ru,^a-tu. Ex. : ta dama sa^ 

ta k"aruha, k"aruha, k"aruha, ta |kua sig ha and the Herero heard, and sought him, sought him, 

sought him, and did not see him. ma ti k"atudzodzwa thou dost seek a fly. 

k"aru, n. a plant, 'karreebos' Acacia niermis, Marl. & Engl. NI. & CII. (D.B.) 
k"asama, n. spearheaded arrow used for rhinoceros hunting. CIII. (D.B.) 

k"a: se, v. to seek food. SI. (LI. ) ^a sse. Ex.: he ka, g ||na||na he, g se k"a: se he — they wanted me 
to live with them, that I might seek food for them. 

k"ataikwa, n. young man, boy, k"ataikwako, girl . CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akitibe a k"ataikwa young women. 

k"fiCu, V. to drink, s. k"a:. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: g |kua sa k"au I have not done drinking. 

k"au, n. man, male, s. k"arik"au, k"audoro, k"ause. kau t/o. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: k"auku ||kamma t/i-fa: |ne 

a man wears one kaross. k"au |kaba ""keiaba a grown-up young man. | num k"aua ! geixa a Ikum -- 

a doctor who is a sorcerer cuts them. ^! ku k"au a man living in the bushes, Bushman. k"au, male 


arrowhead, iron arrowhead. Nil. (LI.) ^SkVL- Ex.: binko k"au a kind of Bushman said to be living on 

the other side of the Makoba. k"ur)k"au, Inoiri k"au name for a person who is not generous. (V.) 

•j-ao. Ex.: fu: k"ao sorcerer. |u:k"ek"ao medicine man, poison mixer. k"oak"ao worker. 

NIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: |naa k"au the sky's man, ? God. mi wa k"auba I am the men's father, j. k"au 

wa mihi, i k"auba wa mihi — their begetter am I, their father am I. ! ku a ! num k"auke sr) UglCua — 

a person who is a sorcerer sees the ghost. |lgau ma ! gi t/o k"aua ||ko"j a boy's initiation mark a 

witchdoctor tattoos. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: k"auha: — stallion. k"auba yku^kweba a ko ||kau||e/a /e: — a 

grown-up man has married an Auen girl. t/o-k"au-kwe e: a doctor (he) is. k"au kwe |kwixa ko kuru 

a man only does it. k"aukum male arrowhead, iron arrowhead. Uga-i ||narre a te the female 

(left) foot is this. k"au||narre a te the male (right) foot is this. CIII. (D.B.) found in compo- 
site words. Ex.: i—k"au, be— k"au, monster, used also for elephant. 

"au, k"auki, v. not to be, not to do, generally used as adv. not. The ending ki is one of the connectiv- 
es of double verbs. SI. (B. ) ^au^^auki. Ex.: ha ka |kwe: |ki, u ha-ha k"aua: ~da: |a — he acts 

thus, as if he were not the one who made the fight, q dola ka ! ksrri k"aua |kwe I did think, an 

old person is not thus. !k'?wa:gsn k"auki |ki |xa|xa-ga twi: the hartebeest has no shooting wound. 

(Ll.)^auki. Ex.: u kola k"auki se ||a: ygwitsn ||kau: ||na||na — you must not go to play above there. 

"audoro, n. lad, young man, young male, s. k"au, k"arik"au, kau t/o. SI. (B. ) Jf^^udoro. Ex.: k'_'audoro, 
k"audoroe: !ku:, k"audoroe: ! nwara — a Had, two lads, three lads. (LI.) ^audd5ro,^aSdd6ro, pi. 
^auyauten, ^yauyauruken. Ex.: har) jku jxerri, au hag |ku-g |ne e toi k"audoro — he scratches the 
ground, while he is a goung male ostrich, he tikan e:, !k'?e ta, !ke!kerritan kar) fkakka k"aodoroa:^ 

ha sir) IhAJumi: ||hitji therefore people wished the old people to tell the young man about it, that 

he should respect the girls, he tikan e:, k " auk " auruksn e: sig |haq ha, hi |ku-g |ne ~keja au fnuturu 

ti e:, fnuturu k"ola |kwe:i u i: then the young men who have been marrying her will stare at the 

ftuturu woman, because the fnuturu is like this. 

"aluk"alu, n. a thing which makes a tearing noise when we eat it, s. k"aur). SI. {LI . ) ^^nydn , ^ao^&OVL . 

"aukum, n. spider, poison used in shooting prob. taken from a spider). Nil. (Ll.)^au kum,^au kkvim. 

"Surg, k"adur|, v. to crunch, s. k"aluk"alu. SI. (B. ) yaun.Ex.: :g k"auki |na: ka: ~!kwa:gan, e: g ka 
k"sru:g hi, ta: g |kweitsn |ku a: k"aru:g !kffa:gan — I ^do not see my (springbok) legs, that I might 
crunch them for I am one that crunches bones. (Li.)t^aoun. Ex.: hig Ijnau, ||gaiHan-ta !kwagsn, hig 
||nau, au hi kwalrretan hi, hir) ~|ku hi au ||neig, au hir) ta, !kwig!kwig xau se k"eCug hi — they do 
this to the shoulderblade bones, they do this, when they have gnawed them, they put them away in the 
iiouse, for they wish that the dogs shall not crunch them. 

"aunki, really. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g k"aunki hawu:a — I am really tired. 

"auo, at twilight. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: u na saa ti johannisburg k»'auo they come from Johannisburg at 

twilight. SIII. (D.B.) kobe k"au early, at dawn. 

"auruksn, v. to creak, (as boots), s. k"aluk"alu. SI. (LI. ) ,J'^auruken,^auruka. Ex.: au akan k"auki ta, 

a-g |ne ! kwe |hir], !kwe!kwe |hir), a^g |ne tu fxoa ! nwa |koroksn, o fxoa k"aurukasa: if you had 

not slept, you would have kept watch, kept looking out, you would have heard the elephant's footsteps 
rustling, as the elephants creaking came. 

"ause, n. cut or cuts between the eyebrows made at the boys' initiation ceremony in certain tribes. NI. 
(D.B.) Ex.: o 3U o |nAm k"auseku ss \||gauwa the people who have the cuts see the spirit. 

"autsiki, sore. SIVb. (St.) 

"au-t/a, n. a herb, a sutera species, used for toilet and ceremonial purposes. CII. (D.B.) 

"au!ko, V. to go to visit. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: fe kie k»'au!ko — the people have gone to visit. 

"au fkwarra, n. court round the moon, s. memo. SI. (B. )^au fkw^rra. 

"a-epwi, n. red cat. SV. (D.B.) 

"e:,v. to roar, s. k"a:.CII. (D.B.) Ex.: xasa ko k"e:,xam/a | gai/a — she was roaring, a lioness. 

"e,k"e:, v. to drink, s. k"a. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: kye: xa k"e!kha:l --- the ostrich drank water. SIV. 

(D.B.) Ex.: |ne _||kam a ke, n se k"e give me quickly, (that) I may drink. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: gume 

wa k"e: !kha --- the oxen drink water. 


k"e:, V. to fold up. Nil. (V.) fe. 

k"G, n. foot, form, of |k"S.NIII. (D.B. ) 

~k"e, n. teeth, s. Hkei. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: g-ki ""k"e my teeth. 

k"e, prep. with. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tasse ma me /amobi k"ememenda — buy it the Isanzu with stuff. 

k"e'^au, white. Nil. (Wil.') k''"e'au. 

k"ee, V. to fall, s. kau. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |e ku |guisi, |humsa ku |guisi, |e k"ee rain comes up, 

clouds come up, rain falls. 

k"se, V. to cut up. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: _|gwa i ||kAm, ||hau ta, k"se ta, k"se ku ||kaisi ta — shoot a 
springbok, cut it open, cut it up, cut it in pieces. 

k"e: i, k"ei: ja, V. to evade, get away, tease, deceive, s. k"e:nk"e:n. SI. (LI. ) ,^/^r, ^T^ya. Ex. : t/we 
k"auki |ne |ni k"e:i ! ho ha, o hs: |na, o hiq ta:, ||ka ti e:, ha k"auki e ts'^a a: ts*?!:*?! — 
things do not keep getting away from him (porcupine), when they see him, for they feel he is not a 
thing which bites, harj ||ke||keja !khwa: 0pwa a: k"ei:ja, ha xarra ka ||nau:, ha: |na: i — it is lik 
a little child which teases, it always does so, when it sees us. 

k"ei, V. to have, touch, s. ~k"eija. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi k"ei tsisi si sa fkhi, mihi k"ei~tsi |nee - 

I have sisters who are many. I have one brother. Nil. (LI. ) ^ei,^ei. Ex.: ||gwi ti k"ei!khusig 

the .... tree has thorns. ! nwerre e, ||gu ti k"ei ||kerri |ne'^e in this place the water has one 

root (well), m tai kwa goru, m ba k"ei goru my mother is afraid of the lizard, my father touche 

the lizard. 

k"ei, V. to smell good. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a i, a k"ei, t/a a k"e'i buchu it is, it smells good, bu 

smells good. 

k"ei, n. vulture. CII. (D.B.) pi. k"ei'?i, k"eil|kwa. Ex.: k"ei-||kwa !o: ||kwe, k"oxonko:ko the 

vultures are above, looking for meat. 

~k"eija, k"e~ija, k"ei:ja, k"e:ja, i;. to have been, to^be first, used as first, s. k"ei/e. Nil. (LI.) 
^eiya,^eiya. Ex. : ha ~||ke, ta~/u, ta tsema, ta ha ~k"eijae | ouma tse:ma — he was dead, and lay, 
and was little, for he had been a little young kid. ha ba ti ge, ha ^kum ti ge, ha fkum sa ha ba ti 
taba ha kwe maka, ta ha ba ti k"e~ija, ta ti turn: ma ha ||ha, ti taba ha ||ha kwe maka — his father 
there, his father-in-law is there, his father-in-law and his father treat him with tobacco, and his 
father is* first, and sits near his son, and treats his son with tobacco. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/asa 

k"ei:jaaxa, na ka:/i |e:sa ~ku first bring water, and then fetch wood, /a k"e:jahal, na |i:/a 

fnum, na ka kau:ka hal you come first, and this one sits and comes later. 

k"sink"sin, s. k"e:nk"e:n. 

k"eirako, v. to be thirsty. CII. (D.B.) 

k"ei/e, first, s. ~k"eija. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ehe ~k"ei/e~u, ka ihi ||na ~tsi — we go first, then you 
come afterwards. 

k"eisi, n. ravine. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: kuni hin |e k"eisi the wagon has entered the ravine. 

k"e:ja, s. k"eija. 

k"e-kwe, prep, on, prob. on the face of, 8s. keme. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: xum/a ko f*^®*^ ~kani/a ko ~fnu 
|xerrum k"e-kwe the earth falls, the ants stop on the sieve. 

k"eme, k"es, n. face. |Na. eis. | CII. (D.B.) Ex.: k"emeko boro, |e |lnod3i ko boro --- the face (she) 
painted, with fire stones (charcoal) painted. 

k"sn, V. to feel proud. SI. (LI.) yerin. Ex.: hi ||kwalr) ka ||nailnja bara, he bara |ne k"sn — they 
(Bushman women) click at a horse, and the horse feels proud. 

k"e:nk"e:n, k"sink"s:in, v. to tease, make free with, mock, laugh at, deceive, s. k"e:i, SI. (B. ) 
^^inyein.Ex. : rj a: ha !lcwi: |ki s'?a r), au harj k"auki |ki Jo: ha: kwakwag, au har) k"sink"s':in qa 
||khwaihem I am the one, he called me, while he did not put aside real food, while he deceived m 


who am the devourer of things. (LI.) yenyen. Ex.: hiq |k"e:, "u kag ykho: kag fl: , ! kauksn e: si |na 
he, he kar) k"auki k"e:nk"e:n si, ta: ti k"war]he fen na ki:se" — they said, " think ye, the child- 
ren whom we saw, they did not laugh at us, for it seems they knew education (were all educated)". 
||kha: I |ne ||xou fka:, o ha: ka, si se-g |ne |nr ha, ha a:, si e: Ikauksn, si ka Ikw*?!: k"e:nk»'e:n, o 

ha |ke the lion would become visible, when he wished we should see him, he is the one whom we who 

are children have been calling, making free with his name. 

k"Sri, n. sweet food from a flying insect which makes its house in a little hole in the ground, s. k"ari, 
k"arri!ku !kwi. Nil. (LI.) yeri. 

k"srri:tan, k"srri:ta, v. to render fat. SI. (B. ) ^eri^t^n, jr^ri^-ta. Ex.: ! eita |ka:ka so ko k"srri:t8n, 
hs ti hir) e:, r) sig ka |huntu-! kat! kattsn se l|xam k"erri:ta ke — the women sat rendering fat, 
therefore I wished | huntu- ! kat! kattsn should also render fat for me. (LI. ) ^errit§n. 

l£"es, s . k"eme. 

's"es, par f ic ie used with numerals. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: fite k"es!nwona a three men. 

fessa, k"esse, v. to devour. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ssme heja manako, kweso kl'^ut/u ta, iso k"esse ta its 

food is meat, when (it) grabs it, then (it) devours it. 

"k"ett8n, k"tt9nk"etta, v. to change, be changed (?). SI. (LI. ) ^fettfn,^ettfn7^tta. Ex.: he !kwi|a 
xuksn haf di kui k"ettank"etta, u ha, au har) do la se s6, har) ~k"ettan !kwi|a xu — and the girl's 
face became changed (?) like him, for he kept coming, he changed (?) the girl's face. 

C"i, n. mouth. NI. (Schi. ) Ji. 

C"ia:i, v. to be sweet. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha k"amtik"ia:i it is really sweet. 

:"ibi, n. ostrich eggshell. SIIc. (D.B. ). 

:"i||e, n. tooth, s. -k"e, l|kei. SIVb. (St.). 

:"lijo, n. porcupine. Cllb. (Bal.) k'liyo. 

:"o, k"o, v. to do, make, s. ko:, k"oa, k"u, kuru. SI. (LI.) part, of the phrases |kwei^6, jkw^i^ok^n, 
to do thus, tte^6gfn, how to do. Ex.: ts'^a dig | ne a: di: xwerri-k"au, he ha l|xAin |ne |kwe:i k"o, 
har) tai:l ? ||kwonna xa a: |kha: ha, hs ha-g | ne |kwe:i k"ok9ntai:l ? — what can be the matter with 
xwerri-k"au, that he also does like this he walks ? Is it the sun that hurts him that he thus walks ? 

u xa dola te: k-'ogsn |xai: o ||kha: I ? how did ye shoot at the lion ? SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r)k"o: ! gau 

g |ka: I make the arrow of .... wood, g k»»o |lg a I make a hut there. 

"0, V. to get. SIVTi. (St. ) 

"0, V. to rub, anoint. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n si n k"oj I will rub myself. 

"o:, V. intr. to smell, s. ||k"0. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: se xo k"o: it smells bad. 

"o:, i;. to eat (meat), s. k"oxo. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gu k"o tsammam o:a: tsatsi — people eat all the birds 
here. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kad3i ta ka ||kei j*aum kwey a ko ! gwija ! num, a ko ! geid3i k"o: — roots (we) 

gnaw in winter, and traps make, and springbok eat. k"o:e, to be eaten, /orome e, k"o:em ko a 

legavaan it is, it is eaten. |ko:va/a k"o:e s ko a python is eaten. 

k"o, V. to disappear. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ssta _k"0, tukutu, ha~kham the moon disappears, sets, goes. 

'0, k"o, n. pot. NI. (D.B. ) Ex. : ha ku gu k"o, ku |uwa xam |ne --- he took the pot and put it on the 
lion's head. Nil. (Ll.)^o,^5. Ex.: ha sau |nu |u ha kwe k"o, ta ti fke Am ha, ta gu k"otanki, ta 

ti !khuwa ha his wife put him into a pot, and shut him up, and took another pot and covered him. 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ka _swa tsaba, |u:a k»'oma, ka |no a _daa — (I) plucked the bird, put (it) into a 
little pot, and roasted (it) on the fire. 

lc"o, n. bowstring, s. ||k"o, k"oo, koma. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a xan ! gwa e _k"o thou dost pull the bow- 

"oS, k"o^, s. k"wa, k"wa, to drink. 

"od:, s. k"wa:, to cry. 


k»»oa^k"0^, V. to appear, seem, often foil, by another v. SI. (B. ) v(5a, vo^. Ex.: ha k"(5a.-g |ne !kwei] 
Tif au ha k"6aka ! kwita se |ne |k"ei ||k»»i: ! vihi !khe: g |k"a|k"a — she seemed to be angry with m( 
for she seemed to wish the eggs might stick fast upon my hands, ha-ka |ka:qsn ku k"oSi— g |ne a|kan 

his wives' hair (feathers) appeared to be fine. (LI.) y^a. Ex.: a ||kwal g ku a ||k»'oen, [khuksn 

0pwa a: kari |ke:, ts u sig ||a:, he !koa: k"o^a se ||Ahi: & — thou art one who seeest the little 
hair (cloua) which yonder blows along, and the rain seems as if it would come out. 

k"ola, k"o:gi, v. must, was obliged to, ought to, would, really did. SI. {B.) jr&d. Ex.: g ga se s'<*a |ug 
||koe te:g hi, au ka k"ofase s'^a !kwa: ! gwe tig hi — I had come to sleep m it (but) but I was ol 
liged to come to lie cold opposite it. !k'?wa: |nag tatti e:, hi k"ola |ku |ne ||k"oen |ki g ||kerru ■ 
the hartebeest's head felt that it would be looking at my hole above the nape of the neck. (Ll.)^Si 
70a. EjBSichag |ne fi:, ti e:, |ku: k"auki k"o:a:lsi ||k"i: !khe — he thought that the brush must 
not stick fast. ! xowa k"ofa |ku ! khe ||neig, au i fi, ti e:, !xowa taiija — the porcupine really d: 
remain in the hole, while we thought that the porcupine had gone out. 

k»'oa, k"o^a, v. to fear. SI. (B. ) ^6S. Ex.: he ti hig e:, to:i ta ha |ka g 1: , g ||kwag a: fi, ti e:, g 

k"oa |ku:ksn whe^ the ostrich thinks he kills me, I also am one who thinks that I fear death. 

iLi.)jr6&. Ex.: !kal~u hal |ne kui, " g kag do^a sig ta, Gpwog |ku kwe: ~sig, k"olaha safg |ne ! hAj 

||k"hwi" the lizard said, " I did wish, son should stay quietly (at home), fearing he should be i 

fraid of the quaggas" . 

k"oa, V. to seek food, s. k"aru. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: t/ena ga ! nautana, t/e |ka u jkora, a ko ~u, a |ne k" 
mai this is a black wasp, this does not go far, it goes, it seeks food. 

k"oa, V. to work at, clean. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ia ha, ka k"oaha bring the horse and clean it (work 

at it). Nil. (V.) f^a. Ex.: na ti k"oa \|a: a — I work giving you, I work for you. k"oa k"a<) — 


k"oa, k"oa, v. to come up, gush out. Nil. (V.) -fo^. (LI. ) <^8a. Ex. : |]gu ti k"oa the water comes up 

k"o:a, n. soot, black. SI. (LI.) yoa. Ex.: !koa-ka k"o:a — pot black. 

k"ala:,n. insect. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ku ||nau |ne, ka k"ola:_!na (I) have shaved the head, for insec 


k"o'?ain, v. to break off, snap off. SI. (LI.) ^6-a|n. Ex. : hag |ku ! k'^'oa ||kho ha ! nwa, au |hou, hag 
Ik'^oa ||k"i::te |hou au !k'^au, hag |ne |kei |hou !nun:tu, hag |ne|ki !kwa: |hou, k"o'''a^n !kwa: |hou 

au hag ! k'^oa ||k"i: ta |hou he trod placing his foot upon the bow, he trod holding fast the bow ' 

the earth, he took hold of the bow's "ear, he broke the bow, broke off the bow, while he treading he 
fast the bow. 

k"oag, V. to rise, arise, get up, s. koag. SI. (B. ). ^<5an,^oari, js^da^da. Ex.: ha so ko !ku!kui:, ha k"c 

I hig, ha !ke!ke: ti |kAiimsg ts'^wits'^wi he sat and put shoes on, he got up, he stood taking up tl 

things. |ni:tsn k"oan |hig, |ni:t3n ! goa*?! the ichneumon arises, the ichneumon looks around, hi: 

|ne l|ag kag !xe: ! gwe: sig ||naig, hig k"oak"oa |hig, hig hirtsn'^i Ijnaig — they went to hide oppo; 
posite the hut, they kept rising, they peeped at the hut. 

k"o^an, n. pi. skins, hides, s. k"o: . CII. (D.B.) Ex.: namani ko Ixefi, a ko naron ko k"oxon~ma, k»»ola 
kokwe ko ]|naid3i !xe: the Nama hunted, to the Naron the meat gave, of the hides shoes made. 

k"oari k"Wa, n. a plant, Cardispermum hal icacabrum. L. CII. (D.B.) 

k"obe, n. tortoise. CIII. (D.B.) k 

k"oe:, s. k"we, to drink. 

k"o:e, n. pity. SI. (Li.) J^S. Ex.: hs k"auki di: si ka k"o:e, hs |ku di-a: !khe: JAha: o si — they I 
not beat us with pity, they stood beating a.t us cruelly. ; 

k"oe'^n. neck. SIVa. (D.B.) 

k"oko, n. a plant, Indigof era alternans , of which the root is used as medicine. NI. & CII. (D.B.) 

k"ok"o~si, n. hornbill. SIVa. (D.B.) | 

k"ok"6sig, n. pi. wrinkles. Nil. (LI.) ySyd-ssin. Ex.: ~! ku k"ok"dsig ~fki a Bushman's wrinkles^ 

are numerous. 1 


l£"okula, n. herd, s. k"o:. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: t/is ta k'»okula, t/ia mi so kl'^ekakau — runs the herd, 
they run on the plain. 

l£"olohi, n. lorry, s. korohi. SIVb. (St.) 

i"oma, k"omati, n. eland. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dzake tase k"omati — people eat the eland. 

k"Dinak'H,, slowly. SIVb. (St.) 

f'OO, k"Owako, n. bow, s. _k"o. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hama k"owako that is a bow. 

£"Ore, V. to cut off. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: k"ore ha, gare: tu xwa — cut it off, slowly. 

i"0v6,n. quail, a small kind. CIII. (D.B.) 

C'orok an, k"oro:ka, v. to dry, shrivel, burn up, wear out. SI. (B. ) ^droka, ^or6kS. Ex.: a |ku-g |ne 
lkwerri:ja |na ||nair), au a,-g ! nwa-ka |i, ta: a fAhafAhau |ku ||ka k"c5ro:ka — thou didst writhe about 

I at the house on account of thy foot's burns, for thy toes are burnt dry. ha Ukuj^kutattan ||ka k"0:roka 

her nails are burnt off (LI. ) jrdr5-ken, ^6rok§n. Ex.: hig | ne turru |kAm ||a l|kwonna-ka Ikuksn, he 

||ko:wa, au hit) tatti ||koir| a: ||ka .k"orok9n hi they pluck off the summer's feathers which are dry., 

because the sun has burnt shrivelling them, g ta, Ikauka: sir) kwag !ke!ke, ta: wai ||kwa||kwara e, he 

I tsaxau k"au k"oroksn, he ||k"oen ||khwetan — ; I wish the children should hide, for springbok mothers 
(they) are, their eyes are not worn out, they see far. 

p'oxo, k"oxowoine, n. meat, game, s. k"o: , k"olan. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweba \dum kwe ko te, k"oxoko fa: 

— the man stands by the eland, cuts off meat. ! kur) k»»oxo, k't>xo |kwa large game, small geune. 

! k'^3X0j*a ko daue \e:J kwe a bit of meat is burnt in the fire (the fen. ending shows the small 

1 thing). ! koeba ko !koate, k"oxwoine |u, a ko k"o:o — a leopard walks about, game kills, and eats. 


I'TO, n. ox. Sla. (A-son).,7TO. 

"u, k"uwa, V. to play, fiddle with, nod. SI. (LI. ) jni, jRiwa. Ex.: hi e: ta k"u ||na ||neir), hi Ik'^aiHan 
Ixitan |ki ! xo-ka !kwagsn au ||neir| — they are those who play (with bones) at the house, they strike 
breaking the porcupine's bones at the house. ! kwi a:, ha | ne a: "serreja |ne maili, ha |ne ho ha, ha 
|ne |ki "ykaitan ha au ! gwalxu, he ha |ku-g |ne k"uwa!a: tig ! gwalxu — this man is the one whom 
the wind first lifts up, it carries him off to the sky, and he goes playing about in the sky. ha |ne 

i:-kwa a |na:, o ha k"u, ||kau: ta ! nabba it (lizard) does this with its head, when it nods, lying 

upon the driedoorntree. mama^guksn kag fkakka si a:^ ti e:, "Hkharl a: tsi: |ku|kurru ~! kabba, o hag 
ka, ha se !k'?ai: ! ke-se si o !khwa:, o si: k"u |ki ~! kabba — our mothers used to tell us, that the 
lion was the one who was biting, tearing the waterbag, for it wanted to overtake us at the water, 
while we fiddled with the waterbag. 

"U, V. to make, s. ko:, kuru, k"o. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: i k"u ||kri — we make beer. ~|go:, ha sig k"um 
6bo the bow, it is made of wood. 

"u, V. to get, s. k"0. SIVb. (St.) 

k"u, V. to marry w. sp. s. kxu, u:ku. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a se "keira se, n ti^ ku ~k"uhaa — you are 
old, I will not marry you. 

"u:, V. to hiss, as water in fire, s. k"ak"akka. Nil. (LI.) ^tH. Ex. : da k"u: ||gu the flame (of 

candle) makes hiss the water. 

"u, n, Bushman. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: k"u |ha:si Bushman language. 

u, n. form of ! ku, person, people. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: k"uma handjeka — people talk. 
"u:a, n. bird with white crested head, grey wings & a cackling call. CIII. (D.B.) 
"ube, n. bird, prob. guineafowl. CIII. (D.B.) 

ue, s. kwe. 
"^ii, to be ill-tempered. Nil. (V.) fdi. 
["ul'a, s. k-'wi^a, to laugh. 


k"uija, s. k;"wija. 

k"um, V. to cut off two or more things, to mow. Nil. (LI.) jram, jnmm. Ex. : me zau, k"umme [Ahisig, jehi 

me zau, gu ^kofko, k"umme |Ahisir) my wife, cut off my ears, oh dear, my wife, take the knife, ci.: 

off my ears. k"um ||g to gather grass, to mow. ha |Ahisir) knim its (baboon's) ears are short I 

(cut off). (Wil.) k-^um de'a. ] 

k"um, n. a plant, 'resinki', Grevia cana, Lond. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: k"umba, the tree. k"umsa, k"um/a, the 
berries. k"um/ako fu the berries (we) eat. 

k"umbiko, n. a certain bird. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: k"umbiko, tsealolo dit/i, sameta ota — the a 

black bird, we eat it. 

_k"um~k"um, v. to pray. !num~k"um, a witch doctor. NIII. (D.B.) 

k"uq, V. not to give, to be stingy. Nil. (LI . ) jrvA , jrvA-a . Ex.: k"ur), |kiia ja d3u tanki kwe Am — to b 

stingy, not to give other people food, e ti k"ug'?adal kwe Am tsema e fxunnu-gu we do not give | 

Dal the small food which is sweet. | 

k"ug, here. SIVb. (St.) j 

k"Amk"Am, v. to be able, can (?). SI. (LI. )^am7am, ^ammyamm. Ex.: akan s*?© ka, a sag k"Amk"Ain, a |e 
|i thou seemest to think, thou wilt be able (?) to enter the fire. 

k"Amti, really. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha k"Amtik"iai it is really sweet. I 

k"wa, k"wa, v. to act, do, make, seem, s. k"ola, k"wag. SI. {B.)jrvtt.. Ex.: to:i ta |kvfe: k"Wa, au ha: e{ 

||nair)-ka to:i the ostrich does so, when it is a home ostrich. (Ll.),^/wS. Ex.: ||ketsnl|ketan k"aui 

k"wa ! hannurwa, k"auki di ti e a:ksn the beasts of prey do not act nicely, do not do what is go(l 

k"wa llkhoykhoa acts wobblingly, moves under pressure like a waterbag, wobbles. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | 

I gwa a, ha g k"waha-ka |k"a this child, it does this (with) its arms (moves its arms this way) .j 

k"wa:,k"wa, v. to nod, turn the head, look about. Nil. (LI.) jfoa, '^7qa,jrna. Ex.: a di k"wa: thou j 

noddest. ||golm a ti k"wa the caterpillar turns its head. 

k"wa:, V. shall, will. SI. (B. )^^a;. Ex.: ha mai:, ha |s:, ||o:ir) k"wa:-g |ne |ka:ti |s: !kur)sir) ha — ( 

it (the moon) first sets, the sun shall later set after it. I 

~k"w|, v._ to suit (?), be favourable to (?). SI. (Ll.)jm|. Ex.: ||xe: e: ha ||ker) hs, hiq k"auki sir) 
~k"wa~k"wa ha a:, o hs: ta: ||ka ti e: ha |ku ||khabbo-a: ||k"6ak8n, ho tikan e:, l|xe: k"auki ka, 

||xe:ja ~kw§ mama the ants' chrysalides which she dug would not be fabourable to her, because th 

were aware that she had dreamt of evil things, therefore the ants' chrysalides would not want to beij 
favourable to mother. 

k"wa, k"we:, k"we:i, k"wi:, v. to drink, s. k"a, k"e, kx^wa. |Na. a: | SI. {B.) J^^tjf^'^^, JfoS,,j^gB.jrw 
Ex.: r| sar) ! ham |ku k"wai: ~!khwa: e: |u:, q sag ! ham |ku k"wa, ta g |kweit3n |ku a: k"Wo: |u: — 
shall first drink brackish, water, I shall first drink there, for I am always one who drinks brackis 
(water, n fe: , ti e:, ! gaue |i sag |xurri |hig g au ~!khwa:, au g k"wag |]na — I thought that the 
Day's Heart would drive me away from the water, if I drank there. g sig ham ! AhaJtsn |ko: si, au 
e:, !khwa: Jo: hi, g sag ! ham arro:ko k"wa — I did first limp to the place where the water was, 

that I might first quickly drink, koro sig |ku a: k"we: toi-ta !kuitan the jackal is one who 

drinks the ostrich eggs, g xarra |ku sag !hau: g ||a: k"wak"wa |hig Ikuitan e:, g sig !nau !ho ~hii 
I also shall afterwards go, drinking out eggs which I had hidden away. (LI. ) .JS^wS, ^^7Wi :,^^7wff. Ex.: i 

se k"wasweg we shall drink fat. Ik'^etan ||xAm: ka, ha k"auki k"wak"wa ||we:i, !khwa:, ! k'^e ta b 

|ku tAm 0pwa k"we:i, !k'^eja sig |lxAm: k"wakui k"wag ti e:. ha |kwe:i k"o, hag k"we:i, i: — the 
people also wish she (the new maiden) should not be drinking much, the people wish she should drinl( 

moderately, the people would also drink as she did, she drank, whai: sig | ne k"Wi: !kwa: ||ki tl 

springbok shall drink rain liquid. 

k"wa:, V. to cry, roar, resound, s. k"a. SI. (B. ) ,^^S,^oa. Ex. : ha|-g |ne ! gii! gaija: |e:ta (Icubbi e 

tete-ta eg, hag k"wa: a: tu he moaned in the bushes about his thigh's flesh, he cried about hisi 

skin. ||kha:g |ne k"wa: — the lion roared. (Ll.)^^7wa. Ex.: hig ta ! kwa se k"wa:,au hi |ne !kauk8i 
!kwa they wish (that) the drum may sound, when they beat the drum. SI (A- son) inxwa. 

k"wa:, V. to have pain, be ill. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ai/a kuru ma faroba, a ko kwe k"wa:, me fnu xaa — 
next kas built the bird, and a person has pain, (if) it builds there. 


"wa, V. to split, cm. (D.B. ) Ex.: k"wautape tsoko ko split apart the bit of wood. 

"weCi, V. to be hungry. SII. (D.B.) Ex. : g k"wai^ ka r) a I am hungry, let me eat. 

"wain, V. to be angry with, usually ! kwain, !khwein. SI. (LI.) vwain. Ex.: ! kaoun |ne k"wain Ikaggsn i: 
the mierkat is angry with the Mantis about it. 


"wati-s'^o, crooked. SI. (LI . ) ywai-ss'O. 

"War), s. k"Vfa, to drink. 

"war], V. to seem, resemble, s. k"oa. SI. (B. ) vT^ah. Ex.: har) Ikweitsn k"war), ha: se |ne i: !khei | "'hir] 

s'^e |ka:lo:ka ti ~|ke: ta: he always seems as if he would come over the little hill lying yonder. 

(LI. )o7wan,^^7TTofi. Ex.: ! khwa Opwa |ne k"wagha se twaitan the little child seems about to recover. 

ha ka |ku k"WOT) !khwa: Opwa, ti e:, ha ||kwalr) | ne a ||ar| a: !khwa:-ka xoro ||kwal q | ne !kauwi: — he 
continues to resemble a little child, because he was the one who let the waterbull live. 

"wanni, v. to turn, s. k"wonni. SI. ( LI . ) ^jrarini . Ex.: ! kwi ta:, ti e: Oho k"auki, tAmse ||ke:T) !khe: ha 

||khauru, he ! kwi k" wanni ha |na: the man felt that a stick did not a little pierce his hollow at 

the back of his neck, and the man turned his head. 

"walraka-, v. to run fast, be fleet. SI. (LI. )j^^raka. Ex.: r) a | ne |ka:lgan ||a:, au ka tatti, r] a 
k"auki k" walraka I am the one who goes behind^ for I feel, I am one who cannot run fast. 

"warre, n. iceplant with purple flower. Nil. (LI.) yuarre. 

"we:, s. k"wa, to drink. 

"we, s. k"wi, to recover. 

"we, V. to oe quiet, be alone, leave alone, s. kwe:. Nil. (LI . ) ywe, yiie. Ex.: ha t/ir), " ||na mi k"we, 

n a txa m ba" he cried, " let me alone, (that) I may shoot my father". ||na: me tsi k"we leave 

my mouth alone, na ti ! kur) zau e ; | ne i k"we, ha ~u, i fgum, zau e ~u I shall kill this woman ; 

be ye quit, (that) she (may) go away, be ye silent (that) this woman (may) go away. 

"we:, V. to fill, dip up, s. !kwe:. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |k"abi/akurua, a k"we: t/a/a kwe — the eggshell 
is chipped, fill it with water. 

"we, k"wei, s. k"wi, to speak. 

"we'?a, k"we'?i, v. to laugh at, s. k"wm'?a. |Na. ai.\ SI. {B. ) jrfie-&, jm^-x. Ex.: |ni: ta ||xam k"we'?a ha 
— the ichneumon would also laugh at him. |ni: do^a k'fwe*^! g, au r) a Ukallka'?! ha Ikoirj the ich- 
neumon had laughed at me, when I had made angry that old fellow. (LI.) ^jme-a.. Ex.: ha sa& r) k"we'^a 
hi ! k'^e e: tailtail xa she might laugh with the people who were walking about. 

"wei, s. k"wa, to drink. 

"we^tan, v. to kick. SI. (B. ) yweiten. Ex.: har) |ku-g |ne su:k3n |ki |e: ha ! nwa au |i, ha |ku-g |ne 
k"weitsn |ki: |i she jumping puts her foot into the fire, she kicks off the fire. 

"werritan, v. to darken, become black. SI. (LI. )^^^rrit§n. Ex.: hi tAm'?i hi |na:, au hi ta, | khuka se 

~! ku ||khoe, hi |na: se di ku ||kho k-'werritanau | hoaksn | hoaksn they anoint their heads, for they 

wish the hair may grow downwards, their heads may become black with blackness. 

"wetl'^e, n. jackal. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |!cii:a ta d3end3ai a k"wetl'?e catches the leopard the jackal. 

"wi:,k"wi:, i>. to be light, not heavy, to oe ea§y. SI. (B.)^^/wi. Ex.: dd !k'?wa: |na: k"aulcik"wi 

this hartebeest' s head is not light. (LI.) ^/yf^,jrwf.Ex.: r) sig | ku fkakkan g-g-ka fkakkanakakkan, au 

kakan tatti e:, |hu|hu-ka fkakkanfkakkan k"aukik"wi: I speak my language, for I feel the baboons' 

language is not easy. 

"wi, i;. to tie on. CIII. (L.B. ) Ex.: kl'?oako sa akwitive se |nana k"wi ota atonen — the kaross of the 
women they tie on here (round the waist). 

"wi:, s. k"wa, to drink. 

"wi, k"wi, k"We, k"wei, v. to speak, n. language. The verb often has an initial O, in Nil, also an 


initial oa-, di-, u-. NI. (C.B.) Ex.: |ki ~kei ko ~k"wi — old |ki is talking, ako a~kwi |hu k"wi - 
he speaks the white man's language, nama k"wi mihi tsa, tsema ku tsa the Nama language I under- 
stand, a little understand, hwiteb k"wi te ha tai |kwikais Hwiteb calls his mother jkwikais. NI 

(LI.) t7T»i,^vwl, ywe,^^^jrvrei. Ex..: t9^^ ~!ku o-k"wi k"wi e the Ash Bushmen speak this language, e 

ti o~k"wi ©"^k'^wi e, na ti o~k"wija they call this language which I speak tsaba di ||ka:, tsaba 

di k"wi the bird sings, the bird chirps, na ti u k"wei I talk. ! nanni ti u k"wi: ! nanni 

talks. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: _goba |ko o~k"wi _Goba speaks Mbunda. tsaba ta ~k"wi the bird chirp 

CII. (L.B.) Ex.: |k"arenko i, kara ko nama k"wi: ktim small I was, when the Nama language (I) 

heard. | gen kwe ko tu, tu/a ko ^"wi among the | gen it rains, the rain speaks (thunders). ! gou 

damaba ko k"wi:, ku nama k"wi: the Berg Damara talked, Nama talked. 

k"wi, k»'w§, V. to recover, get better, live. CII. (C.B.) Ex.: Ikamt/ara t/o-k"autJara t/o/a kuru^ xa l' 
k"wi — two doctors work magic, that man gets better, /aum kwe ko fke:/a halnaha, |e:d5i ||o:, |e:dj| 

k"we in winter there is illness, some die, some recover, kubas, /a ko ma, | kam |kwa ||k"am, we/ane] 

ko k"Wi Kubas, she said, two children bore, both lived. 

k"wi, n. hair, form of !k"wi. .NIII. (C.B.) 

k"wi'?a, k"wi:'?a, k"Wi: ja, t;. to laugh at, s. k "ai *?§(., k"we'?a — SI. (B. ) ywi-aj yi^i-a^ywfya — Ex.: 1 
k"wi'?ar), au ka durru s'^a ||neir), ha k"wi:ja!a: ||koa r) — he laughed at me, when isiowly came homi 

he laughed at me, sitting along side of me. |ni: ta |ne k"wi:'?aha the ichneumon does laugh at 1 

Sla. (A- son) inkwi. 

k"wija, V. to do nicely with. Nil. (LI. )^^7ufya. Ex.: ] hu k'»wija gu |ne, |kua ||kum !xa gu |ne, ta k"wij! 

gu |ne the white man did nicely with the sheep's head, did not divide (with an axe) the sheep's 

head, but did nicely with the sheep's head. 

k"wi:sii, n. language, s. k"wi. CII. (C.B.) Ex.: xan ||kur) kwena a ko byri taa k"am-ka kwe k"wi:sii - 
those old people told me (in) the Bushman language. 

k-'wdi, k"Woin, v. to cure, help, s. k'-wi. CII. (C.B.) Ex.: |na ko ta k"woin tsama — the stomach tsa 

k"wor), s. k"wari, to seem. 

k"wonni, v. to wave about, swing about,, flicker, move. SI. (LI. ) ^^^onni. Ex. : har) ha: I ||nau: kun:no a:I 
!kwai, har] ha: I ! kAn k"wonnik"wonni ha, o harj ka, kun:no a sig baba'itsn — she did this to one t' 
button, she grasping waved it about, for she wished the button should sparkle. Nil. (LI. )^_^<5nni. 'l!: 

da ti k"wonni the flame flickers, xoxori, ha ti k"wonni ha Ikhusig a snail, it moves its ' 

horns, u k"wonni (aZso n kwonne), to swing, as berries do on their stems. 

k"wonni, n. wrist, unusual word s. ||khore. SI. (LI.) y^onni. 

k"Woou, V. to tie on. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa ko ~! keisa. kolru, |kwa ko fxe:, a ko k"w5oi — the chiL 
takes off the apron, the child unties (it), and ties (it) on. 

k"x''a:, V. to wash. Cllb. (Vil.) qxS. 

k"x'?a:, n. eye. Nil. (Wil.) qx5. 

k"x'^a:,a. end. Nil. (V»il.) qxa. 

k"x'?a:, a. sand. Nil. (Wil.) qxS. 

k"x*?a:,n. fork. Nil. (Vvil.) qxS. 

k"x'?a:, slow. Nil. (V\il.) qxS. 

k"x'?ai, n. neck. Nil. (Wil.) qxai. 

k"x'?am, n. forearm. Nil. (Vv'il.) qxam. 

k"x'?a:m, n. mouth. Cllb. (Wil.) qxam. 

k"x'?a:ri:, n. honey of bees living in the ground. Nil. (Wil. ) qxSri. 

k"x'?ei, red, brown, orange coloured. Nil. ('lUl.) qxei, qxei. 




c"x'?s'?ei-i, n. mierkat. Nil. (Wil.) qxe'ei-i. 
:"x'?ox'?o:, n. flesh. Qlb. (Wil.) qxoxo. 
"x'^'urj , n. mortar. Nil. (Wil.) qxun. 

This lateral consonant is not a Bushman sound. The languages in which it occurs are those of 

ribes exposed to much Bantu influence. These are the Bushmen of Lake Chrissie on the Zwaziland border, 

)III. , the Masarwa of Central Bechuanaland, SV. , the Bushmen of Central Angola, NIII. , the Tati Bushmen 

|if Southern Rhodesia, CI., and the Hadzapi of Tanganyika, CIII. In the other tongues we may find a rare 

fxample in a foreign word, but more often the foreign 1 is changed to r. 1 occurs more often in second 

yllables than as an initial sound. 

In Hadza there is besides 1 a sound that varies between the Welsh 1 and xl . As the latter pro- 
unciation predominates, I have placed these words under x. 

a, dem. there, those, that, s. le. SIII. ( D. B. ) Ex.: ha xwa: e la his mother is there. SV. (D.B. ) 

Ex.: m 0pwa:ke e: la — my child is that, dau !xai la — the road is big there, /igwaa ||nu:m la — 
two pods (are) those, fxai ti a ||kaije la the dog has killed that. 

la, interrog. where? how ? SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ga ||k^ ba ~la ? — how are you ? gome a ha /a ~la ? — 
where are the oxen ? 

&i, la, lafal, la:a, n. man, men, s. la~kai. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: lal ke ||nwa ki te |k"a the man has a 

stick in his hand, la^af ke Ja f^ana the man comes to speak. la:a !xa: tu |ke the man lies 

down, basarwate ka lala^ Masarwa men. la | nau a young man. 

aba, n. ring. CTII. (D.B.) Ex.: njanza laba — copper ring. 

aka, laki, v. to be fetched back, go back, return. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa: mo laka lunguWe, laka mo hii 
na then he was fetched back by the Masai, returned thither (pointing), laki oba we go back. 

a~kai, lakai, n. woman, s. laf. SV. (D.B.) pi. la~ke, lake. Ex.: la~kai ja /a ||na: ti ||nai — the wo- 
man is coming there to the home, lakai ka /a Ji& ||kokwi a woman comes bringing a cock. la~ke ka 

llgulma the women clap their hands. 

ala, n. edge, rim. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: lala mua ko, kata a xlubana ati — the edge of the river it is, 
I where is shallow the water. 

ala:ko, n. lamb, s. beelele. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: asakala a tu t/irta lalarko a tu eamsta the red cat 

catches a lamb and eats it. 

ama, strict, stern. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: lama koa — stern person, aija mo lama te odwa — he is strict, 
I cruel. 

amba, n. cockle. CI. (Do.) 

jami, V. to wait. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: lami ota obe wait you (with) us. 

lampeda, n. name of a tribe, the Iramba. CIII. (D.B.) 

amusi, in phrase lamusi tita te, nothing doing. CIII. (D.B.) 


le, dem. there, s. la. SIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: ha /ore le he has gone there. 

lebadi^ n. cicatrice, a tribal mark. CI. (Co.) 

labaka, n. time. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

lebala, n. a plain, s. lu~bu. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

lebantee, n. belt. CI. (Do.) 

lebate, n. table. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

lebebe, n. buttermilk. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

lebole, V. to pardon, be kind to. CI. (Do.) 

lebolee, n. kindness, pardon. CI. (Do. ) 
lehuma, n. dearth, want. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 
lekaba, n. pack ox. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

leker~si, n. sweet. [Afr. lekker.] Slla. (Mg. ) 

lekl-^e, s. letl^e. 

leko tsana^ n. a brick wall. CI. (Do.) 

lekwaro, n. letter. [Tsw. lokwalo.J Cla. (Pa.) 

lelako, n. gum extracted from a wild bulb. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: boku at/u lelako rub thread with gum. 

lembe, n. eyelid, brow. CIII. (D.B.) 

lenjebi, n. badger. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) lenyebi. 

lepai, n. a cotton blanket. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

letl'^e, lekl'^e, very long, very big. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsirjgaoko, letl'^e mepe loobe sa the gemsbok 

very long its horns. iDudi:ga lekl'^e me va the vulture very big is. 

letopo, n. comb of cock. CI. (Do.) 

letse, n. braided hair. CI. (Do.) 

letju, n. sassaby, s. lut/u. CI. (Sel.) lechu. 

lingidi, n. woollen material, best stuff. CIII. (D.B.) 

lisa, V. to watch, look after. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: nie lisa ko duru I look after the sheep. 

litende, n. bread. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) 

lo, n. grandparent. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: lo l|ke, grandfather, lo ||kAin, grandmother. 

loako^ n. horn, feeler. CIII. (D.B.) pi. loobe, loope. Ex.: tsir|gaoko, letl'^e mepe loobe sa — the ge 
bok, very long its horns, loope sa at/eka horns of cattle. 

log6wa, n. shield. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.-. t/ukua ta akwe utumeko, logdwa akwe tumeko — he is carrying a 
spear, a shield and spear. 


lokwa:lote, n. book. [Tsw.lokwalo, letter. ]SV. (D.B.) 
lokwoi, n. white man. SV. (D.B.) pi. lokwoile. 

lu:a, n. a big pot, s. lu:wa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tasa atonen lu:a manaketa 'buy a big pot for meal? 

lu~bu, n. circular flat ground, 'pan', s. lebala. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /a ka HksTi ki lu~bu we looked at 


the 'pan' . 

lufwai, V. to smoke. CEII. (D.B. ) Ex.: dzane ko tumbate a ono, tumbat^ a lufwai — give me tobacco, to- 
bacco to smoke. 

luga:ssi, v. to see, n. eye, s. |ga:, |ga:si. NI. (Pa.) lugassi^ lug^ssi. 

luitan-di, n. laziness. [Afr. lui.J SI. (LI.) luit§n-ddi. Ex.: ha ka ha se k"auki tafba^ hiq e:, ha ta: 
au luitan— di she wished she should not work, hence she lay from laziness. 

lukud3ukQ, n. a game similar to dice, played with curved bits of bark thrown onto a skin. CIII. (D.B.) 
Ex.: manarjgwa me to sameta lukrud3uku Manarjgwa has eaten him at dice (has won). 

lur), n. cow dung. SHI. (D.B.) 

lugga, n. a substance smoked. NIII. (D.B.) 

lupf, n. money. [Eng. rupee. ]CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tasi t/a ono daragga kwa lupi I buy meal with money. 

lupingupi, n. pi. triangular beads. QII. (D.B.) 

lusi:ba, n. musical bow. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: pu/o a||k"a:te lusirba Pu/o plays the musical bow. 

lusir)ga-obde, n. needle. CIII. (D.B.) 

lute, V. to visit, stay at. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i /ia lute kakor) we have stayed at Kakong. 

luts'^au, n. tooth, tsaus'^i. NI. (Pa.) luts-au. 

lut/u, n. sassaby, s. let/u. Cllb. (Bal.) luchu. 

lu:wa, much, plenty, s. lu:a. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso ||kowa hats^, si lu:wa manaksto — when killed is 
hunger, they have plenty of meal. 


This nasal is more frequently found in second syllables or at the end of words, than as ini- 
tial sound. Like the other nasals it occurs alone with syllabic value, often as the form n and g take 
before labials. In second syllables it sometimes interchanges with b, as dama, daba, child. 

m, Mn, m:, ~m:, v. to eat, s. Am, m-sa. NI. (D.B.) Ex. : mihi k"o !kha:, mihi m: -^.tama I eat meat, I 

eat melons. This sentence shows the different values of the two verbs to eat in this language . 3U m: 

ini ka ~|m people eat berries which are nice. |a: na mihi m give that I may eat. Nil. (Dk.) 
• (V.) 'm. Ex.: |na: a N|a: mi \m dsi:sn hdese — mayst thou let me eat all things. (LI.) Efe, ^. 

Ex.: tamme we, ~m: o Tamme, eat. ! nanni ba ti m: l|ka||kabba !nanni's father eats the lynx. NIII. 

(D.B.) Ex.: i m /So we eat millet. ! ko ke ~m |au people eat the duiker buck, teaba ti te ~m 

birds eat this. CII. (D.B.) rarely used, prob. borrowed word. Ex. : k"Oikwane a ko m meat (you) 


m, V. to see, short form of mu. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: namani ko /i guni/ kwe,tire ko m the Nama came in 

wagons, I saw it. jkaraba ko m, /i ko kum a gumeafowl I have seen, have heard them. 

m, pron. I, my, in the southern languages the form of n, r), used before labials, in the northern a short 
form of mihi, used before any sound. SI. (B. ) Ex.: r] ||xam | ku kwa u:i, au m ba:i !gaue|i:r) Qpoenja 
— I also did steal away, as I escaped from the sleeping Day's Heart, ha k"au akke m 0poeq akksn 


he does not allow (that) I sleep well. m 0ond.e my sons. (Lich. ) mm. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: sieja ; 

ki~i m Spwaikie here comes my daughter. Slla. (Dk.) Ex.: m 0po my son. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: m ma jj 

my mother. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m |ue:q — I sleep, m |a:ri — my child. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: m ©pwa^ga { 

ei xu --- my child's face. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: m Qxa my daughter. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: m Qpwaike e: la -- 

my child is that. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: m ©pwa kei e — my child it is. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: m tai a naro ~di 

m ba a ||kau||e my mother was a Naron woman, my father an Auen. m |kua: gu tj*u I do not build a j 

hut. Nil. (Dk.) ifi. Ex.: m ba — my father. (V.) m' . Ex.: m u — I go. (LI.) Ex.: m tai |nu |xoa, m 
ba ta ~||ke — my mother lives, my father is dead, m ba ti Am !na-||ke:, m tai ti Am ~! koire — my 
father eats the python, my mother eats the zebra (?). m is also used for our , s . m— sa. m ba ba ti 

ok"wi me, m huwe e |xwe, ta e ! kug my father's father told me, that our Huwe is |xwe, and is a 

Bushman. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mo ||gole ba I am ||gole' s father, m suta i my blanket it is. 

—M, mas. ending of n. , short form of me, alternative of — ba, sometimes used as pron. he, him. CII. (D.B.) 

Ex.: ||nweba Igore ma /s, ||nwem |kvra ||ne: (to) the moon a prayer speaking send, with the moon talk. ,j 

cm. (D.B.) Ex.: a to ha~kha na m — and went away to him. 

m, prep, on, of, used before labials, s. r). SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~|go: ha sir) k"u m 0bo the bow is made 

of wood. Il'^olo ! go m 0ho: the can hangs on the bush. 

ma, V. to find, s. mu. CI. (Do.) 

maf, ma:f, ma:, v. to carry on the back, put in the kaross s. mam^. [Na. ava.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gu tso, | 

a ri maS pick (him) up, and put (him) in the kaross (baby). Nil. (V.) mS. (LI.) mS, mA. Ex.: ha f 

maS dabba — she carries the child on her back, ta daba t/ir), ta | ge gu daba ta ma: J, ta ti tenne 
and the child cried, and (she) picked up the child, and put it in her kaross, and carried it. 

_ma, mal, v. to blow. [Na. Ugavu-ma, to blow back and forth. 3 NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ^& _ma the wind blows. | 

I gu ka, ka re _ma ~i at night it will blow here. NIL (LI.) md, md. Ex.: ja, ti maf the wind j 

blows, t^ "t'i ^^ |nani ! khu tsema the wind blows the little back-dress of the NIII. (D.B.) ! 

Ex.: _||koli pepe _ma o the wind whistling blows. 

ma, ~ma, v. to say, form of mi, often used with other verbs. [Na. mi.] CII. (Schi.) ma. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||exaba'j 

! gwijT |kwa~|kwa: a ma, " /atu ! gwiba /e, na ! num" the captain divided the rope and said, "you takelj 

a rope and trap". ~! gou dama ko ~ma, "sol na ga te:, ||go/a te:" the Berg Damara said, "Saul is j 

ill, the chest is ill". | gore ma J*e prayer speaking send, (say a prayer). hi:/a ||nai ma te tama 

(of) HiJ'ai (tbey) speaking said' to me not (they did not tell me of Hi/a). I 

ma, ~ma, v. to give, s. maa. [Na. ma.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ~ma ~m ||kha — give me meat. CII. (Schi.) ma. | 
(D.B.) Ex.: ko:be a /i Hei, a ma si, si ha:f — a skin he lauys, gives her, she puts (it) on. namani I 
ko !xai, a ko naron ko k"Oxon ~ma — the Nama hunted and to the Naron the meat gave. |ke||ei/a !k"ore 1 
a oaxa ko /oba ||ama, xaba/ ko duko ma:i -- -I ke||ei/a brought beads (a headpiece) to buy a spoon, but to j 
her a handkerchief was given. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e, monjoda ma ta yes, salt give me. | 

m^, V. to surround, make a round screen. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ki t/a ma tsetibi akwitiko, m^ atonen |etsakoi! 
brings of branches the woman to surround the hut there. 

ma, V. part, denoting completed action. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: aku ma a elata han! a ? muqgu ma a elata — wholj 

has worked this stone ? God has worked it. masansura ma a xlako dondui Masamsura cut (me at) Dondu 

lungue ma ||kauwa — the Masai killed (him). 

ma, pron. I, prob. contrac. of m and v. part. a. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ku;ma |na: I to-morrow shall see i 

(him). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mi ~|ka se:, kama ma dama ! go I did not see (it), because I was a little 

boy. ma a |ne~e ku ~tsi — I alone have come. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ki hg kwevi, kwelei ma ki hg — 
I have seen the Kwevi, the Kwelei I have seen, ma | rj a k"a I sit on the ground. 

ma, m'^a, pron. thou, s. obj . a, thee. Nil. (LI.) m£, m-a. Ex.: |lhi !koa ||nwai, ta kwe, "md ti ||ke, ta ti 

Ikila ||ku ~|k"ao " the hare spoke to the moon and said, "thou diest, but dost not smell bad". m4 

sir) a — look thou at thyself, e |kdi gu a, ta m'^a |kdi e daba !kho — we do not take thee up, for 
thou art not a little child. 

ma, neg. interrog. , rare variation of ba. SI. (B. ) m5, mma. Ex.: m ma: |ne fenna ? do I not know ? 

ha ma |ne fenna, or ha ba |ne fenna ? — does he not know.? 

-ma, pi. ending. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: be, a man. bema des |kam two men. 

—ma, dim. ending, also used as young, new, child. Interchanges with ba. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i||kwi, Ji||kwinifl 


duikerbok, little duikerbok. |kail, ga |kaif-ba — lion, lion cub. SVI. ( D. B. ) Ex.: 0pwai-^na, a 

young girl. ||gobe-ina — a little bag, purse. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: dzau-ma — young girl, ti tee-ma — is 
a small thing, tsama-^na — little bird, dama, daba, child. ) hu-ma, white lad. Nil. (Ek. ) ma: used of 
objects. Ex.: _da:-ma, small blanket. (V.) ma, pi. me. Ex.; _! ! ga ma, little knife. _! ! ga-^nesn, little 
knives. (LI.) ml., mm^. Ex.: eseli-ma, young ass. ! nanni e ~|kAm dabba, ~|kAm sir) ~!ku, ~|kAm ma — 

Inanni is a sun child, a sun Bushman, a sun child. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mulundu wa ~J|gu— ma the Mu- 

lundu is a little river. _goba ki gu mi ~ma the Mbundas took my child. |xu a ~ma | xu is the 

little one. ~||nwi~ma new moon. 

ma, n. mother. [Afr.] SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: m ma my mother. 

ma, poss. part, of following thing possessed, s. sa. [Ba. ] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ndawe ma _kwadiso beaks 

of eagles (?). ||nai eba a tsukutsuku ma olanakwe — we hear the shouting of the children. 

ma, but. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: jkisa ko debi, ma ko |eane ~u one woman comes back, but others go. 

maa, v. to lend, give, forgive, s. ma. CI. (Do.) 

_ma:fa, v. to bear, give birth to, lay, s. ma:f. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: _ma:fa ]ne ka ! num ka 3U |nwa ho:a 

lays one egg, then a Bushman finds it. 

maba, interrog. where ? [Na. maba.J SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kieb ji e maba ha ? where is |keib gone ? 

maba/ole, n. nettle. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) mabashole. 

mabe, prep. with. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ki t/a ta tawa/i mabe a masai you saw Tawa/i with Masai. 

mabele, mabere, n. millet. [Tsw.] CII, Clla. (Pa.) 

mabibi, n. cream. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

madi, n. money. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) Ex.: madi teo to give money. 

mae, n. mother. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

maferefere, n. rogue, rascal. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

mahanda, n. a buck. NIII. (D.B.) 

mahata, v. to be bald. CI. (Do.) 

mahuto, n. knot. CI. (Do.) 

mai, V. let us go. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mai atonena |etsa na — let us now go home. 

mai:, mai, maiS~i, v. to be first, do first, used as adv. first, after which the subject is repeated. SI. 

(B. ) mmat, mmaii, Ex.: har) fi: ti e:, ha ear) mai: ha ||a: k"oa he thinks that he will first go to 

drink, hag |ku-g |ne maT. har) !u:xe: |hir) — he was first, he ran out. (LI.) mm^ii. Ex.: ha ||khoa, ha 
se maif~i ha !khe: — it seems, as if it would first stop. 

mailimalH-da, previously, the other time, s. mai:. SI. (LI.) mmaii'-mi^ii-ddS,. Ex.: whai : l|kwa^r) sig 
|]nau: mailimaili-da, whai:tsn Hkwafq siq |ku:ka ke, o-g g !kailtsn']ki whai:, o maif imaifi-da — the 
springbok had really done this previously, the springbok had really died for me, when I hit the spring- 
bok (with ball) the other time. 

niaija, n. a certain plant of which the fruit is eaten. Nil. (LI.) m^iya. Ex.: maija tag'^a ! ga, ha go dsao, 
ta ||ku d3a the .... body (the fruit) is reddish, its flower is light-coloured and smells sweet. 

maifg, s. mair). 

nia:lin, n. a root found in water and eaten by Bushmen. SI. (LI.) mSin. 

ma:ka, n. year. [Ba.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma:ka wi/e/e l|ga ka _t/a:a --- every year rain falls. 

ma:Ska, maka, n. tobacco. SVI. (D.B.) ma:Ska. Nil. (Dk.) maka: . (LI.) m&ka. Ex.: ha |kua ||ki wa~tna, ta 
maka |ne~e ha ||ki -■,- he does not smoke Indian hemp, but tobacco only he smokes. 


makana, v. to feed. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: mete, mete, makana ebita --- give, give, feed us. 

makdnesa, v. to wind. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mak^nea at/u — wind thread. 

makarnja, n. tobacco, s. ma: ka. Nil. (Dk.) makatjD^. 

makhalahadi, n. the Bakhalaharis. SV. (D.B.) j 

makhopo, n. forehead of a baboon. CI. (Do.) 

makhwarapano , n. pebble. [Tsw.] CI. (D. ) 

mako, ma:ku, maku, n. pot, clay. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ku tuta mako nina manako --- put into the pot the 

meat, akitibe hadzabe ^kwape a ^laha ma:ku, akitibe to /ambi elaha ma:ku — Bushman women do not mak 
pots, Isanzu women make pots, zaikuni ai !e maku in the south is found (?) clay. 

makoe, n. francolin. CI. (Do. ) 

makouko, n. name for the ||kau||en Bushmen [Ba.] NL, CII. (D.B.) 

makwa bupi, n. flour. [Tsw.]CI. (Do.) 

makwai kwana, n. quail. CI. (Do.) 

makwa thara, n. headache. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

mala, cold. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

malamba, n. a thick worm. CI. (Do.) 

m^lana, n. a large bird, s. marana. CIII. (D.B.) 

maluntepe, n. pi. clouds. QII. (D.B.) 

mam^, v. to carry in the kaross or on the back, s. ma:. IVIII. (D.B.) Ex.: de ne mamd. ja the woman is 

carrying it. 

mama, mother, s. ma, mae. [Na. mamas. J SI. (LI.), pi. m^ma— gu, less used than itau, xoa. Ex.: mama 
sir) ka hag |k"e:, ti e:, !khwa:ka ! k'^e ke: se !kAn |hir) !khwa:-ka xoro o !khwa: — mother used to sa 
that the water' s people are accustomed to pull out the water' s bull from the water, mama— gu kar| ~kag 
|k"e:, jkwaHtan ka ||nau:, ha tattsn !k'^6a ! gwalxu, ha ||a |e: fhauru — our mothers used to say, a 
star does this, it falls from the sky, it goes into the waterpit. SVI. (D.B.) mama. CIII. (D.B.) 

mother, or lady, [Swa.]Ex. : /amo a bawa, hadzako a mama an Isanzu was the father, a Bushmzui woman 

the mother, hak^bi ta ne tsealo atine a mama I come (to talk) about water birds to madam. 

mama, form of address to a grandparent or greatuncle, sometimes to a grandchild. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mama, n 

tai si ge granny, my pat. grandmother, mama, mihi ba "fxi granpa, my pat. grandfather, m tai 

a tse mihi ok "we ko mama my mother's father's brother I call mama. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: mamar-i 

grandfather, grandson, mama-sa, grandmother, granddaughter. 

mama, n. blue bead, mama !ka~u, a white bead. NIII. (D.B.) 

mamanthwane, n. bat. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

mamphorwana, n. chicken. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

man, v. prob. to speak, found in the phrase man ||aia, to ask for beg for. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.:tea ba a mama, n 
||aia monjoda --- he said to the lady, (I) ask for salt. 

mafr), maifr|, under the arm SI. (B. ) mai?i,m|n. Ex.: ha se, ho: | "^hau, ha se mag te ha --- he will take up t 
bow, h^ will put it under his arm. (LI.) mari,i^in. Ex.: |hu|hu gwai:t8n ha:f Ike sa |hu|hu 0pwa, hag 
|ki |hir) |hu|hu Gpwa, hag malg ||kho ha --- the'great baboon went up to the little baboon, he picked u 
the little baboon, he put it under his arm. |hu|hu: |ai:tji |ki |hir) |hu|hu: Gpwa o ha |k"attsn-tu e: 
ha sin maifg tS: |hu|hu Gpwa, i: --- the female baboon took out the'little baboon from her armpit, 
where she had been carrying it. 

mSna, n. language, s. man. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: |h5 mSna --- white man's language. 


m^na, n. pipe of wood or clay, s. man^. SIVa. (D.B. ) 

mana, man, n. meat, body, game, also with the endings — ko, ~P6^ — na. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: zaggamibi ha~kha 

mana tina — Zaggamibi has gone to the meat, luggue ma ||kauwa, teke ja man ina utum^ko the Masai 

killed him, stuck in his body a spear, mitl'^a manape bones of bodies, t/eketa mi manako they 

put down the meat, kweto sems manako, kutiku tc"u when he ate meat, it stuck in the throat. a~kha 

mi manana they go after game. 

manaa, n. pipe of wood or clay, s. mana, manase. SIV. (D.B.) 

ma:naa, n. boys, s. manakani. SV. (D.B.) 

manakani, n. boys, s. ma:naa,. SIV. (D.B.) 

manaketa, n. meal, millet. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: si lu:wd manaksta — they have plenty of meal. 

manase, n. pipe, s. manaa. SIV. (D.B.) 

manje, v. to burn. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsoki te manje fire is burning. 

mannia, n. baboon. Slid. (Arb.) 

mannisig, v. to do a thing of oneself. Nil. (LI.) maniy.ssiri. 

mano, n. device, plan. CI. (Do.) ' 

magwanda, n. star. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsefia mo ten |^a mo maqwanda — at night comes out the star. 

maphutse, n. pumpkin. CI. (Do.) 

_ma:ra, v. to lighten, flash, used in the phrase ! xwe /a _ma:ra f-- the rain flashes, it lightens. SVI. 

mara, n. my mother. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) pi. maza. 

marana, n. stork, s. m^lana. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: petl'^aija marana white is the stork. 

marl, n. goat, s. myri, byri. SVI. (D.B.) 

marl, n. money. [Ba. mali.] Nil. (V.) mari. 

marika, v. to look round, s. ma, mu. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i ka wi:ja marika we have looked all around. 

maPisi, n. money, s. mari. Slla. (Dk.) 
maini-le, n. the Milky Way (?). SV. (D.B.) 

marundipi, n. pi. clouds, s. maluntepe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: marundipi bahepi aa nina — the clouds live 
in the sky. 

masa, pron. they. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: masa ko Opwai — they will sleep. 

masandawebe, n. pi. the Sandawe, a tribe living in southern Tanganyika. CIII. (D.B.) 

masarwa, n. the Masarwa, name this tribe call themselves, being their Bantu masters' name for all Bush- 
men. The word is prob. a Bantu corruption of the Nama word for Bushman, sab, pi. san. SV. (D.B.) pi. 
masc. masarwate, fem. masala^xarite, s, basarwate. Ex.: masarwa ku ka e: — the Masarwa eats it. /i 

llnai kuma ka masarwate ||xa we sing and the Masarwa men dance, masalaxarite ta /i the Masarwa 

women are comings 

nia/e, n. my mother, s. mara. CI. (Do.) mashe. 

maseka, n. beads, band worn below knee. NIII. (D.B.) 

mataqga, n. melons or pumpkins. [Swa. tango.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha~khan te lea mataqga go fetch 


matauhi, n. a pole. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 


matha, v. to gallop. CI. (Do.) 

mathanana si, n. wild dog. Sllb. (Mh. ) mathanana si. 

mati, V. to flow. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ati mati jamoa — water flows (on) the earth. 

maxe, n. clothes. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ag ||eri maxe — I wash clothes. 

maza, s. mara. 

mba-le, n. arrow, arrowshaft. SV. (Schu.) possibly m bale my arrow. 

mboijgo, n. money. [Ba.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ke tarjga, ke "^ianu, ke mboqgo ke fueta mi with stuff, with 

metal, with money he bought me. 

mbre, n. bread. Nil. (Wil.) mbre. 

mbula, n. a large bird of prey. CIII. (D.B.) 

mbwelako, n. jackal. [Swa. mbwa, dog.] CIII. (D.B.) 

mdsa, interrog. what ? where ? CII. (D.B.) Ex.: mdga kam ||eim |e:m kweba _ha ? at what time did that 

man come ? md3a t/a xu:a _ha ? where do you come from ? 

~me:, cry of springbok kids. SI. (LI.) me. 

me, V. to say to, s. ma, mi. CI. (Do.) 

me, pron. I, me, my, s. m, mi, mihi. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: me ! gu tj'i~fa, me o ~|ni I put down the kaross, 

I sit. me !ku-flia my nephew, my brother's child. Nil. (Wil.) me, me. (LI.) m^. Ex.: ha !kao kwe, 

"mee |u|\Ini tsema" — her husband said, "I am a little ant", daba di~siq me — the child looks at 

me. me fxe my daughter. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e ~sig ! ku a kilikitu, me ke "eig _||na: m — we shall 

see Bushmen at Kilikitu, I shall see and talk to them, ma ke ||na:a, ta ka me |kum kwa i) — I was big, 
and they cut me like this. 

me, pron. they, s. be. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kia me ssta akwitibe — they look at the moon, the women. 

me, nasc. ending, also used as him, it, s. ba, m. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: jneba ||kaume e — this one is tall. 
Joroba ka !aba hi:m kwe, a xataxa ! aba kweane, a ko /i ||kama |ko me, a ko ||gwa | — the 
legavaan climbs up a tree, so the men climb too, and come to hit killing it, and climb down with it. 

me, dim. ending, pi. s. ma. Nil. (V.) NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dameme ki tjxai, ! koime ki t/xai — the young 
women dance, the young men dance, tsamame — little birds. 


me~e, v. to speeik, s. ma, me, mi. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/osa ko kuru ||gai |kwasa, nas ko t/osisa me~e — the 
grandmother works with the little girl, so that the granddaughter speaks (learns to talk). 

mehe, v. to say to oneself. CI. (Do.) 

mena, indeed. CI. (Do.) 

menda, stuff, clothes. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: menda t/e:tai — striped stuff, tsit/a: ja mendabi pisi, si 
petl'^a: he washes the clothes the cook, shall be white. 

mene, n. wild pig. CI. (Do.) 

mennir), memennir), v. to burn, singe. SI. (LI.) meiiniri, memgiinin. Ex.: a se ||a bu: |e:, a se ~ta, ti e:, 

|i |nu se mennii) a thou shalt go to meike a fire, thou shalt feel whether the fire will burn thee. 

ha |kvi |e: |i, au |ija memsnnig — he entered the fire, while the fire was burning. 

mens^ja, n. trunk of an elephant. CIII. (D.B.) 

meri, s. myri. 

"me: si, n. baby. SIVb. (St.) f 

mete, miti, v. imperative give. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: mete, mete, meikana ebita — give, give, feed us. 


mi, -mi, v. to say, tell, s. ma, me, me-e, mii. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||kug farrom kweba, k"am-ka kweba, ko 
~mi i, " I gore tu ma /e, na k"we, a !kfi", tam ko mi — an old man, a Bushman, said, " a prayer speak- 
ing you send, that (you) live and walk!', so (he) said, tata ko mi we say so, or so it is said, 

used in stories. 

mi mihi, pron. I, me, my, s. m, me, ma. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mi ^ke^a /ore — I am dying for tobacco, mi ~|ka 
se:, kama ma dama ! go — I did not see, because I was a little boy. |a:, namihi m, au mi — give 

that I may eat, give me. mihi gu t/u a tsike I take this hut. (Wil.) mi, 'm'xen, I me. (Dk.) mi, 

mihi. Ex.: ~mi _sa:sn my little sister. (V.) Ex.: mi |e: ti doni I alone escape, mixn my- 
self. (LI.) mi mi. Ex.: d3U tsema ti nabbe mi, ti !ku, ti gu mi kwe t/i the small person saluted 

me, ran, took from me the thing, i /e, gu mi come ye, take me up. mi ka e ~|xwe I am |xwe. 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi |ne~e |g — I alone sit. mihi ||kai ||^au — I hold (with the) hand, mihi wa !WI 

I am a Bushman, "mihi fxe my daughter, mi ~||ko my elder brother. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi 

dziwa ka mbogo — my brother is Mbogo . 

mi, pron. him, s. bi. CII. (Schi.) 

mi, pron. they, s. me. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: askaribi, ha~kha mi manana — the askaris, they went out for 
game, kwesa akwitibe |ki:a seta, boko kawa mi when women see the moon, they become ill. 

miauwa, v. to seek. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: miauwa pi txlemebi manako the men seek game. 

mii, V. to say, s. ma, me, mi. CII. (Schi.) 

mikela, n. a severe cold, influenza. CI. (Do.) • 

minjoko, n. pi. chains. CIII. (D.B.) 

miri, s. myri. ■ , . 

miriqgo, n. load. [Swa. mzigo.J CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: te ||eapi miriggo /amopi — they are carrying loads the 

mise, V. to rub, twirl. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a t/ia tseti, a ta t/e:ka, mise tl'^epi jate — (I) pick up the 
stick, have laid it down, twirl the firestick (in hands). 

mise, n. thorn. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mise |lk"aija a tseti — the thorn falls from the tree. 

missi, misi, v. to die, be killed. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweko i/o xlaati, ako pelatita, kweko i/o xlaati, 

missi if the sun wants, he gets well, if the sun wants, he dies, maruku kenena mu misi ! ungue ma 

||kauwa — Maruku long ago fell, the Masai killed him. misi a mo, seseme ka txlen aija he is kill- 
ed, a lion sprang on him. 

mitwa II gam, n. ring for the finger. CI. (Do. ) 

m'^ma, stubborn. CI. (Do.) mma. 

mo, V. to discover, s. mu. CI. (Do.) 

mo, pron. he, often repeating n. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akwa mo tsaha notana kl'^odzo t/a:na — he does not 

understand to talk nicely, pisi dza mo cook he comes, t/ia monjoda makwa/a |ki:a, a to mo dzan 

jetsano Makwa/a gets salt there, and he comes home. 

moa, on purpose. CI. (Do.) 

modubu, n. willow tree. CI. (Do.) 

moduno hee, v. to make a noise. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

modzema, n. a plant like fennel used in tattooing. CIII. (D.B.) 

moe, V. to be visible, s. mo, moo, mu. CI. (Do.) 

moganda, n. garden, 'shamba'. [Ba.] CIII. (D.B.) 

moja, n. flower. CIII. (D.B.) 

moj^, unmarried. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: it/ame ako, moj^ ako — alone (he) was, unmarried (he) was. 


mokagga, n. a tree somewhat like a camelthorn. [Ba.J CIII. (D.B. ) 

mokhuele, n. cold, winter. Slid. (Arb. ) 

mokolu, n. fault, war, wrong. Slid. (Arb. ) 

molato ona, v . to owe . CI . ( Do . ) 

moleu, V. to die. [Ny.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m ba ne ||kwa, m te ~ke, ke wa moleu — my father lives, my 
mother does not, is dead. 

molu, n. mule. [Eng.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea ||kale ke molu — he has come on a mule. 

momberi, n. monkey (?). QII. (D.B.) 

momo, n. court round the moon, (lunar rainbow), is the dust made by a dancing party which ascends and 
surrounds the moon, s. mumu. SI. (B. ) mmommo. 

mogaun, v. to take heed to. CI. (Do.) monam. 

morigala, n. trap made by tieing down a tree. SV. (D.B.) 

morigelo, n. hut with mud roof. CIII. (D.B.) 

moggolowa, moggorowa, n. chin. CIII. (D.B.) 

monjoda, n. salt. [Swa. munyo.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e, monjoda ~ma ta — yes, salt give me. 

"mofno, n. creeping plant, root eaten. Nil. (LI.) mm6no. 

moo, V. to see, appear, n. sight, s. mo, moe, mu. CI. (Do.) 

moowa, very much. CI. (Do.) 

mori:, n. money. Nil. (Wil.) mori. 

moroba, n. a young girl. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

moroho, n. salad. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) I 

moruku, n. fence. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 


mosarwa, n. sing, of masarwa, the tribe. [Tsw.] SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mosarwa a /i ||k"abo Omoi the Mosarwa ij 

has brought wood. ■ 

moJ*aiaii, n. name given to the hare in folktales. CIII. (D.B.) 

ino/u~kurula, n. pi. roots worn as a charm on necklace. SV. (D.B.) i 

moswa, n. white ant. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

motaka, n. servant. Slid. (Arb.) 

mothape, n. cattle. CI. (Do.) 

motsure, n. a certain tree. [Tsw. motswere.] Cla. (Pa.) 

mpai, interrog. what ? NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ki ke mpai ? — what is it ? _da mpai 7 what skin ? 

mptsu, n. ostrich. [Tsw. imp/e.] NI. (Pa.) 

m'^sa, we two, our two, us two. Nil. (LI.) m-8a, m sa. Ex. : na |k\Ia e ||hi |Ah^, ta e |xffe, ta mr'^sa e 
|xwe sa — I am not a mere hare, but am |xwe, we two are two (xwes. m:'^saok"wi n a eeA — our mu- 
tual speech I understand, ta kwe, " ||hi ti ||na, ta |kua ||ke||keja m'^sa" and said, " the hare was 

objecting, for (he) does not resemble us two" . 


m— sa, m-si, n. food, especially vegetable food, s. m^ to eat. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: m-sa gu | no ! gama food 

a person gnaws (is) .... bulb. 51a ! khu ka nabo m-si people go to collect food. 

m?Je, ro.'^Ji, words used in greeting. Nil. (LI.) m she, m shi. Ex.: ! kwi m'?/e good evening (greeting). 

||kwai m'^Je good morning (reply). 

mtai, mterrog. how deep ? CII. (D.B.) Ex.: mtai kono ko t/aue ? how deep aid you dig? 

mtano, num. five. [Lu.] NIII. (D.B.) 

mtumbi, ri. medicine. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mtumbi ki t/ota jale -- medicine to cure smallpox. 

mu, V. to see, look, s. mo, moo, moe. m. CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) Ex.: tira mu tama hi/e/a I' have not seen 

Hi/e/a. ! ku mu re ko — the ! ku I have seen. Cllb. (Wil.) mu. 

mu, pron. 1, unusual form of m, mi. NI . (D.B.) Ex.: mu ku ~tsaka ku tsi, mu ka ~tsaa 5U ok"wi — I 
heard it (wagon) coming, I heard people talking. 

mu:a, v. to cut off. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ukwana akwete, mu:a hama the left little finger, cut it off 

here, bawa a aijako mu:a akweteja father and mother cut the child (cut off his fmgerjoint) . 

mu:4, murdko, n. stick, pestle. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: te ||eapi miriggu /amopi, te ||eapi mu:d, are carry- 
ing (on their shoulders) loads the Isanzu, are carrying sticks. mu:^ko akwete wi:hi ta a stick the 

child has thrown. mu:^ko ko tl'^uniko a pestle for pounding. 

muba, n. bellows. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

mudi, n. maize, mealies. CI. (Do.) 

mudirga, n. vulture, carrion bird. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mbula ubaraa mudi;ga, letl'^emewa, so tase, seme heja 

manako the .... (is) one of the carrion birds, very big and tall, its food is meat, kwesa t/i : ta 

seseme, so mudi:ga tambi when catches a lion, then vultures gather. 

nui, n. eye, s. mu. Nllb. (Leb.) mu-i . 

nuinda, n. spirit (?). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ua muinda, ma ! "^o — I go to the spirit, (?), I go up. 


nujumbu, n. fetish stick, s. bulu. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) 

nukirigi, n. bat. zoo. CIII. (D.B.) 

nu:la, v. to groan. CIII. (D.B.) 

nulimoda, v. to work. QII. (D.B.) 

ttumu, t;. to show, make see, s. mu, mo. SI. (LI.) mmummu. Ex.: hi se !kwa:g miimu i they will beckon 

making us see. 

lumu, n. halo, ghost, spectre, s. momo. SI. (B.) mmummu. Ex.: ||kha:-ga mumu the lion's ghost. (LI.) 

mmummu. Ex.: r) siq fkakka ha, ti e:, ||koir| sir) |e: mumu — I told thee that the sun did go into a 
halo(describing an eclipse) . mumu Ik'^o: will-o- the- wisp. 

lumu, very. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: buruku keni mumu Buruku is very old. 

iunde:re, n. mealie meal. Nil. (Wil.) mundere. ' , . , , 

puqgu, n. God. [Swa.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: muggu ma elata boku han!a God has worked it on the stone. 

lunirjgi, n. either pi. of nirjgi, doctor, or 'school'. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa muniqgi iso xlake by 

doctors he was then cut or in the school he was tiien cut. 

luri, n. doctor, s. munir|gi. Cla. (Pa.) 

lusaka, n. mouthpiece of hookah. NIII. (D.B.) 

luteko, V. to cry, scream. Cllb. (Wil.) muteko. 


mutle, mutl'i'e, many, can take pi. endings. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: mutleabe e a seseme kessimejaggu --- many 
lions are at Kessimejaijgu. a na seta madzumbi hadza mutl'^epi sat at Madzumbi many Bushmen. 

mu: fen, v. seeing know, recognize, know by sight. SI. (LI.) mmu fenn. Ex.: g k"aukimu: fen ha, ta 
fka:sir|-ta !kwi ||kwafr) e I do not know him by sight, for fkarsig's person he is. 

niAn:, v. to wet with the mouth. SI. (LI.) mann. Ex.: hag hat |ne mAn: ! gaula — he wetted the feather 
with his mouth. 

mwa:ka, n. year, rainy season. [Swa. mwaka.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: edeamo mwa:ka, kweso ati dza: — we say 

rainy season, when rain comes, h^pabi dzai t/u okoijabi, turn u /a, so dza: ha mwa:ka now has 

come the winter, when it goes, then comes the rainy season( August, September) . wainet/a, mwa:ka uku 
muggeretea dza, ko komi pe they all, the year the English came, were small. 

mwanza, n. manioc. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) 

mentape, n. pi. stars. CIII. (D.B.) 

myri, meri, miri, n. goat, s. byri. [Na. berip.] SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kabe |ka n ~myri --- the leopard kill 

the goat, myri fgo a a ram it is. myri 0pwa k"a, k"a, k"a, -- the kid cries, cries, cries. 


myri, n. mealie. SII. (D.B.) pi. myrig. Ex.: myrig |k6:, kau sig a --- mealies cook, let us eat. CII. (D, J 

B. ) pi. myridsi. Ex.: a ga k"oxo ko tani, ako myridsi tane he shall meat bring, and mealies I 


n & g 

These two nasals interchange so often in Bushman languages, that I find it best to treat them t 
together, n is the ordinary sound as in English, g is the sound of ng in 'ring'. Both can have syllabic j 
value and form a word or syllable without any vowel. I 

In pure Bushman languages these nasals do not often occur as initial sounds, but are frequentJi 
found in unstressed second syllables and at the end of words. In languages exposed to Bantu influence til 
initial sounds nd, ng, nk, are found, often in words of Bantu origin. In ! ku such words are a dialecticjj 
variation of words without an initial nasal. In the Hie language a nasal is often found before a click, 
evidently a result of Bantu influence. 


In fkhomani Doke and Maingard use Ji which seems to have the sound of n j . In ! ku Doke also use 
jp-, a variation of this sound. 

n. V. to be or copula. Sllb. (!Vlh.) Ex.: hasi n jhai yellow horse (horse is yellow, hasi n !oa: — ' 

brown horse (horse is brown). SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kha n |keo water is wanting. SIV. Ex.: i n ! '''u 

kuu we are two. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: n | ge |no:le (it) is evening. , 

g, n, pron. I, me, my, s. m, mi, ma. SI. (B. ) n. rarely n, changing to m, before labials, in subordinate' 
clauses sometimes to ka, dat. ke, ki . Emph. form n— n. Poss. A, n-ka, n-ta, n— ga. Occasionally it joi 
the V. part, a, and becomes n-a, na. Ex.: Ik'^wa: kag ts'^'un g au Ik'^wa: ts'^axau / Ik'^wazgan sig ka, gi 

|kAm u !hau: au ha ts'^ax^u the hartebeest has winked at me, with the hartebeest' s eyej the harte 

beest desired that I should take^away the thong from his eye. hi sig fi:, ti e:, hi: ||a: !ku: g-g, h^ 

se 11^:1 g ts'^oeg, au hig ~||ka: hi |ki g-ka tiksntiksn they did think that' they would go to rob h 

that they might possess my things, for they meant to take my possessions, g |ku-g | ne ta: e:, ha t'ft'; 
|ki n, he e:, ga |ne ||khou xu u:i g-ka !ku!ku, au hig |ne ta: hi g-ka ||khwai:, he e:, g-ga |ne fkakkj 

ki ||wa:t ||a: au g tse I did feel that it .tried to kill me, hence I flew away leaving my shoeSj^ a |tli« 

they lay with my quiver, hence I talked backwards behind me. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: n kiamrae, n ~tu, n ~tu| 


140 I 

!nwe:ntu I listen, I hear, I hear with my ear. i) se ykernki ss, r) sS ||q I ahall come tomorrow 

I go home. ||oi [ne sa, ha ||ka g the sun comes, it burns me. n !ko kie so my husband sits there. 

g ||r) ||na ~:kau: |ha my hut is behind the hill, q xu, g-ka fkwike my face, my cheekbones, n'^a 

! gel so ! 'i*eiu I sit on the ground. Slla. (Dk.) g, n, prob. my. Ex.: ^cu, lip (?q kju, my lip). 

~n|r(um, moustache ( ? n |num, my moustache). (Mg. ) g, "^g, emph. n_|g, '^g'^g, poss. 1], gka. Ex.: ||kei|ka 
ku:, " g kje |na" --- girl say, "I shall see", '''g^g fkaua — I (shall) obtain, "^g: si |nau '''a --- I 
shall marry you. a fkai g you see me. aka |ndu "^g you marry me. "^a kjen g jkeiki you (be- 
come) my wife, g-ka ! ku my shoe. Sllb. (Mh. ) n. A, n. poss. n, n— s. Ex.: n ||'^an fe:re: — I will 

pay a visit, n sn ||'?a n-tsug !nu: — I will shoot a gnu. tu xa ||hau n ? who has bound me ? n 

jkx'a — my hand, ns |ava — my child. SIIc. (D. B. ) g poss. g, g-ka, g-ki. Ex.: g Hk'-wal _J'wa — I 

drink water, t/wala |ke g thirst seizes me. g oa my father, n-ka _||gwa — my feet, g-ki t§ 

my thighs. Slid. (Wu.) »n, I, me, my. Ex.: "^n eku myself. Slle. (And.) n, g. Ex.: ||kaxe, n |a: 

sister, I am dying, n !u |eja I am going out. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: n so pole I snuff tobacco. 

g ||xe:gn — I am old. ri 3:oa uake sefwa my mother still lives, n |xe n |ko I speak my language. 

sal n kha: — bring me water. SIV. n, g, poss. n, g, g-ga, n-si, n-sn, dat. ki. Ex.: n si n k"0 — I 

will rub myself, a xanki ke g — his mother am I. kati kofi, g k"a make coffee, (that) I drink. 

g jha a |kwabe my wife is |kwabe. n | gake — my grandmother, n-ga |ke my name, n— si fkSasi 

--- my dog. SIVa. (D.B.) Ex.: n ku ka ||koa n foa I have put on my kaross. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: n |a 

my arm. g "^i my mother. SV. (D.B.) poss. g_, g-ga, 5~ke. Ex.: n ka (kohu f^om I buy a skin. 

g ||nai — I clap (hands), g dza:ni — my chin, g-ga ~|kuri |nag — my elbow, g-ke !nwa: e — my 
stick it is. n ! xamma — my heart. SVI. (D.B.) emph. g-g. Ex.: g !a:ka maka — I lack tobacco, n se 

k"8LU I will drink, g fxe my grandson: n ~kai my mother, g-g ki n a: I have eaten. Nil. 

(Dk.) prob. my. Ex.: g'^, brother ( ? g ^ko, my brother), g^'^'^harva, forearm ( ? g fharva, my forearm). 

(LI.) Ti, Ti, I, my, me rarely used instead of na, m. Ex.: g a ! koma I am short, n f kwonni : my 

elbow, g a |kui gu a — I will not lift thee up. me ||ha, n a ||gu, n a /ig my child, give me water, 

that I may drink. 

g, pron. they, short for hn, hg. Sllb. (Mh. ) i;i, n. 

g, prep, different meanings. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g |k"axag ||ka: n |i: my hand has burnt in the fire. 

ha ka !kulra n !xri — he plays with a strap, g |ku ! kaken g ! koa — I pour water into a pot. Slla. 

(Mg. ) Ex.: koPo ku, " |kisi g fkan" jackal say, "get hold of rein". ||kei|ka ha ||na g _||g — 

girl she go out of hut. nja ka |nau sui g | ga I .... marry sit be with (you). (Dk. ) Ex.: g _||g 

out of the house. Sllb. (Mh.) n, n, to, in, for. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: Hia ||kei n kha wash hands with 

water. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: na fkau n |i I cut wood for the fire, a ke no kaukwe n _|la n foke — he 

has knocked over a silver jackal with a kirrie. k"e ~u n ||aji |ke go into the hut. n kalahari te 

haa --- in the Kalahari I stay. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||na ||gumani n Ikinte Hore/we the 'resinki' ber- 
ries are lying in the dish, komike n !ki:te koni the mug is standing on the wagon. 

g, yes, s. \e:, i. g_g. Slid. (Wu.) 'n. SV. (D.B.) vg. Nil. (Oi. ) g. (LI.) n. Fx. : e ti sa^a, e ti kwe 
" q:, e ||na t/a" — we hear, we say, "yes, we object to stealing". 

interrog. part. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g ~tu e ~||g a ? who is that man ? g ~ki si e: ? what is that? 

g |na ""|kwa kie ? where do you live ? g ||g a -je ? — where is the hut ? 

n, dem. this one, this is, here. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dama g, ta _|}gau g, ta dzema g a woman is this, 

and a man is this, and a child is this, a _doin g thy throat this is. ! gau ne kwa ge sig kwa g 

the trees there are like here, g |g, ta n ~!nu this one sits, and this one stands. 

syllable used before v. after ta, te, tai, also in dialect before any word. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ha k"aru 
ha zau,k"aruha zau, |k\ia sig ha zau, ta n'^debbi — he sought his wife, sought his wife, did not see 

his wife, and returned, ha sad, ta ! ka, ta n^lxa ~l|kau he heard and ran and pulled out an arrow, dad 

~!kag fga'^ag, tsema ta n'?tgaag---the fire-stick was long, small and long. !xunnu,or n*?! xunnu--- to snore. 

, V. to be. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ti na t/i — the thing is finished, na /ii, na ga t'um (it) is sharp, 

is blunt. 

, V. to stand. Cllb. (Mh. ) na. Ex.: fo e: ti ga one man stands. 

, V. to give, let, s. a ma. [Na. !nare.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ahi ku na /ore, ku na msi you did give to- 
bacco, did give food, na to:, ma t/i ! gu — give a cup, I (will) drink water. Nil. (Ek. ) na: . (V.) 
n5. (Wil.) na sin, to let see. (LI.) na. Ex.: i sa nd fko^ko — you two give a knife, me zau, na, na 

a t/i, n a sig — my wife, give me thy thing, (that) I may look (at it), na mi, n a ! kug m ba let 

me alone, (that) I may kill my father. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _goba |kwa ~na mi O pangwe the Mbunda did 

not give me Indian hemp. !o!ku a txa ||kha a ]|hau, a na |nani ! k3, jnani !ku na /ao Bushmen shoot 

game with a bow, and give to the Black People, the Black People give meal, tsi na come give, 



na, V. part, unfinished action. SIV. ( D. B. ) Ex.: e na | oku 0pwoinki — we will now sleep. NIII. (D.B.), 

Ex.: Ilnwei na | gi the moon rises, daba dzema na t/i, na ~dee na ~! nu the little child cries, 

and the mother stands. 

na, pron. 1, s. g, n, m. SITa. (Ek.) na nsou I sit. na |nhr ||g£ii I see the hyena. (Mg. ) Ex.: nfii 

kje'^m "^a a — I court you. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: na fkwa fkomani, na fkwa |auni — I speak fkomani, I 
speak launi. na si |na -u:wa — I will yet take you. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: na /e /a: ke kolui — I will 

go to the wagon, rja ka ||k"ai I have killed (it). SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: na |ne: I see (him), na 

||kua a: I have not eaten. Nil. (Dk. ) n^. (LI.) Ex.: na ti ~||ku bekesa I hung up the jacket. 

na |nu t/a:ko, ta gu ! num I slowly take up the stone, na ~||kwi my elder sister. CIII. (D.B.)' 

form used after v. s. ono, ona. Ex.: |kita na upukwape I saw the footprints, it/amebi idi:ga 

akwa: na tsaieta some words I do not know. 

na, prep, different meanings, s. n, q . SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha s*?© na ha ! kuiki he sits with his grannv 

! kwa |ka na|k"a, |ka | geo na |k" a he holds in his hand, holds the bow' in his hand. SIV. (D.B.]j 

Ex.: tutai ha ke ||ale tai na lutsapi — Tutai has gone away to Lutsapi. na kalahari | geki ku ~u ||g<; 

in the Kalahari women take out ostrich eggshells. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: sifgwi fxe si na f^onni 

the snake has gone into the ground, fge na xaba/ e the milk is in the dish. NIII. (D.B.) Ex : i 

/ula |ke |uwa na dzeni the arrow lies on the string. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ekekela na torotoro na i 

!kolo — I make the pipe of .... wood, takwae ta na mako — pour it into a dish, misai a~kha mo ' 
[etsa na Misai has gone to his hut. ha~khana welapina na miriggo (they) came early with loac 

na, conj . different meanings. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: tsama ma ~u na o ~! nwi the little bird gets up and 

flies, a |kwa tsa:, na tso ~u — you won't listen, so run away. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: na mihi, na ahi il 

~u both I and you go. ma ne ka _dzema, na m txu ki ||ke I was small, when my grandfather diecf 

CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /atu ! gwiba Js, na ! num, nak"o: you take the rope, and trap, and eat. | gore nu 

/e !xuba, na ||k"wi a prayer speaking send to heaven, then live. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ono hako ta i 

dzanna, na te tse: I here will go and come again. 

na, n. roan antelope. Cllb. (Zuk.) 

naa, n. father, prob. my father, s. n, aa. SIV. (D.B.) SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: nd& ! gau father's sister, 

aunt, nda te kai grandfather. ' 


naba, n. white rhinoceros. Nil. (Zuk.) 

n^basa, n. chameleon, s. !nobesa. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. j 

nabbe, v. to greet. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: d5U tsema ti nabbe mi the small person greeted me. j 

nabbo, nabo, v. to gather food, collect, seek food, s. ! nabbo. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U ku ~!u: ka nabbo, I 
nabbonabbo, o ka ||ga, ka fge si nabbo, ka tsi |kauwa ~ka — people go out to collect, go on collec| 
ing, and put it down, when they have collected, then come and sit down. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tira ko j 

nabbo |xea:ni, |xe:an kuriko nabo I gather the leaves, leaves only I gather, ti/ duri/ tire ko ' 

dau, ko me ta kwe nabbo my fire I burn, and there no one seeks food. ! 

nabbu-eig, v. to fly in some manner. SI. (B. ) n^bbu-sein. Ex.: !nwa: |ku ||kau ku:i nabbu-sir) q the 

arrow flew whistling (?) to me. 1 

nabiti, pron. yours, s. itibi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: nabiti jako |etsa — yours is this hut. I 

naia, naija, v. to live, be. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: seta na naia the moon is there. ! ugguwebe naija h^mi! 

the Masai live yonder. 

nakedi, n. wild cat. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

nakwa:ko, n. a certain big shrub. CIII. (D.B.) 

nakwete, nakwote, little, small, often used as ending for child, s. ola, ora. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: teko 
tasikini tl'^'etl'^e nakwete han!a kupana jajerda then climb down a little hill to reach Jajeda. 

"n'^am:, n'^Am:, neAm:, n. ostrich. Nil. (LI.) n', n'amm, nSamm. Ex.: | xabba/e ti Am "n'^Am: ! nu — 
I xabba/e ate an ostrich egg. 

nam, nama, interrog. where, which, what. CI. (Do.) Ex.: nam t/a ||ganaha ? where do you live ? dhau 

nama ha ? where is the road ? nama t/o ? which man ? nama na t/o ? of what country ? n 

|kam ? when (which sun) ? 


am&, n. Nama. SI. (B. ) Ex.: rj ||erri !khe: au ||xe:, g ||k"oeq he e namar-ka !e: |ne Ike*?! rj-ka |hu — I 
stood washing 'Bushman rice', I saw that Nama people got hold of my master. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: na ti sa 
|nabbe, na ti sa dama^ na ti sa nama I understand the Ovambo, I understand the Herero, I under- 
stand the Nama. CII. (D.B. ) sing, nama, namaba, pi. naman, namana, namani. Ex.: naro ko k"wi ! neriba, 

nama ko k"wi !xo:ba, |kwime e a Naron says heaven (Ineriba), a Nama says heaven (!xoba), it is 

one. tira ko namaba uwa ha I a Nama man had (married), nama ko haa kei, naman ko fnu: the 

Nama came many, the Namas sat. |o:as kwe ko namana ||e:ja ha at Oas. the Namas lived, a |k"erri k"au 

re i:, namani ko ha (Wfhen) a small boy (I) was, the Nama came. 

ama, no. CI. (Do. ) 

amaka, s. nate. 

amkwe, conj . then, and then. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: gwesa tis bi/a ko ma dabe, namkwe kwed3i au |kwasisa — 
the cow's milk I give Dabe, and then the people give it to the children. 

ammar], n. beard of grass. SI. (LI.) nnamman. Ex.: ! khe ! nu! nuiiftu^ka nammar) grass ears' beard (re- 
sembling the beard of barley). 

Sir) with, and, on, s. na. Sllb. (Mh. ) nan. Ex.: n 0'?on | au he: sa nar) ha fhoe: — my son's wife comes 

with her brother-in-law. koro nar) ! kunsi rjxa'^a |kx'?au te a:q the hyena and the jackal carried the 

lion's food, nag ! "^aur) on the earth. 

iga, n. liver. Sllb. (Mh. ) nana. 

ina, away there, over there. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha~kha ke nana haku su ssm.e he went away there with 

it and ate. niggi pakapaa nana je dondui the big doctor is over there at Dondui. 

i~nannase: n. a small white wild flower. SI. (LI.) nanafinasse. 

mafra, eagerly. SI. (B. ) naiiaffa. Ex.: ! ei ! naunko nanaffa ki s'^a g — the people yet ran eagerly up 
to me. 

ilnalrro, n. an insect, Anthia thorocica, also called fnalfna^nna. Nil. (LI.) nanarro. 

mi, old (person.) Sllb. (Mh. ) fiani . 

bnijako, pron. his. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: nanijako itl'^a his knife. 

tnni, n. needle, s. nauro. Nil. (LI.) nS,nni. 

,n |hoo, n. hair. CI. (Do.) 

'O, interrog. what, which. CI. (Do.) Ex.: nao e are heaha ? what have they done ? 

lara, _naro, n. tsama melon, s. niara. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ga:~kei ki se _tga ~nara ! wara granny comes 

to bring tsama to the maiden., interrog. who. CI. (Do.) Ex.: kau nare ? who are you ? ' 

l3.ivi, n. mosquito. Nil. (Ek.) 

ro, n. name of tribe living in the Kalahari east of Oas. CII. (D.B.) pi. naron, narona. Ex.: naro e:, 

Ifkug kwe e: a Naron. (I) am, an old man am. | nu kwena naman ko k"wi naron ko k"wi the black 

people speak Nama, speak Naron. khana narona ko |kwoi dagga the Naron simoke. 

aro, s. nara. 

irru, V. to be sleepy. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: e ! kau tsa narru — we are all sleepy. 

s, conj. so that. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/osa ko kuru Ugai |kwasa, nas ko t/osisa me~e — the grandmother 
works with the little girl, so that the granddaughter speaks (learns to talk). 

te, rel. pron. what, pi. namaka. CI. (Do.) 

tha, how. a. (Do.) 



natikosa, yesterday. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: natikosa _dza seremani — yesterday came Seremani. 

nat/eja, v. to laugh. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pakapd unu nat/eja — a grown person laughs. 

nat/uri, last year. CI. (Do.) nachuri. 

/n&n, V. to flow. Nil. (V.) nau. 

nau, yesterday, s. natikosa. CI. (Do.) 

/nau:, n. mushroom, fungus. Nil. (Dk. ) n^. 

na~3 , n. hare, Lepus saxatilis, not the hare of ! ku folklore. Nil. (LI.) nau. 

nauro, nauru, n. metal needle of European make, s. nanni. SI. (LI.) Ex.: he ||kum: whai: !kwa:, he se dij 
foro o whai: !kwa:, he se fum: i:, ta: he |ki k"auki fenc'^na nauro-ka fumtum — they shape a spring; 
bok's leg, that they may make a bone needle of the springbok's leg, that they may sew with it, for 
they do not understand a European needle' s sewing. I 


nawa, n. noise. CJ. (Do.) ' 

naixur), naxu-si, n. leg. Sllb. (Mh. ) liaxufi, liaxu-si. I 

na Iganoxa:, never. Nil. (Wil.) na ! gagSxa. 

na~!!na:, no, s. nama. Nil. (Ek.) naj;^a: . 

nda, n. firewood, s. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. 


ndala, n. grinding stone, flat rock. CI. (Do.) i 

ndala, n. white man. [Ba.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ihi ke tagga ~||gu, ndala ke tagga ~||gu you pi. make 

rain, white people make rain. 



ndamba, n. arrowtip. NIII. (D.B.) 

ndawe, n. nose, beak, s. ntawe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ndawebe ma kwadiso — the beaks of the eagles. 

ndekx'^ai, n. chin ( ? my chin). Sllb. (Mh. ) ndekx'ai. 

ndodga, n. hump. CI. (Do.) ndodja. 

ndo t/ot/o, immense. CI. (Do. ) ndo chocho. 

ndwedi, n. ball, round thing. CI. (Do.) 

ndza, n. a little buck. CIII. (D.B.) 

nd3end3e, n. Barotse. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ki sig nd3end3e ! nole — I have seen the Barotse country. 

nd35:, n. round white veld tuber. Nil. (ES^. ) ^^30:. 


nd3o:, n. ostrich eg^. Cllb. (Wil.) nd25. 

ne, nee, v. to be, part, used before numerals. Sllb. (Mh. ) ne, esse. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: |kwisi e ||koe, 
|kwike ne ! 'J'u, |kwike ne kjebekje — one bird, two birds, many birds. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: komi ne on( 
— the younger am I. olanakwe hawa ne bonepi — the children there are four. tla:kwe nee eikwitive 
piepe — (of) Tlarkwe are two wives. 

ne, qe, pron. I, s. n, g, na. Slle. (And.) Ex.: a r)e kx'?a --- (and) I am drinking. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |n(j 
so'?a ne keira, na si |na uwa --- although I am old, I will yet take you. SVI. (D.B.) dat. me. Ex.: 
||xei !kha ne --- show me water. Nil. (V.) Ex.: ne ti /ts'^i: |lgu: --- I drink water. (LI.) Ex.: ne 
||kal||kafu --- I tear. 

ne:, _ne:a, dem. this, rare form of e, _e:a. Nil. (V.) ng, n^a. 

ne, indef. pron. some. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku fkhifkhi, ne ki ||ke||ke, ne ki ! koe — ■- many people, some s 

144 ' 

big, some are little. 

ne^ n. navel. NIa. (Leb. ) m. & ch. sp. 

ne, prep, different meanings, s. na, ina. CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: /irikari ki a~khape ati nina, ~kwe se J*a, se 

_dza |e_tsa ne the Askaris are going to the water, when they have dipped up, then come home to 

hut. ne tsealolo ati ne hakabita about birds in the water we will talk. 

ne, conj . different meanings. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: \!na:, ne me ~kei/e ! nu "/u, ne m — help, that I may 

soon go about and eat. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ne ka dzema, na m txu ki ||ke when I was small, then 

my grandfather died. Cll. (D.B.) Ex.: ti ||kun/ ko |kwane aba, nos ka tira |gi, ||geis ko i: ne — my 

daughter bears a child, then I will call its name, if it is a girl. ||kau||e/a owa ha^, ne-/ ko ~||o 

I had an Auen wife, then she died, aute, ne ra |ka give that I plant. 

nee, nea, n. baboon. CIII. (D.B.) /em. neeko, neako. pi. neepi. Ex.: hama nee this is a baboon. 

t/i:ta d3end5ai su sameta neeko komi, nee nakwete — the leopard caught and ate a little she-baboon, 
a baboon child. t/i:ta neepi piepi komipi (he) caught two little baboons. 

nei |arib, n. banded mongoose. Cllb. (Sh. ) 

nementooi, n. ostrich, s. toi. Sla. (A-son). 

'nemeru, n. signs of birth. CI. (D.B.) 

1 -' 

inena, n. tin. CIII. (D.B.) 

|_ne_se, almost. Nil. (V.) n^s^. 

metn, they lie (?) Sllb. (Mh. ) netn. 

gga, pron. you, sing, obj . Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: na kje'^m "^aa, _r| k'^u |keiki gga I court you, I make you 


gga, (? ga), n. forehead, s. |na. Slid. (Arb. ) nga. 

nga, (? ga) n. wife, s. |ga. Slid. (Arb.) nga. 

ngaa, v. to burn a candle. CI. (Do.) 

ngadza, n. cup. NIII. (D.B.) 

ngai, (? gai), n. young gnu, s. ! ga. Slid. (Arb.) ngai. 

ngaingai, n. antheap. CI. (Do.) 

ngaka, n. doctor. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

qgala, qgalako, n. crest, mane, hackle, bracelet made of hair. CIII. (D.B.) 

lagarjngaq, (? r|agr)ar|) , n. horse. Slid. (Arb.) ngangngang. 

jngantee, v. to argue. CI. (Do.) 


jtigaro, n. water iguana. CI. (Do.) 

jigatha, n. heap. CI. (Do.) 

jagau, n. firmament. CI. (Do.) . , 

igauo, V. to surround. CI. (Do.) , 

igauo, n. example. CI. (Do.) ggauo. 

igthabe, n. giraffe, CI. (Bry. ) ng:habe, -nghabe. 

^go, n. flower. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. 


ngo, (? go), n. God. Slid. (Arb.) ngo. 

ngoa, (? goa) , n. conscience. Slid. (Arb.) ngoa. 

ngoag, (? r|oag), n. millet beer. Slid. (Arb.) ngoang. 

ngoba, n. Makoba. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: e tiok"wi ngoba-ma tsema, ngoba-ma tsema ti ~|u ha t/u — we say to 
a small Makoba child, that the small Makoba child shall go into its hut. 

ngo-gagga, n. a certain little bird. Nil. (LI.) ngo-ganga. Ex.: ngo-gaqga ti ! kaowa ma kwe ! nwerre — 
the little bird has gone away to my country. 

ngololo, n. red-breasted lizard, s. ggoru. CI. (Do.) 

ngom^ n. anus. CI. (Do.) ngom. 

rjgoma, v. to kiss. CI. (Do.) ngoma. 

ngoma, n. food (?) CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: Ikidzaja pisi _r) ngoma — cooks the cook the food (?). 

ngombe, n. ox, unusual form of gome. [Ba.] NIII. (D. B. ) 

ngomere, (? r)omere), to-day. Slid. (Arb.) ngomere. 

ngonawe, num. three, s. !nwona. [Na. !nona.] CI. (Do.) 

qgoru^ n. lizard, 'gecko', form of goru. Nil. (LI.) ngdru. 

ngotahe^ v. to humble oneself. CI. (Do.) 

ngu, n. smell. CI. (Do.) 

ngu, n. hut. s. !nu. Cllb. (Sei.) 

ngua, n. spotted hyena. Cllb. (Bal.) 

ngeeme, (? rjgueme), n. bowstring. Slid. (Arb.) ngu^me. 

ngulu, n. pig. [Ba.] NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: a |ka:ja ha ~ba na ngulu^ ha ba ki ~m — presents her father wit], 
a pig, her father eats. 

r)gut/o, n. tsessebe antelope . CI. (Do.) ngucho. 

nguvu^ n. hippopotomus. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ngu«ru_||kaAn _watu a hippopotomus smashes the boat. 

ni, pron. me, s. n, ne. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sa ni pole bring me tobacco. 

ni, conj . different meanings. NI. (D.B.) dabe | kwa ku Nare ~! gu, ni Nsa a //i the children fetch 

water, that thirsty they drink. CI. (Do.) and. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: si ha~kha oranakwe, ni obe hama --• 
the children come, but we stay. 

— ni^ ending meaning in. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: zaiko— ni in the south. 

niara, v. to make pap of tsama seeds, s. nara. SIV. (D.B.) 

niau, n. cat. CIII. (D.B.) 

nie, pron. I, s. n, r|, ne, ni. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: nie tabai — I work, nie e oasi — I eat meat. 

nikOj prep, from, follows noun. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha~kha mo boma niko he has gone from the fort. 

nin'a, prep, by, with, in, at, used before or after noun. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bah^ja Jamo nina he staye 

with the Isanzu. marundipi bah^pi aa nina — clouds live in the sky. ko asseta mo unu nina mu:^ — 
he strikes a man with a stick. 

niggi, n. doctor, sorcerer. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso boko unu, iso xlaka niggi when is ill a person, 

then cuts the doctor, nirjgi pakapaa nanaja the big doctor is over there, t/ia: mo ati niggi 

146 i 

he is leading water, the sorcerer. 

L !kho, n. hair. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. 

]&, pron. I, s. ni, nie. Slla. (Mg. ) Jia. Ex.: pa yko si tjhu I shall not hear. SV. (D. B. ) Ex.: nja 

||ko ||ki — I stand up. 

)&, dem. that is, those are. SIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: nja fiho that is a bush, nja ||xeg those are 


ja, before. CI. (Do.) nya. 

jaa, n. wind, storm. CI (Do.) nyaa. 

jabe, n. giraffe. Cllb. (Bal.) 

jaho, V. to place. CI. (Do.) nyaho. 

jaisi, small. SIVb. (St.) 

jambulu, n. a certain bird of prey. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: njambulu tasseja, i/a gubama kenaggu — the .... 
bird is tall like the size of an ostrich. 

ar), V. to accuse. CI. (Do.) nyafi. 

aoka, V. to go on. CI. (Do.) nyaoka. 

aoko, n. perseverance. CI. (Do.) nyaoko. 

atsa, V. to rebel. [Tsw.j CI. (Do.) nyatsa. 

ee, V. to put out a fire. CI. (Do.) nyee. 

ehe, V. to hear. CI. (Do.) nyehe. . 

er), V. to remember, consider. CI. (Do. ) nyen. 

enne, v. to spin. CI. (Do.) nyenne. 

ie:si, dem. this. Slla. (Mg. ) jiersi. Ex.: ]ie:8i y'^ai ||ko this happen not. 

e t/a, V. to be greedy. CI. (Do.) nye cha. 

e t/u, V. to be stingy. CI. (Do. ) nye chu. 

im, V. to make, spread out as roots, njim he, to coil. CI. (Do.) nyim. 

im khao, v. to look up. CI. (Do.) nyim khao. 

imo, n. condition, state of a thing. CI. (Do.) nyimo. 

imo, above, the top, high. CI. (Do. ) nyimo. 

im oka, n. the sky, heaven. CI. (Eb.) nyim oka. 

imwa, upon, on top of. CI. (Do.) nyimwa. 

imwa ||koe, v. to touch. CI. (Do.) nyimwa ||koe. 

in, V. to think, njin he kakho, to admire, exalt. CI. (Do.) nyin. 

in kakho, n. counsel. CI. (Do.) nyin kakho. 
in ne, v. to hope, plait. CI. (Do.) nyin ne. 

o, V. to sit. CI. (Do.) nyo. 

oahe, V. to be glad. CI. (Do.) nyoahe. 

hwa, n. pasturage. CI. (Do.) nyo hwa. 

nehe, v. to do without food. CI. (Do.) nyo hehe. 

ono, n. accusation. CI. (Do. ) nyono. 


njono mee, v. to tell lies. CI. (Do.) nyono mee. 

njoo, V. to eat grass, graze, sit down to food, eat. CI. (Do.) nyoo. 

njoo, n. food, meat. CI. (Do.) nyoo. 

njoo, n. chair, stool. CI. (Do.) nyoo. 

njo tee, v. to give food to, CI. (Do.) nyo tee. 

njo t/akho, v. to do nothing. CI. (Do.) nyo chakho. 

njuno, n. bread, porridge. CI. (Do.) nyuno. 

r)ka, V. to say, s. ka. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: ''au | ga rjka gjisi ? — you girl say what ? 

nkeo, n. spouse. Slid. (Arb. ) nkfeo. 

r)~kha;^u, v. to come down. Nil. (Ck. ) gkhaj,ii. 

r)~khu:m, n. a Heikum Bushman. Nil. (Dk.) r)khli:m. 

r)kja, gkje, pron. I, possibly r|, I joined to aux. kja, kje. Slla. (Mg. ) rjca, gee, gcer). Ex.: nkja 
0'^w'ija, gkjer) "^rj ||ko l|ga — I state of being ill, I not come, gkje ! nu ''rikwa I thus say. 

qkof, V. to say so, s. rjkiaa, gkwa. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: tjhuxai gkol ? — who say so ? 

n'koa", n. dog. NI. (Pa.) n'ko4. 

nkwa, V. to fear, s. koal. Nil. (LI.) nko4. Ex.: !kur) ti |kua !kug a, |na a tsau, te nkwa !kur) — Bushi 
men will not kill thee, stop fearing Bushmen. 

gkwa, r)kua, rjkuwa, v. to say so, s. rjkof. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: tjhuxai ! nu gkua ? r)kje: !nu r)kwa who say 

thus ? I say thus. koPo kjen rjkuwa jackal .... say so. 

gk"wa, V. to hold thus. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: | gwa a, ha gk"wa ha-ka |k"a this child, it holds its arms 


_r)-n,^ n-n, no. [Na. hm-ci.J Slid. (Wu.) 'n'n. SIVb. (St.) r) 13. SV. (D.B.) g-r). NI. (D.B.) _ri"g- Nil. (Ll.i 

n-h. Ex.: zau ||na, "^"r) maa |kua e me !khao" the woman objected, "no, thou art not my husband".! 

CII. (D.B.) _r)-g. CIII.'(D.B.) g-r). 

nga, n. way, path. (Leb. ) NIa. ch. sp. nna. 

n n|e, alone, s. no'^e. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. 

no, V. to be. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi no ! nave de — I am ! nave's wife. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: no dza ko — ai' 
a Bushman woman. 

n3, n. river. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

no, n. roan antelope. Nil. (Sh.) 

no, prep, with, s. n, na. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n tuli na d3umi I hear with the ear. 

no, conj . then. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n ka tu:a |kabes, a no [Icaia misisa — I will ask |kabes, and then 
tell Missis. 

noa, V. to cook. Nil.. (Wil.) noa. 

r)oa, n. duiker. Cla. (Pa.) n6a. 

no'!*e, alone, s. n n|e. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. no-e. 

noha, this year, s. no t/uri. CI. (Do.) 

no ika, n. eddy of wind and dust. CI. (Do.) 



noi jeka, everywhere. CI. (Do. ) noi yeka. 

nokhaa^ v. to run away. CI. (Do.) 

rjoloo, V. to be lazy. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: mambu goloo wa, akwa t/irt/a tsokovi — Mambu is lazy, he does 
not fetch wood. 

noo, n. world, earth, veld. CI. (Do. ) 

noska, conj . then. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: te ||kun/ ko |kwane aba, noska tira |gi my daughter bears a child, 

then I will call its name. 

notana, n. trap. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kotega notana ko baba ka eingiri mabe — made is the trap by father 
with ropes. 

notana, nicely. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akw^ mo tsaha notana he does not understand nicely. 

note, n. hammer. [Tsw.] Cla. (Pa.) 

no t/uri, this year, s. noha. CI. (Do.) no churi. 

n6~u, n. hare, s. na*"!. Nil. (LI.) nnou. 

nouu, to-day. CI. (Do.) 

noxoba, still, again, once more, then. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: e koald3i, "keisi koafd3i, noxoba t/i eo koafd3i 

— we were afraid, very much afraid, still now we are afraid, noxoba Ijnai say it again. CII. (D. 

B. ) otherwise. Ex.: Una]" Ikwi/a ||xa||xai, noxoba burl te tama that one thing (they) taught, other- 
wise said nothing. 

no||gaiewa, n. wilderness, desert. CI. (Do.) 

gsa, V. to give. Sllb. (Mh. ) nsa. 

n-si, n-sn, s. g— n. 

nsu, nsu:nu, n. ostrich egg. Nil. (Wil.) nsunu. 

nsugko:, n. Icip. Qlb. (Wil.) nsunko. 

ntS'u, V. to receive. Sllb. (Mh. ) nta'u. 

ntawa, ntawe, n. nose, nostrils, trunk, s. ndawe. CIII. (D.B.) 

n~thaj'i, n. tongue. Nil. (Dk. ) nth^i. 

nt/a, n. prickly cucumber. NI. (Pa. ) ntscha. 

ntpa:, v. to steal, s. t/a. Nil. (Dk.) ^t^a:. 

ntpr):, v. to weep, s. t/ir). Nil. (Dk. ) ^Tr):. 

nt/'?xa:ni, v. to dance, stamp feet in dancing, s. t/xane. Nil. (Dk. ) jit/'^xaini. 

nu, prep. on. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ie tu nu ga ||k" a: — it is lying on its back. 

"nube, nub^ja, sweet, fine, good. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: menda ~nube — fine clothes, nub^ja seme — good 
food, nub^ja owa barako — sweet, is honey. 

aui, n. mouse, s. lnu~hr. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

tium, nun, conj. then. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwim ko |kue, nuip |kwim |xorreba ko xaue one (buck) is killed, 

then one tattoomark is cut. hojera ko |kam, 11:/ ko \M.ei. \:, nun ko |kwi/ |nu:/ kwe ||e1 two wives, 

(if the first is friendly, then in one hut( they) stay. 

au:ma, v. to go away, leave. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ko missia mo unu, okoko baija ko, nu:ma ko missira mo edze 
when dies a man, the wife is left, goes away when dies the man. nu:m^ no I am leaving. 



nut/u, n. tsessebe antelope, s. r|gut/o. CI. (Do.) 

gwakafi, n. year. QII. (D.B. ) 

gxada:, interrog. where, s. xeke:. Sllb. (Mh. ) lixadS. 

nxai, n. bullfrog. Nil. (Wil.) 

nyn, n. eland, s. ||nir). Nil. (Zuk.) ni!m. 

nzwanzwa, n. fly. s. dzwadzwa. Nil. (Ek. ) nzwanzwa. 

nzoo, n. honey. Nil. (Wil.) 

nigami, n. springhare. Q. (Do.) 

nlgenane, n. earring. CI. (Do.) 

nigini |ku, v. to fan oneself. CI. (Do.) 

nigoo, n. wool. CI. (Do.) n|goo. 

nigwa, n. bone. CI. (Do.) 

gwe, n. large bustard. CI. (Do. ) 

kat/u, n. battle. CI. (Do.) n|kachu. 

koo, n. a chief's courtyard. CI. (Do.) n|koo. 

kx'^aba^ red-white (of horse). [Ko.] Sllb. (Mh. ) n-|x'aba. 

xau, n. perspiration. CI. (Do.) n|ghau. 

xawaha, v. to perspire. CI. (Do.) njghawaha. 

xuru, V. to forget, s. |uru. CI. (Do.) n|ghuru. 

n! gaa^ n. jackal, s. |ga:'?ai. CI. (Do.) ; 

g! 'hani, n. snake, small white-striped non-poisonous. Nil. (Dk.) rjC'^hani. 

T|!k-worrib6, n. 'mackerel sky'. Nil. (LI.) n!kuorrib^. | 

n_!o:, n. axe. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a tsen ~u, a ka |)ko n_!o:, ||kam'?i _0bwa:a — thou go out, take the axe, 
cut bushes. 

r)!'!'o:, V. to be pregnant. CII. (Dk.) qo'^o: . 

n!6n, n. evening. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. ! 


rillgaa, n. horn. CI. (Do.) n||gaa. i 

gllgai, v. to burn, s. ngaa. CI. (Do.) n||gai. 

qllgaie, v. to swing. CI. (Do. ) n||gaie. j 

rjllgaq, v. debate, discussion. CI. (Do.) nl|gan. 

njigwa ykware, n. a rocky place. CI. (Do.) 

n\\k&t, rough. Nil. (LI.) ri||k|. ! 

n||kaa, n. a wait-a-bit thorn. CI. (Do.) 

ri_||ka'?e, v. to bear a child. Nil. (Dk.) 3^'^e. 


ii||kaha, v. to sit by the side of. CI. (Do.) 

q||karehe, v. to forgive one another. CI. (Do.) n||karehe. 

q||khai, v. to shoot. CI. (Do.) n||khai. 

n||khare, others. CI. (Do.) 

r)!!ka, n. rain. Nil. (Dk.) gfa- 

q!!khar)^ n. gladiolus root. Nil. (Dk.) 2?^^^- 

q!!khavu, n. wing, s. !!khavu. Nil. (Ek.) gfhavu. 

gfgafo, n. certain tree bearing fruit which is boiled and eaten. Nil. (LI.) Afgdto. 

gf*?ha:va^ n. forearm. Nil. (Dk.) 2''''^ha:va. 

ri-f'hu:, V. to wipe. Nil. (Dk.) 3^*?hil. 

_r|t*?hwi:, n. dog, s. 4'?hwi. Nil. (Dk.) Q'^'^hwi:. 

qt'~hwi, n. armadillo. Nil. (Dk.) gi'^hwi . 

_r)tko, n. brother (? my brother). Nil. (Dk. ) rj-^0. 

nfneCj n. lion, s. !ne. Nil. (Pa.) nfn^. 

o & o 

Both these sounds occur very frequently in Bushman languages, but not often at the beginning of 
words. O as a word by itself is often a dialectical variation of a or au, or of a word in which the ini- 
tial consonant has been omitted. 

In " An Outline of the Phonetics of the Language of the ^hy: Bushmen of North-West Kalahari" on 
p. 133 Doke calls O " the back mixed vowel, half open" adding: " In tongue-position this is slightly be- 
low Cardinal Vowel No. 6^ and slightly within the cardinal line ". He calls o " the back half-close vowel" 
and says it " is a pure vowel slightly lower in tongue-position than Cardinal No. 7." 

Bleek, Lloyd, Meinhof and Passarge write the open as O. 

0, 0, V. to be, often used as v. part. SI. (LI.) t, 6. Ex.: tata kar) ~o: kag ! kuttan, !nu:ir) do? a a: 

!kwa: father sang (did sing that) the string had broken, r) ikoii) !kerri, ha |ke o e ! nwirj-jkiiitan 

my great-grandfather, his name was ! nwir)- | kuitsn. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: n o | nea ha !nwe:ntuja o pwe 

— I see his ear is one. ||ka:xs o ! nei _||ke: ||na ||kau, ||kau o | gebba — the sister is older than the 

brother, the brother is smaller. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: | hag o o: _/wa the children fetch water. SIV. 

(D.B.) Ex.: jnabo o a shoe (it) is. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: 0pwor) o ~l|karri children are many (many 

children), o |nee ! kha — fetch water, imp. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi o dama ! go, mihi ba o ||kau|lSi — I 

was^a boy^ my father was an Auen. ||eija tsike re o ! nauka this time is the rain- time, donki o ~tsa 

te |ka: ~t/i donkeys are two (two donkeys) did not come, me ! gu ~t/i~fa, me o ~|ni I put down 

the kaross, I sit. 3U o "tsi a person is laughing. _! gwa ka 3UO nabbo ~|ni yesterday people 

gathered berries. Nil. (LI.) v. part, used after conj . o, s. below. Ex.: na ti fnee^ a |ne, | ir) O 

/a, ma o t/ir) I will beat thy head, until blood flows, until thou dost cry. (V.) v. part. fut. 

Ex.: na ti o gu: --- I shall take. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mo _gole ba --- I am _||gole's father, e o tsi --- 
we have come. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||k"Oma _o _dz'!'a: the head comes out. kwana komi o kwemo e, kwana 


tassi o makwa /a when (I) was small, was Kwemo, when (I) was big, was Makwa/a. 


o, \.o:, V. to make , do, treat, prepare, beat. Nil. (V.) o, s. go:. Ex.: go ndoa a so:, |na: a \o: 

as you have once done, (so) (now) may you do. (LI.) 6, Ex.: ta | ge ! xi ha ||nau, 6 ha ||nau — and 
broke off (a stick for) his bow, made his bow. |k:Ain tanki ha txa, ta Amy ta 6 ha |ndo, ta ||ke an- 
other day he shot, and ate, and prepared the skin, and had (it.) na |kui | ge m ba, ta m ba 6 mi ] 

will not go to my father, for my father beats me. 

6) V. to see, shine on. Nil. (LI.) Ejc. : ta tsa ferri |kAm, ta jkua 6 ! kAm, ta Jn, ta ti tsa — euid slei 
forgetting the sun, and did not see the sun, but lay and was sleeping. |kAm 6 me |gasir], )kAm 6 ||e--- 
the sun shines on my eyes, the sun shines on the grass. 

~o, V. to grow, raise. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: gova te ""o pangwe the Nyemba grow Indian hemp. 

o:, o, V. to fetch, get, find. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: | hag o o: _/wa the children fetch water. CII. (D.B. 

Ex.: a koko, a o tama, a dibbi haf (I) sought, found not, came home. 

O, prep. & conj . different meanings. SI. variant of au used in the Katkop dialect. (B. ) O, 6. Ex.: ^ se 
|{a fkaka g ||kaxei o !kwa: — I will go to tell my sister about the child, fxoa tuko dofa a: hoa ka: 

!kwa:, o kag ||keig |e: ta !k"0 the elephant must have been the one who took away from me the chi] 

when I was digging in the hole. (LI.) 5. Ex.: IhsCu: ha:f a:, he ||khoa ha o !khwa:-ka xoro ||ke1||ke'i:ij 
!hau: ha:f |ku ||nau:, o hir) ke: fke: |ki ! xwonni !khwa:-ka xoro o !khwa: e: ha ka: ha |e: he, ! hsiu 

|ku-g |ne !kwa: the thong it was, they placed it on the water-bull's horns, the thong did this, 

when they wanted to pull, making turn the water- bull from the water, which he wanted to enter, the 

thong broke. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: !^u sa _|lr) degsn o ||g degsn ! gurru dust comes to the Bushmen, when 

the Bushmen dance. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: be, he kwa |ke ~u o ||kam the man, he has gone to lift it up. 

Nil. (LI.) Ex.: na ti |kaa !kur| kwe ||nau, o kwe i|kou, o !kur| o txa a — I present the Bushmen with ; 

bow, and with an arrow, so that the Bushmen can shoot thee, na ti ! kug dama, o dama /e !kuq mi I 

would kill the Herero, while the Herero was coming to kill me. (V.) 5. Ex.: sn go \fa_m— ikara _ha 

|ne:, o: _ha !!ge: they broke his head, and he died. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: /ove o "u, o ! gaum o tsi 

winter goes, when spring comes, goba |kwa ~na mi o pangwe the Mbunda did not present me with 

Indian hemp. 

o, old. [Afr. ou.] SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: o makopo, xatia, heri ge se ! nu~ba — old Makopo, the Xatia, has 
also died. 

oa, V. to be, s. o. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: hwitib oa !ha: — Hwitib is a son. hi oa ma tsema he is still 

small. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ! nabba "di oa jne e: the white rhinoceros horn is one. ! nanni ba oa ! ne-s: 

Inanni's father is !ne-si. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku oa kuli where is the Bushman ? d30: oa mues: 

bees are at the Muesi. 

oa, o:a, ^v. to arise, come up, come away, prob. a form of ui, often used as away, from, out of. SI. (LI | 
<5a, 6a. Ex.: hi se |ke ||a |ni to:ija ta:, ta: ha ||kwalg k"auki sir) o:a — they should go to see thai 

ostrich lying, for it had not arisen, hi |hir) oa hi |ku e:, hi sir] e swer)swe:r) i: they (insects)' 

come up out of their skins, (in) which they have been maggots, hag |ku |k"e:ja ||neir)-ta Ik'^e, ti e: j 

ha tuko dofa o:a, o ykoigjaq Ika'^u !khe: he kept calling out to the home people, that he had bee] 

lifted up, when the sun stood high. !kwa: ui breaks off. Ikwa: oa broke off. SIIc. (D.B. ) oa.Ex. :j 

ta ||ar) oa run away. SIII.(D.B.) to take out. Ex.: n ke ||ko:be:nje oa ||khaia 1 must go to take ou'j 

mealies. NIII. (D.B.) to go away. Ex.: ! ku ka oa people have gone away. ! nabe ki ||kei makua, a kweji 

kukirika ! nabe took Makua and went away to Kukirika. CII. Ex.: to take away. birrid5i ko ~u, a ko i 

tea ||kwo"i, a ||eis kwe oa d3i the goats go out, he goes out to collect them and takes them away home 

oa, Ola, o:af, ~oa, v. part, expresses past, often distant past. SI. (B. ) 6a. Ex.: ! kwi a: a ofa tuko 8' 

a this person must have been the one who was here. (LI.) <$a, o^, 6a. Ex.: r) k"auki ^en:na, ti e: 

~||khaJ oaf ||koe /o: !kau-ka ||neir) I did not know, that the lion was sitting in the cave, g ! koin{ 

!xu:gsn-di, ha karj ~oa kag ^kakka ke, ti e:, !kwi ha:f ~oa ||nau:, !khwa:, ha ^i:, ti e:, ha ka ha ||S! 

lug !kau-ka ||neir|, o ||kha:fr) o:af a: da: ha a: !khwa: my grandfather !xug8n-di, he told me long 

ago, that a man formerly long ago did this when rain fell, he thought he would go to sleep in a cave 
when a lion had been the one who had made rain for him. 

oa, V. part, expresses present. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n xu oa ko swike my head aches. '■ 

oa, contrac. of au ha. SI. (LI.) oa. Ex.: !khwa: |waitja oa |k"waif the rain became angry at her o- 


o:a, oa, n. father, s. aa, ba. SI. (B. ) 5a, 6a, emph. oakfn, pi. 6k§ngu, Skfngukfn. Ex.: ha o:a-g |ne 
!kwa:fr) au si, g i:, r) |ku a: ||s: r) |har) ha o:a her father was angry with us, I was the one mysi > 



I married her father, oakan sig |kammeT) ki s'^a to:i-ta Ikuitsn father did carrying bring ostrich 

eggs, i oksngu our fathers, ha oiksngukan fkakka ! ka\ikan their parents said to the children. 

(Lich. ) 6a. Ex.: oa sisi-ka our father. SIIc. (D.B. ) Ex.: r) oa, my father. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: q oa 

llni r| du I gea my father's house this. 

oaa, just so. CI. (Do.) 

oaggan, beautiful, handsome. SVIa. (Kr. ) oBiggen. Ex.: |ati aa ||koar| oaggen this woman is handsome. 

oa khwa, prep. at. CI. (Do.) 

oasi, n. meat, s. &, e. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: nie e oasi I eat meat. 

o~asi, odsi, all, both. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: e o^si o ts'^a, |hu ~tsi we all were sleeping, the white man 

came, i o~asi tj*i o ! go all were coughing. 

oa to, a greeting (?) good day. SIII. (D.B.) 
Saw, V. to drink. [Ko. oa."] Slid. (Wu. ) 

oaxa, ofitxa, v. to bring, CII. (D.B.) Ex.: gwe a ko 6axa gome ddma — cows the Herero brought, kafba 
|kanni la |hu ko odxa a new book the white man brought. 

obe, obe, obi, pron. we, a short form of onebe, onebi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: omi a sems a obe had3abe — 

they are eaten by us Bushmen, obe hadzabe e we are Bushmen, tsahoba ko obe a mamaku talk we 

to madeim. obi hadzabi ota elata hamana we Bushmen did clear this. 

obiti, pron. ours. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: obiti jako |etsa — ours is the hut. 

odzamme, n. hyena. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kamo ! no enabit/ ina, a ~kamo odzamme, mo tl'^oko atonen — when he 
had hidden in the grass, came the hyena, he gathered wood. 

oe, contrac. of oa e. SI. (LI.) 6e. Ex.: !k'''e tja !ga: ha: oe !kwi — people say the frog formerly was 
a person. • 

oe, tired. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

36, deep, depth. CI. (Do.) 

36, oeja, exclamation, hi, ho there, leave off talking. SI. (LI.) 6e, 6ej&. Ex.: ha hal Ini: ha !kwi|a, 
ha ha^ |ne kiii, " oe lAhi:, |ne IkAmma ki ! kauwi a ", he !kwi|a haf |ne kiii, " <5eja, ti tag k"auki 

||na, he g sir) |e ! ho ! kauwi i:** he caught sight of that girl, he said, " hi, in front, take for 

me- this eggshell" , and the girl said, " ho there, the thing is not here, that I may put the eggshell 
into it" . fnutara ku, " 6eja, q kag ka g |k"e:, a se u, a se ||khou ~|kuitsn, au ! khwetan te u 
||khoeta: g-ka ||neig ~||kai:e, au aksn kwag |ku ||kerri ||na au !khwa: — the old woman exclaimed, "leave 
off talking, I say thou shalt arise, thou shalt make a shelter, for the wind is blowing through the 
inside of my house, while thou art screaming here about the rain. " 

_oga, later, afterwards. Nil. (V.) yga. 

)go, conj . also, s. o, go. Nil. (V.) o,go. ' 

>h, n. pipe. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

)ha khoo, n. a dead body, s. ohe, oo. CI. (Do.) 

>he, dead, s. oo. CI. (Do.) 

':ho, exclamation, alas. Nil. (LI.) 5ho . Ex.: zau ! ka ~u, |xwe sau, ti k"aru zau, k"aru zau,k"aru zau ; 
|kAm fnau, ta |xwe ti /u, J*uwak"a, ta ti t/ig zau, " me zau, 5:h8, me zau, otho'" — the wife ran 
away, ] xwe arose, sought the wife, sought the wife,' sought the wife; the sun set, and | xwe lay down, 
lay on the ground and cried, "my wife, alas, my wife, alas" . 

ka, down, below, s. 06. CI. (Do.) 

':ka:, exclamation, ho. Nil. (Wil.) SkS. 
kangu, s. oa, father. 



oko, conj . and. Nil. (Dk. ) 

oko, oko, oku, n. wife, generally with the /em. ending, ko, ku. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~kha:mo /arjgiri a 
ok6ko — gone (are) /aggiri and wife, edzeko, okoko, two words for wife, okuku ea makanjagge 

zanit/i the wife of Makanjagge is middleaged. oko wako eimako the wife is Simako. oku wa ma 

buruku t/oga — the wife of Buruku is T/oga. oko ma akaija wife of uncle. ^ 

oku, V. part. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: motor |e ~kha, oku |e "khafa the motor goes to the water, it must go 

(or has gone) to the water, a oku "haija i |au thou must talk to us |auni. 

oku, V. to be, s. o. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: oku ! num, sido !num — are two, two ostriches. 

okwapi, pron. they, them, s. kwapi . CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nae na okwapi kl'^'odzo — I hear them talk. 

okwoijapi, n. the cold season. [Swa. kipupwe.] CIII. (D.B.) 

ok"wi, o~k"vi, V. to speak, say, call, tell, sing, n. speech, language. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: namasi ok"wi m 

||kai, nama ok"wi t/uma |xo "t/it/i e the Nama told me to pray, the Nama said millipedes are God'; 

things, mihi o~k"wi ! gaudama o~k"ffi — I speak the Klipkaffir language, te ku t/St/S , ka o~k"wi Ji 

t/i e: there stands the cicada, it is singing there. IVII. (LI.) oywi, oywi. Ex.: e |ui-8au ti 

ok"wi e !kuru ! gu kwe ~! nwe, ta (kuikwe Ikuru: e zau a e ||keja, ha ti ok"wi !kuru--our mother- in-la\ 
calls our quiver's name as bag, and not as quiver; our wife whom we have, she says quiver. |nani 

o~k"wi ||ke||keja dama, na ti |kua sa hi o~k"wi the |nani talk like the Herero, I do not understant 

their language. (Dk. ) okx'^wi:. 

ola, ola, n. child, s. ora. CIII. (D.B.) pi. olanakwe, ola mutlepe. Ex.: e, asseja ola — yes, the chile 
sleeps, ola jako — a child it is. ola pakapa^ me — the eldest child he (is), kwin heja o lanaicwe 

idibabe — such here the children milk, edzeko it/ame ako, a olanakwe piepe the wife is one, an( 

the children two. 

olapi, olapina, form of welapina, early. CIII. (D.B.) 

61e, V. to put in. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ja 61e |ke barkis — (he) puts it in his jacket. 

ome, omeja, n. husband. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ||ia kwa ta me ome sa she died with her husband. 

makanjagge omeja sa soki Makanjagge is the husband of Soki. 

omi, pron. them, s. bi, vi, mi, pi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: omi a sems obe hadzabe — them we Bushmen eat. 

on^ ona, ona, pron. I, form used with v. •? . ono, onebi. Ex.: _dzana a on — I have come, ona ssms 
||e:kwa I have eaten. ... roots, ona i|nobae: welapina I live to the east. 

ondoko, V. to seek, look for. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akw^ mu sameta, hi ondoko did not see food, which I 

(she) looked for. i 

one, one:, oneja, nice, sweet. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: nubeja asms, one: — nice food, sweet, monjoda one, 
oneja tumbate salt is nice, nice is tobacco. 


onebi, onebi, pron. we, pi. of ona, I, sometimes shortened to obi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||naie ba onebi --- 
we hear (them), welapina bita onebi _dza in the morning we came. 

onena, onene, pron. 1, my, mine; s. on, ono. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: onene xleme it/a:me I am the only ma 

akaije ja hama onena — grandchild is this mine. 

oni, V. to fan. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bibi ka oni jako the lady fans herself. 

ono, ono, pron. I, my, me. s. on, onena. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ono komi nee — I am young, it/ame a ono ko! 

dzaita alone have I come, onc, te, k"lodzo ba kenena — I, thou, we talk together, dundu akaije|> 

ono CXindu is grandfather to me. itj&me ako ono edzeko — one was my wife. ■ 

00, V. to hunt. CI. (Do.) 

00, V. to die, n. death, s. oha, ohe. CI. (Do.) j 

o:lol, V. part, should, would, s. of a. SI. (LI.) 50. Ex.: 1 ! hummi : , ti e: i sair) o:*ol ||nau:, ha: oM 

tai:f sa:, ha kofa |.ne ofa tu we fear, that if we should have done so, (as) he came, he would. 

have heard. 


3:25:, v. to blow the nose, s. _|n5:2S:. Nil. (V.) ^^h. 

'oooo, exclamation hallo, s. o:ho. Nil. (LI.) 0600. Ex.: ta |xwe ti dzoq ha zau, " me zau, ~oooo, me zau, 
dzog me, ~oooo" and | xwe called out to his wife, " my wife, hallo, my wife call out to me, hallo" 

)pi, pron. they, or pi. ending, generally pi, bi. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: elati opi akwaA huuna workers 

they the boys are. 

)ra, oranakwe, n. child, s. ola. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: m ora — my child, sagilo oranakwe a ma tawa/i 

Sagilo is the child of Tawa/i. ||naie ba a tsukutsuku ma oranakwe we hear the shouting of the 


)ratse, n. wood ,CIa. (Pa.) 

)re:, n. strap. Cllb. (Wil.) 6rS. 

)rowe, n. laziness. CI. (Do.) 

irro, exclamation hi (?). SI. (LI.) Ex.: ha hal kui, " drro "wi ho:, |ne -kennir] a: sweq a:"' — he 
said, 'lii, turn aside, peep at this fat maggot" . 

)sa, V. to miss, s. oso. CI. (Do.) 

.osi, big. SIVb. (St.) 

»S0, n. a miss, s. osa. CI. (Do.) 

)ta, V. part, indicating duration or completion. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: obe hama, obe hama ota, s, onebi 

we stay , we are staying, yes, we. obi hadzabi ota elata hamana, elata ota, te tee we Bushmen did 

clear this, having cleared, returned. ! napako ||k"ota ota the horse fly is caught. 

togo, V. to cut up. CIII. (D.B.) 

t/a:, n. body, stomach . CIII. (D.B.) 

tuwe, n. pain in the stomach, colic. CI. (Do. ) 

u:, n. whirlwind (?). SI. (LI.) 5u. Ex.: hag |ku-g | ne !khe:, he ha ||nau:, ou< 0pwa ka swe:r) e, tikan 
|ku k"ffar| ! kwi a: hsrri tattan ||kau: |kiun: ha he stood there, and he did this when a little whirl- 
wind came up, it seemed as if a person had pushed him down. 

uki, dialectical variation 0/ k»'auki, no, not. SI. (LI.) Ex.: !khwa: ouki ||na ||neir) there is not 

water in the house. 

;va:, in. Nil. (Wil.) 6va. 


j:wa, away. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha o:wa she is away. 

wa, V. to be, become, s. o. Nil. (LI.) 6wa. Ex.: ha: 6wa |u|uni tsema, ta ! ne ha zau — he became a 
little ant, and bit his wife, ha k"aru ha ba, k"aru ha ba, k"aru ha ba, ta ts^, ta dwa |ne'^e, ta tsa 

he sought his father, sought his father, sought his father, and slept, and was alone, and slept. 

CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bahda mo dundui, mutl'^e a owa he lived at Dundui, many they were, nubeja owa 

j barako sweet is honey. 

?a, within, mside. CI. (Do.) Ex.: owa ||khao to look inside, look down. Owa |khaiho, to fall in- 
side, fall down. 

owa:la, v. to scatter about. Nil. (Ek.) 9wa:la. 

a:ma, num. two. SIVb. (St. ) 

Iga'^'i, V. to scare away. Nil. (Dk. ) 04,9*^1. 


The unvoiced labial plosive is not a Bushman sound. In the purer languages it is only found i 
borrowed words, or in imitations of noises. In the languages much exposed to Bantu influence it occurs 
frequently as initial sound, in those influenced by Hottentot speech it is often found in endings, inte 
changing with b. In Hadza, which bears traces of both Bantu and Hottentot influence, it occurs as ini- 
tial sound and as ending. 

pa, pron. you, pi. s. h&, u. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: pa ! kwa you wait, pa f^aikje you sing. 

pa, n. father, s. ba. NIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: m pa ki ||ke my father is dead. ni~pa ba my father's 


paa, n. bundle. CI. (Do.) 

paa, n. a treeless plain. CI. (Do.) 

paa, paaJni, paana, old, grown-up, great, much, very, s. pakapaa. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ono ku paaku ina — 
I am grown-up. ||gobaija tso/ebi paana — there is great cold, pakapaa bek"au paana — a very big 
elephant, paan akwite ja buruku an old boy is Buruku. - 

pakapa^, big, old, s. pa^a. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: nirjgi pakapaa nanaje dondui — the big doctor is over 

there at Dondui. seta pakapa^ the full moon, ola pakapad, me the eldest child is he. pakapaS 

ko i/o teko greater is the sun than you. 

pai-kela, n. dawn, daybreak. CI. (Do. ) 

pakwai, big, form of pakapaa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pakwai dzua han!a: — very big stones. 

pakwinakwo, n. nephew. CIII. (D.B.) 

pala, n. roibok, s. gala. Cllb. (Wil.) p4la. 


palapaa, younger. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pakapa^ gisoja, makanjaqge e palapaa — the elder Gisoja, Meikan' 
jaqge is the younger. 

palapesa, n. scales in tortoise's shell. CIII. (D.B.) 

pame, n. stick with hole used in rubbing fire. CIII. (D.B.) 

pampam, n. crocodile. Nil. (Dk.) 

pampam, n. a bird (?) paauw. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: !ku a ~txa pampam, a tsaba ||ka||ka — Bushmen shoot the 
paauw, which is a big bird. 

pana, n. cup. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

pando, n. adze. [Tsw. J 01. (Do.) 

pand3upe, pand3ubi, n. a certain tree yielding poison used for arrows. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pandsupe teeti 
je, he tl'^emutsu the .... is a tree, it is broad. k"ada pandsubi ti poison is in the . . . . trf 

pango, n. rafter. CI. (Do.) 

pangu, n. a native food 'rauanza', s. pungu. NIII. (D.B.) 

paggwe, n. Indian hemp, 'dagga'. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _goba |kwi ~lku paggwe the Mbunda dp not smoke 

Indian hemp. 

papasi, n. root, branch. CI. (Db. ) i 

pa:r, para, n. horse. [Ned. paard.] SI. (B. ) p5r', p^ra. Ex.: pa:r e !ku-. two horses, para |aitji -■ 



ipari, n. goat, s. puli, puri. [Tsw.] SV. (C.B. ) pi. kapulete. 


pasako, n. the left hand. CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: pasako nako, akwitibi tiko the left hand this, the female 


pata, V. to please. CI. (Do. ) 

pataa, firm, solid. CI. (Do.) 

pataha, n. walking stick. CI. (Do. ) 

jpataku/ia, n. palm of hand. CIII. (D. B. ) 


patha, n. a crack. CI. (Do.) 

patoi, sweet. CI. (Do.^ 

pa:trd:, n. cartridge. [Ger. Patrone.] Nil. (Wil.) patr5. 

pawa, n. a lump of wet clay. CI. (Do.) 

paxle^ n. wife's father, mother's brother. CIII. (D. B. ) 

pe, n. a certain plant of which the leaf is smoked. NIII. (D. B. ) — pe, pi. ending of n. sometimes used as 

pron. s.-be, -bi, -pi. QII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||ape eamakabe — three stones, hatsape pi e leaves they 

i are. marundipi, bah^ pe && nina cloudsjthey live in the sky. 


'pee, V. to gush, jump out, hop. CI. (Eb.) 

pe:la, v. to finish, also used as v. part. SHI. (D.B.) Ex.: m ga pe:la I have finished, a pe:la g 

kwa |ne l|nai you have seen the hut. 

oela, n. rock rabbit. CI. (Do.) 

pelatita, v. to recover, get well. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweko iJ*o xlaA ti, ako pelatita, kweko i/o xlaa, 
missi --- if the sun wants, (he) will recover, if the sun wants, (he) dies. > 

Jelo, n. broom. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

Dembe, v. to fall, rain. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: puxla nana, tako so pembe ati — if he walks about, then 
falls rain. 

pembe, n. goat, sing. & pi. s. pari, puli, pudi. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: da t/ig kwe pembe — a goat is crying 
!ku kula pembe Bushmen have no goats. 

560, n. seed. [Tsw.]CI. (Do.) 

5epe, V. to blow. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _||koli pepe _ma o the wind blows and whistles. 

ere, n. bread. [Afr. brot.] SIV. (D.B.) 

)eri, n. goat, s. biri. [Na. pirip.J SI. (B. ) p^ri. Ex.: psri 0pwa — kid. peri e !ku: — two goats. 

j>e/i, n. pipe. NIII. (D.B.) 

)etl'?ai, white. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ahapi petl'^aipi — white tusks, petl'^ai ako kl'^'omako, a haibi ma 
petl'aipi white is the head, and the feathers of it are white. 

!>ha, V. to bite. 01. (Db.) 

'hetolo, n. answer. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

•huru, n. hole in a blanket. CI. (Do.) 

pi, masc. pi. ending of n., also used as pron. they, s. bi, vi, pe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: upukwa, upukwapl 


leg, legs, elatija, elatipi — boy, boys, t/eketa pi bunduki — they are putting away the gun 

pi, n. milk, s. pii, bii. Qa. (Pa.) 

pii, up to, on, s. piama. CEII. (D.B. ) Ex.: hamajia pid up to there (showing height on body). 

piaho, V. to give suck, s. pi, pii. CII. (Do.) 

piama, v. to put on, in, s. pi^. CIII. (D.B.) piama pe ts'^oko e se tl'^o/ote — put it in the ashes to 
roast it. 


pidi, n. goat, s. pudi, puli. [Tsw. ] CI. (Do.) 

pie, piebe, piepi, piepe; num. two. |Swa. pili| CIII. (D.B.) Ex.; tl'^emebi piebi, hadzabi piebi — two 
men, two Bushmen. balad3a a ntogo ha~khame piepi — BaladSa and Ntogo went, the two. t/i:a mo 
akwitipe /amope piepe he married two Isanzu women, isi pie je e this is the second (finger). 

pii, V. to suck, nurse, s. pi, bii, piaho. CII (Do.) 

pii, n. milk, s. pi, bii. CI. (Do.) Cla. (Pa.) 

pimboro, n. mosquito. Cllb. (Wil.) pimboro. 

pipi, V. to cry. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pipi ako olako — crying is the child, kotuwa kl'^uma ja pipi — 
close the grave and cry. pipi ma kwetl'^ea cries the jackal or cries of the jackal. 

piri, n. goat, s. peri, biri. [Na. pirip.J SI. (Lich. ) 

pise, n. nail (iron), thorn. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tauwaku ma pise — the hole for the nail, misai a~kha md 
|etsa na, t/a:tia mo, hateke amo pise upukwa tina — Misai has gone to his hut, he is ill, has got 
thorn in his foot. 

piai, pi/i:, n. horse. SV. (D.B.) pi. pisila, pi/i:le. Ex.: maki a ||kalle ||gwai /i, ||kafle Ji ke pisi -• 

Maki has ridden coming here, has ridden on a horse, pisila ka ||nu:m two horses, ea xolaxate pi/i: 

he has tied up the horse. 

pisi, n. cook. [Swa. mpishi.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsit/a:ja mendabi e pisi — washing clothes is the cod 

a mugoggo ampuli pisibi playing about are the cooks. 

pixlo, V. to boil. cm. (D.B.) ' 

~po:, V. to arise, jump up, imitation of sound. SI. (LI.) ppo. Ex.: a |ku a ||koen wai-ta Ikaukaksn ||kho, 

si |ku ~po: thou art the one who seest, the springbok's children seem as if (they) would arise j 

(they had been lying down). ; 

po, po, pol u, n. side-striped jackal. Nil. (LI.) p<5, po, p6u. Ex.: po ti m: | au ma the jackal eats! 

the little buck. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a txa ~po, a m ~po shoot the jackal, eat the jackal. Cllb. (E, 

& Zuk. po. (Wil.) po. I 

poija, V. to blow. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsot/epi poija pi winds blow. 

poijube, V. to pound, knead. CIII. (D.B.) 

po:ko:, n. knife with a single blade. Cllb. (Wil.) p5ko. 

poku, n. reedbuck. Nil. (Sh.) (LI.) Ex.: poku ti Am ||nwa, ta e ||gu /i the reedbuck eats reeds, for 

is a water thing. 

pole, n. tobacco. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n so pole I snuff tobacco. 

pologn, n. flowers. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pologn ien te Oho: the flowers are on the tree. 

poo, n. bull, male of anything. CI. (Do.) 

popo, n. large buck called swale by the Isanzu. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nea dsendsai, ! neato tj*i:ta popoko - 
springs the leopard, springing seizes the ewe. 



_pota, n. trade beads. NIII. (D. B. ) 

potlawa, V. to break (wood), cut down. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: potlawa mi ukwabit/i he breaks it with his 


pu^ noise of flying stick. SI. (LI.) ppu. Ex.: ~3uk9n haf |ne kui, " !kabbeta setsn, "gu te gum:", he ha 

hal |ne kui hjvbbu pu, pu, pu, pu, pu, pu, ! kubbu te sa ||kha the beetle said, " get out of the way, 

the beetle is throwing ", and he threw pu, pu, pu, pu, pu, pu, letting fly the stick. 

pu, pu:, up, on, over. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dondu hii na, pu: na Dondu is on this side, over there, a mo 

t/i:ta han!a pakai, a mo pu ku:ta he took a big stone and put it on top. i/o pu: huba — the sun is 


pudi, n. goat, s. pull, pidi. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) Ex.: pudi tsene |khoo goatherd. 

pudumo Igenee, n. mason bee. CI. (Do.) 

puku, V. to shut. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: puku te kiriviti shut the box. 

pull, n. goat, s. pudi, pidi. [Tsw.] SIVb. (St.) pu:li. NI., NIL, Qb. , CII. (Pa.) 

pum, V. to pump. [Eng.] SI. (B. ) Ex.: g fxamma ha se se pum ~!kwa: — I fetched him to come and pump 

ipuqgu, n. meal. [Mb. vunga.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: gova _|nwi, ta /ela d3U kwe puqgu — the Mbunda barter, 
' and wax people (give) for meal. 

oiipu, n. train, 'puffpuff . Nil. (LI.) pu-pu. Ex.: na ti ~u pupu ~t/u I went to the 'puffpuff's' 

\ house (railway station). 

purra, v. to burn, blaze. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: vui te ts'oko ka purra blow that the fire may burn. 

5uxla, V. to walk about. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: puxla nana, tako so pembe ati (if) he walks about, then 

falls rain. 

All Bushman languages have some form of this consonant in second syllables, but it is rarely 
sed as initial sound. 

In "The Tati Bushmen (Masarwas) and Their Language" on p. 62 Dornon says that r is strongly 

In 'Crundriss einer Greimmatik der Buschmannsprache vom Stamm der ! kC-Buschmanner" on p. 12 
edder describes r as a voiced alveolar, spoken with only one vibration. 

In "An Outline of the Phonetics of the Language of the^hy: Bushmen of North-West Kalahari" 
1 p. 141 Doke calls this the "flapped retroflex consonant" and writes it X. He says: " 2~ is one of the 
ifficult sounds of ^hu: for the European to acquire. Under certain circumstances it 'sounds like' d, un- 
sr others like r or 1. J., however, is a retroflex consonant. The tip of the tongue is turned back, plac- 
d against the hard palate in the centre, and then moved smartly forwards and downwards with a single 
jlap. In most cases the tip is drawn further back than the position of palate contact, that contact only 
icoming complete as the tongue starts to move forwards. The vocal chords are in vibration during the 
reduction of the sound, which is hence a voiced one. " 


In " An Outline of fkhomani Bushman Phonetics" on p. 74 Doke writes: "fkhomani speakers use 
neither the rolled r, nor the liquid l,but regularly employ the flapped lateral consonant {3-). 'The 
flapped lateral is not a continuant, but is enunciated with a single flap of the tongue. Hie contact pos 
itions are much as for 1, but naturally there is more tension. In its production the sides of the tongue 
are raised to touch the palate all along the upper side teeth. The forward part of the tongue-blade (not 
the tip) flaps against the alveolus almost to the base of the upper fro'nt teeth, while the air escapes 
over the front and slightly forward laterally.' Tliis description stands good for the pronunciation of 1* 
in fkhomani. " 

Bleek and Lloyd found in |xam, a regular r, a sound between r and n, written by them fi or ?, 
and a sound between r, n and 1, written by them X or ?• But these intermediate sounds are found in second 
syllables only. 

ra, interrog. part, used with others . SI. (Ll.)-rS. Ex.". |ne ||k"oenjau^ tsa ra xa a,:, |khe: |ne kokdakan 
teuiwa a: look, why (what thing) is it that the grass is blowing this way? 

ra, re, pron. I, short form, often used after v. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: tira ~ma I give. ~ma ra ko I 

am giving, wigki, xataxa ra ko " au te " teroe, "ne ra (ka" — beans, therefore I " give me" said, 

"that I can plant" . a |k"erri k"au re i:, namani ko hal when a boy I was, the Nama came. !nu: rs 

ko, !nu: re ga !nu:/a — I have built, I will build a hut. 

re, ri, v. part, expressing continuous action. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAm re ~kwi the sun is hot. sa re 

tsa re fkebi hS |nee the two are riding one horse, gome ~tsa |kaekau, re hi "tsisig ||ga: two J 

oxen are inspanned, these are waiting, hai o |n^e: ri fksiu she alone is ill. 

ri, pron. I, s. ra, re. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: nama k"wi: ri koko — Nama I speak. 

Si, V. to take. Slla. (Ek.) 

rrrr, exclamation. SI. (LI.) Ex.: he !kAn ! hag hs |k"a:, he ku:, " rrrr, !ka!karro we r) xa k"auki ee 

!ke:r||ou: q Ini hS: ? they (women) shut their hand, they say, "rrrr, o moon, shall I not really 

get food?" 

rlrlrlu, call of Blue Crane. SI. (B. ) rjri^. Ex.: |ga:ra kar) swe:nja r) ||ku: |na, |ga:ra kagkar) ~|ke: ho 

rtrfrtu kar) ~|ke: ho the berries are upon my shoulder, the berries are up here, rrru are up here! 

(song of the Blue Crane). j 

ru, interrog. what, s. ra. SI. (LI.) Ex.: ! ku ru kwa:t a: |kwe:i ~|ka ? ha jkhurua ke ||k"hwi-ta ~er| , — j 

what person can have done this ? he has broken up for me the quagga' s meat. 

ru, V. part, expressing continuous action, s. re, ri . NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U oasi ka ni fau ka au /ore --• 

all people want to receive tobacco. 

3.U, n. people, s. d3u, 3U. Nil. (Oc.) 

rue, V. to leave. CI. (Do.) 

ru'kur), ill. NI. (Pa.) ru 'kung. 

ru-te, n. neck. NIa. (Leb.) ch.sp. ru-t^. 

rwerwe, n. lapwing. CI. (Do.) 



Hie unvoiced alveolar fricative is found both as initial sound and commencing second syllables. 
In the latter case it is often a grammatical ending showing number or gender. When S stands at the end of 
a word, a following vowel has been dropped. 

In the I xam language Bleek and Lloyd have often written SB to mark a strongly sounded s, and S» 
or ss» to show that there is a slight arrest of breath after the sound, making it almost an ejective s. 
But as the same words are written with s, ss, and SS', the difference seems to be merely an individual 

The prepalatal fricative will follow this letter in the alphabet. 

sa:, s'^a:, sa, v. to come, become, also found as se, si. It is sometimes used as v. part., shall will. 
SI. (B. ) BBS, ss'S, ssa. Ex.: sa:g9n sa: — the eland comes. !kuko: sar| k"auki ||xa: ha e'^a: di |a: 

ko: the dther shall not again come to make another fight, ha sa: !u:ze wai : , au ||6ir)jar) |ku— g |ne 

|e: he comes to run after the springbok, when the sun sets. (LI.) sb5. Ex.: | ki sa: to take 

come, to bring. ||k"o:ksn, ki sa: hi |i wood bring us (for the ) fire {said to one person.) 

|]k"a:kan |ki saui hi |i wood bring us (for the) fire {said to several persons). ! gwalxu kar) 

!k\iita, har) ||koa, ha sa: |kai:nja au kwerrekwerre the sky is white, it seems it becomes green in 

the evening. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||3i | ne sa^ ha ||ka g the sun comes, it burns me. hi) kewa, hr) sa: 

they run, they come. !ka:l sa~se he: n ~^ko rain will come and fall. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: a koro sa 

||kei|ka jackal come (to the) girl, sa ~xu shall stop. Sllb. (Mh.) Ex.: n sa I come. SIIc. 

Ex.: |hwe: sa ha _ma the child comes (to) her mother. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n sa ! xe I come to 

cook, I will cook. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | auni ke sa johannisburg fkonaa — the | auni have come to Jo- 

hannisburg to beg. ha _||aru sa na | geki he returning comes with the woman. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: u sa 

harre, u sa !we: ! kha they come bringing (water), they come from the water, si sa e 0pwe we 

will eat meat. 

, V. to bring, give, s. saa. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: misis sa |hoku ~! xe jhoku e |ne: Missis gives |hoku a 

handkerchief for |hoku's head, sa ke ! kha ke n kian ||k"wi bring me water, I am thirsty, sa Sbo ke 

: bring nie wood. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sa ni |i give me fire, he sa stulosi he brought a 


, V. to sit, set down, put down, stay. s. sa^i, sa~3.i, ~sa~sa:, so, /o. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ga:~kei ki ee 

_fga nara _!wara, |ne ko sa ||An ~fke granny comes to bring tsama to the maiden sitting 6n the hut 

floor, n ka sS ta — I have put it down, n sS ki |ken t^ e, ]|kobe ge sa ku fkuika de _dau — I 

staying to-day, Hkobe stayed yesterday. 

3a, saa, i;. to rest. CI. (Do.) Nil. (Wil.) 65. 

sa:, V. to pick up from the ground. Nil. (V.) s^. 

Ja, pron. we, excl. of person addressed, s. si. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: sa fko fkwaa: fga we (I and my) 

lover speak clear. 



la, pron. thou, thy, you, used with endings for gend. & num. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: masc. sing, sat/a, fei 

sing, sa/a, dual, masc. sat/ara, sat/au, fem. safara, sa/au, com. sakhara. pi. masc. sat/i, fem. sa/i , 

sa/au. Without ending thy. |nis ^gobe/a ti-di/a i:, sa fg^be tama a this bag is mine, thy bag it 

is not. 

a, pron. theyj their, prob. short for si sa, si tsa, they two. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: l|nai tsa tse, sa ba 

"fkei, sa tai ~t^®i^ t'^o ~tsa two brothers these, their father is dead, their mother is dead, two 

orphans. Nil. (LI.) sa, ssa. Ex.: sa ti j=hau --- they walk, ma ti t/u sa thou blowest at them, sa 

ti t/u me they blow at me. |xwe ba e, |xwe fkum e, sa sa gu |xwe jxwe's father was there, | xwe's 

father-in-law was there, they t*o took hold of ]xwe. NIII. (D.B.) dame tsa, sa ||ga ||naa --- two women, 
they are standing up. 

iS, ea, num. two, s. tsa, zaf, dza:. Nil. (Dk.) sa: . (LI.) sa, sj, ssa. Ex.: ma ti |a e sa ko ! num — 
thou dost present us two with the stone. |xwe gu ha ! nwe, ta ~|u ha ! nwe kwe ! kuni sa — |xwe took 

his bag and filled his bag with two palm fruits, ha dzau saf ti sir) ha his two wives saw him. 

(Wil.) sa, s&n. 

'&> prep, of, also used as pron. its, his, her, s. ma. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hema sa aijako the tent of 


the mother, edzeme sa tava/i pispe the wives of Tava/i are two. tsiggaoko, letl'^emepe loobe sa, 

ij*a komatiko the gemsbok, very long are its horns, like the eland. |kia ma atama sa look for 

its blood, ahapi, sabi, upukwape sapee — his teeth, his feet. 

sa, conj . and, with. Nil. (Dk. ) Ex.: sa: sa sa: --- two and two (four). (V.) Ex.: dza: sa dza: --- two 

and two (four). (LI.) Ex.: |xwe |ne e sa ha l|ha | xwe was alone with his son. ha tai sa ha ba ti 

Ikum ha his mother and his father buried him. (Wil.) sa, and. 


sa:, n. buchu, a fragrant herb, snuff, s. t/a, tsfl, tsg. [Na. sab.] SI. (LI.) esfi. Ex.: ha ||xAni |ne 

ko:titjia 6:a, i:, o~sa«j o ha ka, ha 6:a se |ki|ki "sa: |k"wail she (new maiden) also fumigates 

her father with buchu, for she wishes her father may have the scent of buchu. SII. (D.B. ) sa. Ex.: n 

|k"e:n eS, n |e sS ["^n ! gwai I grind buchu, I put buchu into the tortoiseshell (snuff-box). Nil. 

(Dk.) sa: snuff. (H.) sa. Ex.: sir) ! gu ti e hai-||um, hi ! nwerre ti f^um !ku ! nwerre, ta !ku ti 

||amma hi kwe /i, ka ! gu ti e sa their name is Hai-||um, their country is near the ! kd country, an 

the ! ku buy from them the thing of which the name is buchu. 

sa:, n. eland. SI. (B. ) ssa, 88*^5, emp/i. esaak^n, ssSgen, poss. ssd-ga. Ex.: sa:aksn ||nau, s'?a: !ku:ken, 

sa:aksn |ku:kan tdL:§ the eland does this, (when) the eland dies, the eland dying goes away, g hi 

sa-ga a: — I eat eland's flesh. (LI.) ssS, ssag^n. Ex.: \kn'^&: , he ko sa:, |kaggan-ka t/wenjar| e 

the hartebeest and the eland the Mantis' things are. sa^gan a: jkaggsn ha:f oa a a ha &: zu: --- 

the eland is one to whom the Mantis once gave wasps. SII. (D.B.) sa, pi. sagsn. Ex.: sa a !kweinja 

the eland is far. sa | gaiki female eland, sa ^c]o: male eland, sagan ! nai many elands 

SIV. (D.B.) sa:, prob. a fkhomani word, s. !kS. SVIa. (Kr. ) sS. Ex.: ! gig Igwai, a |a ||ui sia, an 
k"xou ha sa:-ga an little man thou diest to-day, thou shalt not eat eland's flesh. 

saa, V. to bring, fetch, come from, s. sa. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa do ki saa 9bo ke that man brings me 

wood. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: saa i kalahari n-si fkoasi (I) brought from the Kalahari my dog. u na saa 

ti johannisburg k"auo they come from Johannisburg in the twilight. 

eaA sa, v. to hear, understand, feel, try, smell, s. /aa. Nil. (LI.) sSa, ss^, ad, ead. Ex.: t/ir), e 

BsA cry, that we may hear, dae, sa me, a ba ba ||na ? Da, hear me, did thy father's father i 

fuse ? na ti seA dama o~k"wi I understand the Herero language. |kAm |gi, ta kuii ha, ta ha sai. 

|kAm, ta sau the sun rose and burned him and he felt the sun and rose up. ! kag go-sir) tamma, ta 

ha gu, ta ||ku sa^, ta ka ||ku d5a the tree flowers fell, and he took (one) and smelt trying it, 

and it smelt nice, ta fkwe ti eeA maija |n5, ta ||ke tse:ma and a dog smells the (odour) 

and dies a little (faints). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ~saa feulu a _||kar| ~kwi I hear Fuelu who is 

speaking, a ~|kwi saa you do not hear. 

sS.:a,, V. to be fat, s. swer), syr) soa, soe. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: toi e ||ka , a sa:a — the ostrich is nici 
and is fat. 

e&%~a&, exclamation of pain. SI. (LI.) ssjAa. Ex.: ha haf | ne k\Si, "'sal~aa",, au ha haf |kau ho ha tS- 
~a he exclaimed, " saaa" as he cut off his thigh's flesh. 

saiako, n. a certain waterbird. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: saako i/i ako, komi a gogogoko a malana, tl'^amako saal 
awanikaku a fkaijako ; kwa ko pipl sa:, sa:, sa:, i --- the saako like this is, smaller (are) the 
gOgOgOko and the stork, bigger (is) the saako; its beak is broad; it cries, sa, sa, sa. 

sabe, n. arrowhead. SIV. (D.B.) I 

sabi, n kaross, skin cloak. SVI. (D.B.) I 



sai, sa*?!, v. let us, s. eez'^i, Sllb. (Mh.) sai, sa'i. 
_sai, n. basin. NIII. (D.B.) 

sai~i, V. to sneeze at, s. su:. SI. (LI.) ssSii. Ex.: hag |ku-g |ne jxworri ta:, au wai, au hag k"auki'' 
|ne ||khou|lkhou fka:, au hag tatti wai |ke ta sai~i i au ||ga: --- he lay in wait for the springbok, i 
while he did not become visible, for he felt that the springbok is wont to sneeze at us by night. 

saii, n. tent-rail. [Afr.] Nil. (Wil.) saii. 

saiko, n. a people living to the south of the Hadzapi, s. zaiko. Clll. (D.B.) Ex.: t/oma nana a saiko 
iron (I) buy from the Saiko. 

saka, n. reed, rush. CI. (Do.) Ex.: saka | gana, leaf of a reed. 



saka, interrog. whose ? SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||An eaka ke kn a ? — whose hut is that ? 

sakamina, v. to devour, seize. (?) CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: duduk"sja ko so sakamina — a lion devours (?) us. 

saksn, v. shall, form of s&, sar). SI. (B. ) ssaken. Ex.: tori gvrai: a: ||nau, ha Ikuikan, ! khwstsn saksn 

ts'^u ho Jkukkan 9pwa the cock ostrich does this, he dies, the wind shall (comes to) blow up the 

little feather. 

sakensakan, v. to rattle. SI. (LI.) ss^en-ss^kfn. Ex.: hir) ||kwaSr) k"wa: aksn, hir) ||kwalg sakansaksn, au 
si (ne !k'^04a they (the dancing rattles) sound well, they rattle as we dance. 

sako, V. to bring, s. sa, saa. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: sako |k"esi _no ha ~||ku fko bring beads to put on my 


sako, n. mealie cob. CI. (Do.') 

saku:, n. Ovambo bean. Nil. (Wil.) SSku. 

sakwi, n. little bag, purse. [Eng. sack.]SV. (D.B.) 

ealabu, n. watermelon. CI. (Do.) 

salameta, n. shelter. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: unu ^Bse ati nina, ita ||ak"eta, salameta tina Peseta elata 
tsetibi a man sleeps at the water to shoot it, sleeps in a shelter made of bushes. 

sam, n. breast, bosom, teat, udder. CI. (Do.) sewn. 

3am, n. water tortoise. Nil. (Wil.) B&m. 

'sama, v. form of ssms, to eat, s. sameta. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ia ota samaki, jo sama — catch we fish to 
eat. tselodlo kwa:ta ono eam^ — the paauw caught I eat. 

samaka, num. three. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: samaka e ami three these are. ||ape samakape three stones. 

^ur)gu!uqgu aeeowako, o dzapi samakapi strangers are many, the Bushmen are three. 

samaki, n. a certain fish. CIII. (D.B.) 

sambe, n. tassel of fez. CIII. (D.B.) 

sameta, v. form of sems, to eat, s. sama. CIII. (D.B. )Ex.: d3end3ai t/i:ta popoko su sameta — the leo- 
pard caught the buck and ate it. _gwadiso sameta manako the vulture eats meat. 

}a:~mi, n. whip. Nil. (Dk.) sarmi. 

iJamor], n. fist. CI. (Do.) samong. 

samtetere, n. a small kind of grass. Nil. (LI.) ssammtet^re. 

ag, sa^r), v. to come, a form of S&, se, also used as v. part, shall, will, should, would. SI. (B. ) safi, 
ssafi/ ssjiA. Ex.: he !kwar)!kwar| hig e:, a a: hAjn-soer), aksn |ne sar) kottkonna ke hi — these pots are 
those which thou, who art the Devourer-of- things, thou camest to swallow for me. ik'^wa: |ne safrj 

!ku:xe si the hartebeest came and chased us. hs ti hir) a:, si k"auki sag |k"wa: therefore we 

shall not hunt (for food). (LI. J ss^fi. Ex.: ha !hau:, ha saSq ||k"oen ||neig he afterwards, he wiU 

look for the nest, hag fi:, ti e:, ha sa |xa toi te, toi salt) !Ahai:tsn. 

an, V. to bring, s. sa. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: san /a bring water. 

a:n, n. dress. [Na. saran.J Nil. (V. ) sSn. 

arj, n. iguana. Nil. (Wil.) s&n. 

ana, v. to be rested, convalescent, s. sa, to rest. CI. (Do.) 

andawe, n. the name of a tribe with Hottentot admixture living in Tanganyika Territory to the south of 
the Hadzapi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: upukwape ma sandawepe the feet of the Sandawe. 

aqgana, v. to find. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: nubeja owa barako, tawa go saggana tamatsu samakapi — honey is 



sweet, and I found three small hives. 

sanja, n. a certain snake. SIV. (D.B. ) 

santhokwe, n. gall, CI. (Do.) 

sao, V. to sit, s. so. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kainl|ari ki saio, n sao ke ! g'^a — |kam||ari sits, I sit on the 

sfto, n. millet. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gova |kaa sao the Mbunda give millet. 

seJ-i, V. to visit. Nil. (IDk.) 

sa~J.i, n. seat. Nil. (Ek.) ^sefel-i. 

easa, v. to cure, sasae, to be cured. CI. (Do.) 

~sa~sa:, v. to rest, s. sa, esa, sao. SI. (LI.) ssa-sslt. Ex.: ha ||nau:, i ~sa~sa: s*?©:, o i, ha: ||kho 
! gwe Jo i he does this, we sit resting ourselves, he sits opposite to us. 

sasa, both, s. sa, two. Nil. (Wil.) sasa. 

sasa: ni, v. to tickle. Nil. {Dk.) sasa:ni. 

sa-sig, n. younger sister, s. tsa-eir). Nil. (LI.) sa-ssin, ssa-ssin. Ex.: zau ma ti ^ e sar-siq, ta Hgko 
ma ti e e sir) a little girl is our younger sister, and a little boy is our younger brother. 

saja, pron. thou, /em. dual, sa/i, sa/au, you (two), s. sa. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: sa/a !ku, tire !ku tama — 
thou (/em.) goest, I do not go. saj*au ka |e:re you (women) can fetch wood. 

sats, pron. thou, thy, s. sa, sat/a. CII. (Sch.) saz. 

sat/a, pron. thou, masc, dual sat/ara, sat/au, you (two), pi. sat/i, you, s. sa, sats. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: 
sat/ara ko mi — to you two (men) I speak, keim ko ||eixaba ||xau /e, ! nauba ||eija ||kum, a na, "sat/i 
llga kwet/i i, ke !ku, ha ! gwiba Je na, na ! num, na !geiank"o:" ta mi — then the captain a knife 
took, the rope cut through, and then, "you are only people (Bushmen), go, take the rope, and trap, anc 
springbok eat", said. 

sau, V. to rise up, awake, come out, jump. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: sau ! nwiakwe comes out the sparrow. Nil. 

(Dk.) s£u, to jump. (Li.) sail, sau, s^u. Ex.: ta |xwe e |xwe, ta sau, ta gu fne~fnebbi — and |xwe 
was |xwe, and rose up, and took hold of the wood pigeon, ha tai ti~/u ti 6 .... |kAm ti fnau, ! xo tai 
ti sau: its mother slept here .... the sun set, the elephant mother awoke. (Wil.) sStuu. 

sau, sau:, v. to hunger, be hungry, n. hunger, want. Nil. (Dk. ) s^: . (LI.) s^u, sfe. Ex.: ha tsa sau 
kwe |kAm sa — he slept hungering for two days, ma ||keja sau, sau ti !kuq a — thou art dying of 
hunger, hunger is killing thee. 

sau, V. to roast, bake in hot earth or ashes. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ka sau tsamani ka |um roast the bird 

in the ashes. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ha gu tsxar), ta sau, ta~/u he took the lizard, and covered it with 

hot earth, and lay down. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma sau ||ku tsaba I bake in the ashes the bird. 

sau, V. to save. [Na. SOU.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! xu xan |xum me, ne sau me noxoba God will (?) hear me, 

that he save me once more. 

sau, V. to hide. CII. (Schi.) 

sau, V. to scrape, work (a skin). SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! go, g ka |ne sa~u the leather bag, I do work it. 

sauf, s'i^afu, v. to be quick, fleet, often used as adv. SI. (B. ) 3s;&u, ssSu. Ex.: ta:fi s'?afu !ku: s'^a:, 
i !kui:t8n — come forward quickly, we return. (LI.) ssau , ssSii. Ex.: ha |ku |ne ta !kaf, au ha 
k"auki |ne sau* --- he is stiff, when he is not fleet. "* 

eSu, n. bread, s. sSo, millet. Nil. (LI.) sau. 

sau, n. woman, wife, usually _z&xi., dzau. Nil. (LI.) s^u. _Ex. :_ dj^u ~sa ti ||he, sau "sa two persons 

pound, two women. (Wil.) sau, woman, wife, sSu-dS,ba, say-ma. girl, say-! a, grandmother. 


safQi:, n. scent. Nil. (LI.) ss^. Ex.: |nAhi safu: mouse scent. 

saua, n. winter, s. eau oka, /auba. [Na. saob.] SIV. (D.B. ) 

sauko, n. a bird with a long bill and long neck eaten by Bushmen. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: sauko ti Am | ou 

the .... bird eats the little buck. 

eau oka, n. winter time, s. saua, J*auba. CI. (Do.) 

sau-sir), n. pi. teeth, usually tsau-sig. Nil. (LI.) ssSu-ssin. 

sau:-2;o:o, n. fly. Nil. (Wil.) sau-z56. 

sa:xa, n. man's apron, s. sa:bi. SVI. (D.B.) 

sa !nwa:, little (of degree). SIVb. (St.) 

sa llgau, pron. pi. you, your, s. sa. CII. (Schi.) 

se, V. to come, often used as v. part, shall, will, must, may, s. sa, ai. SI. (B. ) se, Bse, SS»e. Ex.: 
|kao ~!kwa: !k'?wa: !khou, ||xa 0pwa se |kammsr) Ik'^wa: |na: ^ ta ykaxai ~|ke: Jo, ha se xwain ti !k'?wa: 
||k"oe, ta i |ku s'?e |kafminen ! xworri — cut and break off the hartebeest' s neck, (so that) younger 
sister may carry the hartebeest' s head; for elder sister sitting yonder, she shall carry the harte- 
beest' s back, for we must carrying return home. (LI.) sse, sse. Ex.: ha se !kwar), ! k'^e kuitan se s^ 

ha he will beckon, (that) the other people may come to him. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha se ki~i, ha ||a ||g 

she comes here, she goes home, ha xeinki se sir) kit/en her mother comes to work (in the) 

kitchen. !ka: r), r) se ||ka||ka g !xre: listen to me, I will read my book, r) se !ke:ki ||af ||r) 

I will go home to-morrow. Sllb. (Mh.) se. Ex.: se: ga: having come (come stand). SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

a kwa se gji — you will come to-morrow. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ga:~kei ki se _tga ~nara _!wara — 

granny comes to bring tsama to the maiden. ! ge:xa ke ~se the doctor must come. ~|ne_||k"am a ke, 

n se k"e — give me quickly, (that) I may drink. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: donki ki a se se:la — the donkey 

is walking along, g a se ka dgurbe --- I will throw it away. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: gume se a fga the 

oxen come to eat grass, n se k"£iu I will drink. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: se te ea come here, r) kx'^ou 

se ! ui aa — I shall not come this evening. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ha fkum gu ha, ta s^ ti ku~u ha kwe daa 
his father-in-law seized him, and came to burn him with fire. 

se, V. to be, s. si. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: !ge:xa se be the doctor is a man. 

se, V. to bring, s. si. Sllb. (Mh. ) 

se, V. to take, fetch, marry, usually /e. CI. (Do.) to take. CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) Ex.: bo:/a se, a ||au 

k»'amj'i (he) took an axe and cut (its) mouth, kvreba |ke|ais a se tame a man has not married 

|ke I ais. 

ss:, se:, v. to see, s. sir). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mi ~|ka se:, kama ma dama ! go — I did not see (it), when 
I I (was) a little boy. ~!kau ku ~tsi ka ku ss: the hyena comes and sees (them). 

se, ;;. to eat, usually seme, ssme. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dzake ba se manako, dzake ba se k"omati — people 
eat meat, people eat the wildebeest. 

:Se, pron. we, excl. s. si. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: se a ku haa, se ||anu, o misis ti kxu se — we have stayed, 
we go back, old Missis fetched us. 

se, pron. they, unusual form, s.. it/e. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe se /a, se _dza |e ts'? a ne — first they 
dip up, they come home. 

~se, n. sea. [Afr. zee.] SI. (LI.) ssfe. Ex.: waiitsn |ku ||ke||keja ~se-ta !khwa: the springbok re- 
semble the sea' s water. 

se, new. Nil. (Leb.) 

~se?-a, V. to hear. Nil. (Dk. ) ee'^i. 

se'?au, left. Nil. (Wil.) se'au. 

eebalabala, n. quiver. [Zu. zebe.] Slid. (Arb.) 
sebbu, V. to be round, go round. SI. (Ll.)sB^bbu. Ex.: skamper ||kwaSg |ku kdi "sebbu tir) ||a: 0ho — 


Scamper ran round the post, ha |lru-g |ne ! kAn |hir) ea: jkuksnte, au ! nuir) koa sebbu sir) ha dofm — 
he pulled out the anteater, while the thong was round her throat. 

sebeke, n. iron. |Ba. | Slid. (Arb. ) 

sebeo, n. funeral. CI. (Do.) 

se dam |kau, fie. Nil. (Wil.) §e dam |kau. 

sedibo, n. patch. CI. (Do.) 

see, V. to marry, s. se, /e. CI. (Do.) Ex.: see t/o — a bride. 

see, V. to give, possibly to fetch, s. se. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: see debi give me the knife. 

sefwa, V. to survive, live. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n se ||xe |a u baba sefwa, q xoa u ake sefwa — I came 
back, father still lived, my mother still lived. 

se: garaxa:, once upon a time. Nil. (Wil.) se garSxa. 

8e:gn, v. to whip, strike, s. seme. SIII. (D.B.) 

se gu:ma:, half. Nil. (Wil.) Se giima. 

sehai, n. smell of burning. CI. (Do.) 

seho, n. blessing. CI. (Do.) 

sehohu, blind. CI. (Do.) 

sehoka, by accident. CI. (Do.) 

sehopa, n. biltong, dried meat. CI. (Do. ) 

sehule, n. cripple. CI. (Do.-) 

seja, V. to come, bring, form of se. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gwa seja — the child comes, misis xan seja — 
Misis has come. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ki seja i /a: (I) have brought water. 

eekaba, n. tail of jackal. CI. (Do.) 

sekee, n. river sand. CI. (Do.) 

sekisahe, v. to make peace. [Tsw.jCI. (Do.) 

sekka, n. bow. [Zu. ring. ] Slid. (Arb.) secoa. 

sekware bana, n. a rash. [Tsw.] CI. (Do. ) 

selara, n. trap for game. CI. (Do.) 

selotili, n. lock, bar. CI. (Do.) 

seme, n. whip, s. se:gn. SV. (D.B.) 

seme, ssme, v. to eat, n. food, s. se sameta. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapina na seme — early I have eaten 
kvifeto sems manako, Icutiku k"U — when (he) ate meat, (it) stuck in his throat, hama sem€ ekeja, 
akwene sems — this food is bad, do not eat it. 

semit/ani, n. eatables, s. seme. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: semit/ani akwapi dza:te — eatables have not come. 

sena, n. hole of springhare. CI. (Do.) 

senkuku, n. gizzard. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

seo, n. marriage, s. se, see. CI. (Do.) 


sepere, n. horse, s. para. [Tsw.] [Afr. perd.] CI. (Do.) Ex.: sepere |kwa --- foal. 

serame e haie, n. ice. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

seree, n. journey. CI. (Do.) 

serethe, n. the back part of a hoof. CI. (Do.) . . 

Beri, V. to rub. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: !ge:xa ke ~se, ti ka seri si the doctor comes to rub us. 

serre:, "serreja, serritan^ n. cold wind^ s. serri . SI. (Ll.)sserre. ashrreja,, ss^rriten. Ex.: ! gweja-g 
|ne Ik'^aiitan -|kam ui -||nei||nei, he "serreja |ne -|e ! k'?e, i: --- the hail beating breaks up the huts, 
and the cold wind gets in to the people, in consequence. serre: haf |ku— g |ne sair) kui swsCiju ho ha, 
serri tan |ku-g |ne |ki ~||kaitan ha --- the cold wind drove along lifting her up, the cold wind carried 
her up. 

serri, serritan, v. to cool, be cold, cool, s. sirri. SI. (B. ) sserri, s^rriten, sserf"itten. Ex.: ~!khwa: 
e:, koro sig |ku !ho:a hi, hir) |ku e:, g sir) ku:i serri au r) |i:, i: --- the water which the jackal 
put aside is that with which I might cool my heart. !i:tan jku ta serritan, ha | ku |kei tau td[:eja — 
the sleeping-place feels cool, he must have been gone a long time. (LI.) s^rri, sserriten, sslrri^ten. 
Ex.: ha ||kitan kar) |e: |hou, |hou ||kai:e |ne di kui ta serritan — her saliva goes into the bow, the 

inside of the bow becomes cool. |i k"auki |fka ija, he |i |kru ta "serritan the fire did not burn 

him, and the fire felt cool. 

serri:, v. to take snuff. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: |hoku serri: |hoku takes snuff. 

"serru, n. some part of a locust. SI. (LI.) sferru. 

se~sau, V. to coo as a woodpigeon, s. zauz^u. Nil. (LI.) ss^e^u. 

sesarwa, n. the language of the Masarwa. [Tsw.] SV. (D.B.) 

sese, V. to work, form of sir), sigsir), usually found with v. part., s. sesir), se:_su_nu, sist. [Na. sisei^ 

SII. (D.B.) Ex.: u xr) sese you have worked, r) | ne !kir)ki sese I shall work to-morrow. CII. (D. 

B.) sese, sesi. Ex.: |no:ane ko kuru tame, a ko sese |kwisa he war they did not make, but only 

worked for them. ! gaudaman namana kwe sesi the Bergdamara worked for the Nama. 

ses^, n. the coming, s. se, si. SI. (LI.) sse-sse. Ex.: ha ka |ku ||nau:, sese a:, ha sa: a:, hag ka |ku 
||nau:, i ki sa: )k"e: ha Ixvronni, har) k"aukita ha se ! xwonni — it would do this about the coming 
with which it came, it would do this, even if we ordered it to turn back, it would not be willing to 
turn back. 

seseme, seseme, n. lion, prob. derived from seme, to eat. CIII, (D.B.) Ex.: |kiwa mo seseme — he has 
seen a lion, ono | kam |ki kwa seseme — I have not seen a lion, seseme tsibita mo kelako, seseme 
dzu:a a lion came along the river-bed, a big lion. 

sdsir), V. to work, form of sese. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: sira ha sesiq, ha s^sir) !kha:t xora — the master is 
working, he works at the water hole. 

se:sonu, but, also, Nil. (Wil.) sesonu. 

se:_su_nu, v. to work, s. sese, s^sirj, sirjsir). Nil. (Hi.) se:si^i^. 

jseta, V. to sit, be finished. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: nana raoluki a na seta madzumbe, hadza — there at Moluki 
sat Mad3umbe, a Bushman. ||koa, ko seta, kote seme cooked, when finished, then eaten. 

ssta, n. moon, month. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: "seta |e ke heja, "seta kutuku hee the moon rises there, 

the moon sets here, "seta k"omia the little (new) moon, "ssta pakapaa, the big (full) moon. 

pura komi ahi, itjame a seta sa Pura is the youngest, one month she is. 

3e:tan, setan, prob. verbal n. from se, to come, used in phrases. SI. (B. ) ! kwdbbo kS SSSten, to make 

soft. Ex.: hag !h\im: |ku te:g ! kwobbo ka se:tan ||nair) she (hen-ostrich) first lies making soft the 

ground inside the nest. (LI.) ! kabbe ta sseten, to get out of the way. Ex.: ~3ukan haf | ne kia, 
" kabbe ta setan, "gu te gum:" the beetle said, " get out of the way, the beetle is throwing. 

setena, n. brick. CI. (Do.) 


sethaa, yellow. CI. (Do.) ' 

setsea, v. to be old. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex. : k"embuy paanakwiti, setsea mo K"embu, a big man, he is old. 

setswa kha, v. to be idle. CI. (Do.) 

setunja, n. daisy, blossom. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

sexudu, n. wild duck. [Tsw.J CI. (Do.) seghudu. 

si, pron. we, us, excl. form, opposite of \, which includes person addressed, s. sa. [Na. slgye, sise.] 
SI. (B. ) si, emph. sitfn, sisi, Ex.: Ikaukaksn fkakksn, " si tar) tatti e:, Ik'^wa: );kei||kei: ||kwa^r) 

||na" the children said, " we thought that the hartebeest's horns were there". Ik'^wa: |ne salr] 

!ku:xe si, au sitan ka ||ko:u Ik'^wa: er)er) the hartebeest came and chased us, when we had put down 

the hartebeest's flesh, si e: tukan, si-ta t/a we who are men, our thing. (LI.) ssi, ssi-ssi. Ex, 

he: ti he e:, tata-gu ||xa:||xa: si, i: o ha:-ka ||gau:le, sisi se k"auki fi: ti e:, ! k'^e e: |xarra, h< 

e: se d si a: ha: ta: si |ku ||i:r), sitsn ||gau:e hi: si these things are what our fathers taught 

us, about the seeking of food, we should not think that other people were those who should give us M 

food, for we should (do it) ourselves, we seek food for ourselves. SII. (D.B.) si xa |na !ku:ke ■ 

we saw a paauw. si ||ka^l^ ||g ~!kwa IjkaflaS we speak the Bushman language. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: si 

f^aikje — we sing. Sllb. {Mh.) Ex : si he sn |ne — se shall see. haija ! hun'^a sis ! "^usti — he 

has beaten us both. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: si a ||ku||e we are Bushmen. Slle. (And.) si. SIV. (D.B.) Ex. 

si |na ||koa — we shoot with an arrow, sis |kam — we two. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: si ~||kaute ! kha te !no:e 

we dip up water in a tortoise (shell). SVI. (D B. ) Ex. : si |kwa a we have not eaten. CII. (D. 

B. ) short form of sita, /ita. Ex.: si |kwa naman !o: kwe ho tama we did not bear children to the 

Nama. si ||kai ko |gi:i we men do the dance, si/e sana "keixa we (women) later grew up. (Schi, 

si llgai. 

si, V. to come, bring, also used as v. part. s. sa, se, sija. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: si e ~ki e: — come up 

nearer, si— g r) |i bring me fire. Slla. (Mg. ) na si ! kae fkai I -- action of coming-- action ( 

running --action of looking -- I shall run to look, nja si ^kauwa, a si | ga I shall show you, yoi 

shall see. Sllb. (Mh.) si, si, to bring, SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: si a e --- he comes. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i si 

kwi ||he:nsi we will get up again. SIV. Ex.: lorike ku si e )ne |nori the lorry came and took 

him. n sn si ! ko kasi — I brought, put down the box. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: u si /i koma /i — you will 

come to-morrow. SVI. (D.B.) Ex. : 0pwa e ga si a child is coming, e si ! keCi Jcama he is smokini 

CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a~kha mi hadzabi e si dzata manako — gone (are) the Bushmen, and will fetch mei 
kweso ||kowa hats^, si lu:wa manaksta when killed is hunger, will be plenty of meat. 

si, V. to be. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n si ||ka ||nai — I am an old woman, fobeku si "aikhu — ||obeku is 
the eldest. 

si, V. to laugh. Nil. (Dk. ) si:. (V.) ex. (LI.) ssi, si. Ex.: na ti si d3U e: ^ he ti o | k"aowa — I 
laughed at those people, they were drunk. 

si, pron. they, also used as pi. suffix to n. s. sr), sia. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: si "fkhi ne ku fkebi they' 

were riding, /i ko m, si ! ka m ko — they (/em. or com) eat, they {masc.) eat. 3usi t/i: ku t/om ~ko 

these people are gathering, picking, msi food. ClI. (D.B.) short form of xasi, xa/i . Ex.: , 

! nesa, |k6 si a, a k"auna si, a fym si wild onions roast them and peel them and eat them. i 

—si, si, this, used as optional n. suffix in sing, or interrog. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gisi ki 6 ? what 

that ? ha |no ~kisi |na: ? — what can he see ? Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: jkwisi e ||koe, |kwike ne ! "^u — o 
bird, two birds. hem~si, shirt. Sllb. (Mh. ) Ex.: _du~si, heaven |aisi, heart. ~si, this. SIV. (D.B.) 

Ex.: Ikanasi te fu kouko gudo one girl among boys, kuni hin |e k"eisi the wagon has gone to 

the riverbed, sometimes used as poss. m 9pwa.-ga-si xu my child's face. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: k"a si 

tgai --- left hand. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: pi/i-si |kau --- the horse's hair. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: gumesi |xadii| 
— an ox. I 

si, conj . and, joining verbs, s. kau, ko, tau. SI. (B. ) si, ssi. Ex.: ha-g |ne !khw!khwi: tig to:i-ta ] 

Ikultsn, ha-g |ne te:r) si glggeritan ||kau: tir) hi he (hyena) lies on his back on the ostrich egg 

he lies and rejoices above them. (LI.) ssS. Ex.: ! kwi tafi si darra : kanda ^ rra : kan ha erjeg — the ma 
walks moving his flesh. 

si, conj. when. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: si tu/a tu, |ni ! kwaa ! ku — when rain falls, like this (the tortoise-l 
comes out. 

~si, n. soap. [Afr. seep.JSI. (LI.) ssi. Ex.: hir) ||kwafq di ~si, i: they make soap of it (assbos). 


si^ n. water tortoise, Caretta imbricata. Nil. (LI.) ssi— 

li^n. entrails. Nil. (Leb. ) ssi. 

da, V. to bring, s. si. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: sia kha:a bring water. 

li'^'ai, n. antbear. SIVb. (St.) 

lido, n. ostrich. SVI. (D.B.) 

iidzwa, n. ant. SVI. (D.B.) 

'sigu:, n. agama lizard, 'kogelmann' . SIV. (D.B.) 

Ija, V. to come, s. si. Slla. (Ck.) si~ja. (Mg. ) sija. Ex.: ||gai kj9n sija ! kae ||kei|ha — wolf .... 

come run (to the) girl, na sija y'^ui ||are I came yesterday. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kobe ki sija, ki 

tane k"a |(kobe comes, carries water. 

lija, n. pit. Nil. (LI.) siya. Ex.: ! xo ma ti e, ta ! xo ma sija ti e:, ha tai ti gu ha sija — the 
little elephant was here, and the little elephant's pit was here, its mother dug out its pit. 

dkoku, n. shield. [Ba. ] Slid. (Arb.) 

lilembi, n. whistle. CIII. (D.B.) 

imesime, n. ants. CI. (Do.) Ex.: simesime ||gaieho queen of ants. 

imisi, n. whip snake. Slla. (Dk. ) 

imolola, v. to begin. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

ir), V. to sit, stay, a form of so, soer), also used as v. part, denoting past or habitual action, a con- 
dition or obligation. SI. (B. ) sin. Ex.: to:i-ta |ka:ka |ku-g /ne ! hammi ta:eja, he: |ka-g |ne ||a: 

kar) 0oer) sir) ti e: jxarra the hen ostriches have fearing gone away, they go to sleeping sit at a 

different place, r) ||kwaq jne a, ha se akke ts'^oer) e:, ha sir) !kwi: r) i:, r) a: hi: 0ho:gsn, r) sir) ha: 

hi I am here, let him give me the things to which he has called me, me who eat bushes, that I 

might eat them. (LI.) sslft, sin. Ex.: ! k'^e se-g |ne |amma ||gaua sir) au !khau: ||ki the people shall 

sit in the shade sipping of honey liquid, uksn k"au-g | ne ||k"oen, au ! gwalxukan |ne a: |kai:nja, au ha 
sir) |h(5aka au !kui ko:, ! gwalxu sig kwerre:ja — do ye not see how the sky is green, while it was 
black the day before yesterday, the sky has cooled, ha sir) se ||nau:, o ha: ||ke||ke:ja |ka:gsn kuiten e: 
k"auki fenna ki:se, hag sir) se |ku:k8n, ~||khafr) |ku sir) se tsi |kha ha — for she would have done 
this, if she had resembled other women who did not know education, she would have died, the lion would 

have biting killed her. (Lich. ) sing. Ex.: tire xa sir) |aua ? where have you seen it ? SII.(D.B. ) 

Ex.: ||r)!kwa suke Ikenja, ||r)!icwa xn ||xori:ja, ha sir) ||kaua, ha kie xn |ka: ha the Bushman hunts the 

steenbdk, the Bushman creeps up to it, that he may shoot it, he has killed it. sa ke ! kha ke, g kian 

||k"we, q sir) k"a bring me water, I am thirsty, I would drink. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ja sir) gji 

he would come back. 

LI), sirjsir), v. to work, s. stst, sese. [Na. sieen.] SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) xe sir) |u — I worked for the 
Kafirs, r) har) sigsig I shall work, sire ka se sir) milis master has worked with mealies. 

-r), sin, V. to look, see, sig ||ha, to take aim at, throw, s. sn. Nil. (Wil.) sin. (LI.) saiA. Ex.: dama 

I ge k"aru ha, k"aru ha, |kua sir) ha the Herero came to search for him, to search for him, did not 

find him. daba ti sir) da: — the child looks at the fire. d3u tanki ti ok"wi ha, "ka~ru, ti te sir) 

||ha e" the other people said, "Karu, leave off taking aim at us ". n a jkiii sir) ||ha i kwe me ||kau 

— I am not taking aim at ye with my arrow. ! khum | ge gu bambam |ne, ta sig ||ha ara the leopard 

came and took the head of the bambam bird, and threw it quite away. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ke "sir) _! nai 
I have seen war. ma |kw^ sir) li/ond5a ba I have not seen Li/ond3a's father. 

n, pron. we, us. Nil. (Wil.) sin, sinn. 

r), pron. they, their, them pi. not dual, s. sa. Nil. (LI.) sin, ssiii. Ex.: sir) ~!kau nu ||ga, sir) ~!kau 

!ko: they three stand, they three sit. siq ti /u they sleep. |lgu ti ja: sir), ta /a ! kur) sir) 

kwe daA rain fell upon them, and fell killing for them the fire. |ka kwe, sir) ! nwerre ti ~fx&, sir) 

"tsi ti |kda ^ga'^dr), ti !ko:ma the |ka people, their country is distant, their mouth is not long, 

it is short. 



sir), n. life. Nil. (Wil.) sin. 

sir), n. younger brother, or sister, nephew, s. tsi, ||ko. Nil. (Wil.) (LI.) sin, ssin, sin. Ex.: m ba siq 

|unta: e m ~su my father's younger brother junta is my uncle. ||g6o e ti ||ke, ha sig e ti gu ha 

sau, ti ^kuru i^a ha ||ko dammesir) (when) a man dies, his younger brother takes his wife, bringing 

up nicely his elder brother's children, m tai sir) ti sir) me, ha ti o~k"wi, "me sir)" my mother's 

younger sister sees me, she ways, " my nephew" . m ba tai ti sir) me, ha ti o~k"wi, "me sir] ||ge" 

my father's mother sees me, she says, " my grandson" . 

siqgiri , n. rope. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kotdga not^na ko baba ka siggiri mabe set is the trap by father 

with rope. 

sin !au, n. kidneys. Nil. (Wil.) sin !au. 

sinfe, V. to flow. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sinfe atamape — flows blood. 

sipatoo, n. excuse. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 


sirri, sirritsn, v. to cool, become cold, s. serri. SI. (LI.) ssirri, ssirriten. Ex.: !kwi |ke ||a:, ha 
ku sirri u sir) ||e ti |ke:, ha !kwerritan swe:q ||a: he — a person goes yonder, he will cool off, go- 
ing to the place there, where he (the rain) thundering goes. ! gauluksn e:, i: Ixa: ts'^a i:, hs se di 
ku ta sirritsn the poison with which we shoot the thing shall become cool. 

sise'^~a, v. to ask. Nil. (Dk.) sise'?4. 

8181, t;. to work, s. sSse, se_su_nu. [Na. sisen.] SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: r) t/u, esa sisi I sit, she is 

working. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi tia sisi I alone worked. 

sisi, si/e, sise, pron. we. s. si. $1. (LI.) ssi-ssi. Ex.: r) ||khabbo-3, ti e:, sisi ko ta:ta, si ha:f 

|a ! gei I dreamt that we and father, we cut up a sheep. (Lich. ) Ex.: sisi— ka ts'^oir) our goods 

CII. (D.B.) Ex.: namaba ko debi, se ko si/e debi si/e ||eis kwe the Nama went back, then we went 

back to our home, sise ho:m kwe /e ko debi a hal to our husband came back and stayed. 

sisik"ase^ n. warrior ant. CIII. (D.B.) 

eieima, n. young wild goose. NIII. (D.B.) 

sita, pron. we, our, s. si, sisi, si/e, /ita. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nu: kwe sita jhugkwe the black peopL 

(were) our masters, sita ! kaia ! nua we sit here. 

sit/e, indef. pron. one, this one. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hadza ta ||i:a mo, ||ka||ka ana ihi ama, sit/e tl'^oa, 
sit/e k"wa:tlabe, sit/e k'^ooko, sit/e ||anabe, sit/e kataikwape — (when) a Bushman dies, they divide 
among them, to one the clothes , to one the shoes, to one the bow, to one the arrows, to one the bead 

si Igalm, n. spoon, SV. (D.B.) 

si_|go:, n. SIVb. (St.) 

si~|kou, n. bird, s. si |ka, /i|ku. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: si~|kou ||nei — bird's nest. 

si|ku, n. bird, s. si~|kou, /i|ku. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: sijku ! ge sai ki 0raoi a — the bird sits on the tre 

3i_|na, n. ant. SIVb. (St.) 

8i_|nwa:, n. kaross, skin cloak. SIVb. (St.) { 

si |o, n. lip. Nil. (LI.) ssi \6. 

si_!a, sin_!a, n. kaross, skin cloak, SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: a -fkhaii si_!a you sew a kaross. ti |Ahei ' 

sir)_!a sling on the kaross. 

si-||gwi, si-fgwi, n. snake. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: si |kwa: e si-||gwi we do not eat a snake. 

si~||hansa, n. apron. SIV. (D.B.) 

s'^jeuni, fat. SI. (Lich.) s'jeuni. 

skaposi, n. sheep. [Afr. skaap.] SIII. (D.B.) 


;n, V. to go. Sllb. (Mh. ) sn. Ex.: i sn let us go. 

m, sr), V. to see, look s. sir]. Nil. (Dk. ) sn. (V.) sn'. Ex.: e ti sn ''!ga:gse fgi: koe e:a — we see 
many trees at this place. NIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: ma _|na sr| d3i |kua I look around. 

-sn, poss. ending to n. or pron. SIV. (D. B. ) Ex.: n-sn. ||An ki ke'^'e — my hut is here, o ||haku-sn ||An 
ki ke'^e Old ||haku's hut is here. 

,sn, pron. they, short form, also used as pi. ending to n. s, hasn, gasn. Nil. (Dk.) sn. (V.) sn, sn. 
Ex. : \sn ti fno:e | hom'^a |no: — they scrape nicely the skin, gome, gomesn — ox, oxen. 

m, n. sister. Nil. (Wil.) sn. 

sn, n. manure. Nil. (V.) 

snsn, V. to work, s. sesS, sisi. [Na. stsen.] SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ken ke snsn aki ~kha they are working 

at the water. 

lO, s'^o, V. to seem, appear, also pronounced /o, prob. a form of to sit, s. below. SI. (B. ) 80 SS'6. Ex.: 

|nau hi, i ||a: ||gaua sir) !ki ~|ke: kag !khe, ha a: ka ! an so ta serritan let us go to sit in the 

shade of the great thorntree yonder standing, it is one whose shade appears to be cool, toi |aiti s'^o 

a: !Ahi ta ||naiq the hen ostrich seems to be the one which lies in the nest. (LI.) SS'6. Ex.: hag 

k"auki |ne fenna, ti e:, ||neir) 8*^0 /o: he he did not know the place at which the house seemed to 


10, s'^o, V. to sit, remain, s. /o, soe:n, sir) souf. [Na. sa, to rest."] SI. (B. ) SO, ss5 SS'O. Ex.: 

!gaue|i:r) |ne sag !a: sig ! gwai, au ! gwaig so: ||neig — the Day's Heart comes to sit opposite the hy- 
ena, while the hyena sits (in) the house, sa: kag ~|ke: a, ha ||ku:wa, ha !ka^o-gu ||kwag 8*^0 k"wa: 

a-ka sweg the eland is yonder, it is fat, so that the mierkats sit crying about its fat. hi |ku se 

||a: so ko kug |i they will sit warming (themselves) at the fire. (LI.) ss'6. Ex.: ha |ku Gpwoig 

i:. o hag ka ha ||ho:a, o hag sig fi:, ti e:, ha ka ha s'^o ko Ik'^oaee !kwi — it slept there, when it 
had become warm, while it thought that it would sit watching for the man. SII. (D.B.) so, so:, so:. 

Ex.: g Ike so ! aunke — I sit on the ground, ^e ! nai a so:, a so: ki'^i many people sit, sit here 

||kwS so: the shadow sits. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: o misis ! ge so kasi old Missis sat down upon the 

box. fxai ke so tantan — the boy sits whittling (a stick). 

o, V. to be. cm. (D.B.) Ex.: jamoa biti so dit/i — the earth is black, mbula, lekl'^emwa, so taese 
the ...., a carrion bird, is tall. 

so, s'^o:, V. to roast, bake. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U ku gu \!hau ka ~so \!hau — people catch locusts and 
roast locusts. ! hwe \koma kau da:a, ha 8*^0: !ku to-morrow make a fire and roast ants. 

S, V. to snuff. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n so pole I snuff tobacco. 

0, n. bee. Nil. (LI.) ss6. (Leb. ) so schum. 

0, n. sinew, thread, s. so'?o. Nil. (LI.) ss^. Ex.: ||hi ||na, ta guwa ha kwe Ikhwi, e so the hare ob- 
jected, and caught him with grass-string which is (like) sinew. 

0, n. hartebeest. Nil. (Zuk.) 

0:, /o:, n. lung, pi. sorso:, J'o:/o:, sosokan, s. soa, su'^a, swa:. [Na. s5b.] SI.(B. ) sso, sso-sso, ss'o. 
Ex.: xoro-ka bo: — the ox lung. 80:so: e !u: — two lungs. 8*^0: e !kxi: — two lungs. (LI.) ssho, 

eshosshS, ssS-ss5ken. Ex.: /o |oa |kwaif |e'j^ /°/o: the .... scent has entered the lungs, toi 

kag !gum: o ha soso:k8n — the ostrich calls with his lungs. 

0, conj . then, s. iso, kweso. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso t/irta seseme, so mudi:ga tambi — when (they) 
catch a lion, then vultures gather, kweso ||ko:ta dsendsai popoko, so _dzaa bame k"wetl'^e,80 semi 
k"wetl'?e when a leopard catches a buck, then comes a jackal, then eats the jackal. 

soa, V. to scratch, draw. [Na. sao, to draw.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a _soa tsom, ka ! k'^oe — (he) scratched 
pictures, scraped in. 

52, sSa, n. lung, breast, s. so:, su'?a, swa:. [Na. s5b.] Nil. (V.) spa. (LI.) soa, s<5S. Ex.: !khu s6S --- 
Bushman lungs, ha ti gu Am ta ti ||kam ha SD~a, ta /i ha so~S — he takes up the fruit, and strikes 
upon his breast, and rubs his breast. 


soa, n. fat, s. Boe, soer). SII. (D. B. ) 

soa, n. small hairy caterpillar with orange spots, chrysalis, s. sua. Nil. (LI.) soa, sedl^. „ j 

soaso4, n. fly. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. 

soasoa |n^, n. flea. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. : 

soe, n. fat, s. soa, soer|. Slla. (Mg. ) j 


soSja, s. soer), to sit. j 

seem, V. to beat. SIVb. (St.) ' 

soer), V. to sit, sit down, s. so, sC^u, swer). [Na. sa, to rest.] SI. (B. ) ssoeh, ssQeA, ssoenja. Ex.: hsj 
ti hir) e:, g |ne !hau:, r) |ne soe:r) i:, r) sir) |ne so ko ||k"oen — therefore I do afterwards sit dowrj 
that I may sit looking. ! gauetan |ku ~!kwa:i:, au kaksn soeqsoer)r|a s'?~a: the day broke, as I sit- 
ting (from time to time) came along, har) |ku s'^oetr) ||a:, har] |ku 3*^0 ko kurrittan ||hoe: she went | 

to sit, she sat mocking the black crow. SII. (D.B. ) soe:r), soeja. Ex.: r] xar| ||e:ja ||q, r) xag se:, g | 
soe:r) I went home^ I returned, I sit down, na soeja I sit down. i 

soer], n. fat, marrow, s. soa, soe, swer),syr). SI. (B. ) ssoeri, 83*^0611. Ex.: ha se k"£CuT] |hir) wai-ta | 

!kwa:g3n-ka soer) — he will crunch out the springbok bones' marrow, g llkwa^r) ka !ka:o-g |ni wai-ta ] 

~!kwa:gan, he: hi tag soer) |kwail I do smelling perceive springbok bones, as they exude a fat I 

smell, hi fe: ti e:, hi dofa dommir] ! gel e: a, hi-ka s'^oer) — they thought that they would munch j 
those sheeps' fat. 

sorgan, n. tsama melon. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r| ||xarra so:gan ki~i n !au unke I plant tsama here in this ' 

ground. i 

solo, n. tobacco. Cla. (Pa. ) ssoio. | 

sokela, v. to follow up scent. CI. (Do.) 

sokomi, V. to eat (honey). CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i:ta baala, dzanni mo olanakwe sokomi having got hon'i 

he fetches the children to eat (it). ', 


sola tsikho, n. towel. CI. (Do.) 

solokolidse, n. a large black hare. CI. (Do.) solakolije. j 

solole, n. buffalo. NIII. (D.B.) I 

solupe, solupi, n. sable antelope. CI. (Sel.) j 

som, n. shade. SIV. (D.B.) ! 

soma, n. chief. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku soma kula Bushmen have no chief. 

~solr), n. protuberances (on plants) Nil. (LI.) ss6n. 



soqgu, n. arrow. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku | ne ||kei ||nau, soggu ||nau a Bushman takes the bow, the arrc's 

bow. I 

so*?©, n. sinew, bowstring, s. so, tso, t/o. NIII. (D.B.) 
Booko, n. kernel, seed of baobab tree. CIII. (D.B.) 
sora, n. bark. CII. (Schi.) 
sore, V. to beat. SVI. (D.B. ) 

sore, n. tobacco, s. so, /ore, /oro. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. CII. (Sch.) 
soris, n. sun. [Na.] SIIc. (D.B.) 
sorotho, n. fork. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 
sosa, n. rain, shower. CI. (Do. ) 



sosokan^ s. so:, lung. 

so Jmn, n. bee, s. /ram. NIa. (Leb.) so schum. m. sp. 

sota, s. suta. 

\S0U, soul, V. to sit, squat, s. so, sui, swei, soer). Slla. (Dk. ) n>sou. Ex.: na \sou — I sit. (Mg. ) 
soul. Ex.: kja soul (they) sit (i.e. the jackal and the hare squat facing each other). 

3'?ou, V. imper. Come ye, prob. contraction of si u. SI. (B. ) ss'^oil. Ex.: ||kei ||kei-gu we, ||kai:tan s'?ou 
— ye beasts of prey, come up. (LI.) ssou. Ex.:' ! k'^etsn kar) |k"e:, " | ne dola |ki sou:i hi a:, 
! gwattsn-ta ykhaiitan " the people said, " bring ye (make come) to us assegais (knives sticks). 

SOUpe, n. a short blue snake. CIII. (D. B. ) 

s'oi-la, so-|a, n. a certain vegetable medicine, s. /o-loa. SI. (LI.) SS'0-|2. Ex.: g ! koigjaq fkakka ke, 

ti e:, |hu|hu ! num ta: s'?o:-|a-ka ||kha my grandfather says, that a baboon puts a stick of .... 

into its mouth. SIV. (D.B. ) so-|a. 

3u:, V. to blow, snore, hum, s. sQIwa, susu, swail. SI. (LI.) ffS", ssu. Ex.: hir) |ne su: |ki ||ke:i |i — 
they blow making burn the fire. !gi:xa-ka kum, ti e:, ha^-g ||nau, ||kox^itsn ||ki:ja q dolm:, ha-g |ne 

su: r|, i:, o— g r) dolm: xi:ja the sorceress' story, that which she did, when the kafir had hurt my 

throat, she snored me, where my throat was swollen, dadalbassi ||kwalq ka | kha |e: i eger), he ! gixa 

|ne ~su i, ha |ne wai: hi butterflies kill (us) entering our bodies, and a sorcerer snores us, he 

draws them out. ti tar), g k"auki se Qpwoir), o tsutauwa: ||ke:n-a |ki n, ta: tsutau |ku stl: — it seems 
I shall not sleep on account of the mosquitoes stinging me, for the mosquitoes are humming. 

su, V. to vomit, s. tsu. Nil. (LI.) su. 

m, n. blister, burn, pi. susuksn. SI. (LI.) ssu, ssussukfn. Ex.: harj ha ka, " su we, hi hi, |i tarj ~|ke: 

~|ku ||kwara a ha ||ka te g, i:, he ta |i" he said, "o blister, oh dear, that fire into which the 

proteles mother knocked me was fiery", ha ||kwalr) ka, " hrj, hg, hr), hr), hr),'* au | i-ta susukan he 

cried, "oh, oh, oh, oh, oh," on account of the fire's blisters. ! kaulcan |ne fabbakan ! kwal ! kwal , he 

!kwaa.!kwai |ne ~||kerri-i!:, !:, o eusukan, | i-ta susukan the children roasted the .... bird, and 

the .... bird screamed about the burns, the fire's burns. 

sQ, n. nose, s. tsu. Nil. (LI.) ssu. Ex.: dgu ~su a person's nose. 

)U, and. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i:ta d3end5ai su sameta neeko caught the leopard and ate the baboon. 

lU, in. I ksn-su-dau, the day after to-morrow. SIV. (D.B.) 

lu:, quickly, s. subuka. Nil. (V.) su . 

su^ n. grandfather, uncle, stepfather, s. ~tsu. Nil. (LI.) eh. Ex.: na ti siq m ba^ba, na ti o~k"wi "m 

~su" I see my father's father, I say "my grandfather" . m bar-sir) |unta e m ~su my father's 

brother junta is my uncle, m ~su my stepfather. 

u'^a, n. lung, breast, s. so:, eoS, /o: . Nil. (Dk.) su'^S, swa:. 

;!ua, n. caterpillar of small tiger moth, family Arctidae, s. soa Nil. (LI.) efta. 

iubu, easy. CII. (Schi.) 

iubuka, quick, s. su:. (Pa.) ssubuka. 

iue:r), v. to sit, be upon, float, elapse, s. 80, soer), swer), \sou. SI. (LI.) ssueh, ssuSnya, ssuSh-ssueh. 

Ex.: fxoa sue:r) ||neir), !ka: sir) au |kaggi the elephant sat down at the house, sat waiting for the 

Mantis, ha se iamma|amma ||koi sir) ||kuitan, ha ! nwobbo ykoi /o ||kuitan ha ! nwobbo, ha suegsuer) ti 

! goat he will drink (the egg) sitting inijide the screen of bushes, he stirs (it) sitting in the 

screen of bushes, he sitting looks around. |kwa:lkakan |ku sue:r) sa:, !kwa:-ka |kwalgan — clouds 
floating come, the rain's clouds, ha ||kaxai | ne ten:na, ti e:, ha ola !xwonni, ha |k"a|k"a o: la 

sue:nja !khwa: his sister should know that he had turned back, that his hands had been upon the 

child. |kwi ||kwalr) |ne ||k" oen, ti e:, auw: ||kwalr) | ne sue:g, o ha k" auki Hxa: ha ksbbi ! khe se --- 
the man saw, that a long time had elapsed, that he (lion) did not again stand peeping. sue:r) ti ko 
!ku:xe to run in a zigzag direction. 



suegsuer), pi. n. maggots. SI. (LI.) ssuen-ssuSn. Ex.: ||xe:-ta suegsuer) Ikiiita — the Bushman rice (antj 
chrysalides) maggots are white. 

sui, V. to knock out. CII. (Schi.) 

sui, V. to sit, s. BWei. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: r| kje si |nau sui |ka I shall marry sit with you (I shalll 

marry you permanently). I 

sui, easy. Nil. (Wil.) Sui. I 

Buka, n. boy, child. SIV. (D.B. ) 

suke, V. to shoot. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: i|r]!kwa suke Ikenja — the Bushman shoots the steenbok. ! 

suke, dem. here. SIV. (D.B.) I 

sukee, down. SIV. (D.B.) | 

suikeiij V. to jump, spring, s. suttan. SI. (B. ) ssuken. Ex.: ! gwalrj surkan u:i, ! gwsiir) |ne suiksn ki |el 
ha ! nwa au |i the hyena springs away, the hyena jumping puts her foot into the fire. f 

sum, V. to menstruate, n. menstruation. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |a ku sum, ~|a_|aba ki ||An ~^ke the girl ! 

menstruates, lies down on the hut floor. 

sumbi, n. fowl or guinea fowl. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sumbi ||go — cock, sumbi ~de — hen. ! 

summi, n. string, bowstring, s. so. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ||nau summi t/u si — the bowstring's lying place. ■ 

Sug, n. kafir corn. NI. (Pa.) sung. 

suggu, n. necklace. NIII. (D.B.) 

sunsu, n. headdress. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sunsu, wako haipi »-- a headdress, it is of feathers. 

sur)-sug-a:, n. ant. Nil. (Wil.) siiri-sun-S. 

e'^-up, still, silent. SI. (Li.) ss'up. Ex.: he tiksn e:, ! khwe hal |ne kui s'^-up i: — therefore the ! 
wind became still. 

euri, n. kidneys. Nil. (Wil.) Suri. \ 

surritan, /urritan, syrriiitan, v. to twist, wring, s. swerri-tju. SI. (B. ) ssurri^ten. Ex.: |ku:wak3n 
fabbakanfabbaka ||koe: ta: ha au | i, au hig !ka!kanna au |kaggan ||ku||ku:, har) syrriiitan !kwi!kwitani 

I 'hig ha ||ku|lku:, hag ||khau ||koe u:i |i the proteles heating stones laid him in the fire, while I 

they held fast to the Mantis' arms, he twisted out burning his arms, he flew out of the fire. (LI.),) 
ssiirriten, sshurriten, ssurriten-ssurriten. Ex.: au ! nwa ||ken !khe: toi egeg^toi se |fa ! khau teg, ha ' 
tai:l Jhiq ||e au ||kuitan, ha se Ija surritan !kwa: toi !khau — when the arrow pierces the ostrich', 
body, the ostrich will go and fall down, he (the man) will go out of the screen of bushes, he will || 
to twist breaking the ostrich's neck, r) syrritansyrritan ||kho twitwi:tan (?pwonni, o n-ka |hau j 
!nu!nun:tu: I twisting place (cut) little scars on my bow's ears (the points of the bow). I 

surru, V. to drink an egg, prob. by twirling a brush in it and sucking the brush, s. surritan. SI. (B. , 
ssdrru. Ex.: i— g |ne !ham: |ku |kAm !aui a: !oa:i, itan !ham: |ku surru |hir) ha — we first take on 
egg, we first drink it out. har| k"au-^ | ne dofa |ki s'^a: hi toi kwakwarj-ka Ikwitan, i-g |ne dola ! 

surrusurru-a hi he does not bring a real ostrich's eggs, that we may drink them up. (LI.) ssiirr ; 

tsurru. Ex.: he ti hig e: , haq |ne |am:ma tsurru |hir) ||kao, i:, hag |ne |e ! ho |ku au ||ho: — thensfe 
drinks twirling up the yolk, he puts the brush into the bag. ! 

"surru, far away. SI. (LI.) ssurru. Ex.: fxoakan |ku-g |ne taSi, "surru u ||a: — the elephant had gonij 
very far away. 

susfl, n. snoring, s. siJ. SI. (LI.) ssCtssa. Ex.: har-ka susQ_||kwafg tag ha saSg di ku k"wa ^h^nnuwa, ta: 

har-ka susQ k"auki te: ta his snoring feels, (as if) he would become well, for his snoring doessj 

not lie down. ' 

susukan, s. su, blister. 


susuu, V. to be staying, sitting, s. so, soe:r). SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: txobaku xa susuu twirivier --- Txobaku 
IS staying at Tweenvier. ixuudKu 

3uta, sota n. bark jlanket, s. sora NlII. (D.B.) Ex.: m suta e, de a suta — my bark blanket it is, the 
woman s blanket, t/i !kwi, sota ! kwi---a kaross, a bark blanket, suta ke ||gaba daa--the bark blan- 
ket will go into the lire. ~ - 

'''^F^''' ';w«~? Tl^i •^"''?; ^^T, "'nu "'"" '" ''P''''' 'P'"^' '■ s^-ks'^- SI. (B.) sutten, ssuttenssutten. 
+,^:w. HLf ^J^^° ^f ^7^^^^^" Qhorgan the hyena will go springing into the bu^h^s. |kaggan ' 
tu.wa r, !kalrrokan!kalrrokon suttan phig hi au Ikaukan |k"ajk"a— the Mantis' skin snatched itself 
quickly out of the children s hands. (LI.) ssiitten. Ex.:ha s dola a: se jkirtsn suttan |kABi sa ke wai 
--- he must be the one who will drive quickly bringing to me the springbok. 

u-u, interrog. where ? SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n |ke, ha ki su-u --- my father, where is he ? 

lulwa, V. to blow the nose, s. su:. Slla. (D.K.) 

uxus, n. molerat. CII. (Sh.) Nlla. (Sh.) suxusa, sugusa. 

wa:l,__£wa, V. to pluck out, pull up. Nil. (LI.) su|, ssu^. Ex.: |xwe gu tne-^nebbi, ta ti swa: I 

tne tnebbi,!k"vnsir)--- | xwe took hold of the woodpigeon, and plucked out the woodpigeon's feathers, ha 
ti swa like --- he pulled up grass. Mil. (C.B. ) Ex.: a _swa "tsaba, a _swa a ! kwe --- plucked the bird, 
pulled out its feathers. 

wa, V. to forget. NIII. (L.B. ) Ex.: ma ka swa I have forgotten. 

wa:, n. flat, plain, s. ts'^oa. SI. (B. ) ssw^, ss'wa. (LI.) sswS, swa. Ex.: /o:-|oa>k"auki ||na swa:, ta:, 
I swa:-ka !ke |ku ||amma hi au Ike e: ||an:na Ikalogan --- the /o-loa plant is not on the flat, for the 
Flat's Bushmen buy it from the people who inhabit the mountains. 

jWa:, n. mucus, s. ~su, nose. SII. (D.B.) 

jwa:, n. lung, breast, s. ~su, su*?!. Nil. (LSk.) swa:. (LI.) ssua. Ex.: m ba ti Am xam swa — my father 
1 eats the lion's lungs. 

|ffa:, n. lichen, a yellow kind. Nil. (LI.) sua. 

ffai^, V. to drive. SI. (LI.) ssw^, sswai. Ex.: hir) ||hir) hs, hig swai:l hs, |ki |kAm ||a he o !kau, o hig 
swai:lja ki:a-||ker|-gu o parra --- they bound them making them go to the cliff, when they had driven 
Kia-||ken and the others with horses, ha sair) ||kaokan | kAm se |!neir), ha se sa sw'^aif ti tail !k"^a!k"^a 

— he will quite come to the nest, he will come to drive away the black crows, jjxwagan 0pwaxai e: 
swai:-||a |Ahari the rhinoceros' daughter is Driving- away- husbands. 

rail, swai:, v. to blow, spit. SI. (LI.) ssua^, ssuai. Ex.: swail Ihirj | A~hain — blow out the cold, hag 
kui, ha sail) |e: fxoa |nunu, fxoakan hal |ne kui, fxoa salg swail ku ||kwobbo ||kho ha — he said, he 
would enter the elephant's nostril, the elephant said, the elephant would blow forcing him down, ha hal 
|ne kiii,"swai: te |ke, a kwa: |ku derrita |hir) !khwa: au a |na:",har-ka ||k"au:||k"au: ||kwalr| |ku e, he 

ha ka swai: ti, i: he said, "spit there, thou shaft come back ill from the water with thy head", his 

cursing it was, and he spat with it. 

Ta"iju, V. to slice off. SI. (LI.) sswa"iyu. Ex.: ha ~|kou tsitsi: ! gwara, ha se an:tau |kau ku swaiiju ho 
ha te-ta ~a he sharpened, making bite the knife, that he might slicing cut off his thigh's flesh. 

ire, V. to snuff the air as a dog, s. sQ. Nil. (LI.) ssue. 

3we:, swe, n. button. Nil. (LI.) sue, sue. 

Tei, swel, swe:i, v. to sit, s. sweg. Slla. (Mg. ; Ex.: a jjgai ku, "sija g ! "^aba, sija sa swei g Ikwai" 

— wolf say, "come I carry you, come, come sit on top (of my back). 

rel:jau, v. to sleep soundly. SI. (B. ) ssweiyau. Ex.: au ka a: jjkabbowa kokoa swe'i:jau te: hi, he k"auki 

sir] |ne ta: i !au e:, hi jjkau ta: hi as I was the one who dreaming made them sleep soundly, so that 

they did not feel the ground on which they lay. 

re:r), i;. to sit, to lift up, s. sue:r), so, nsou. SI. (B. ) ssweft. Ex.: hi k-auki sag !halm^swe:g 
Ikarrakan hi i nwa! nwd ---they should not first sit sunning their feet. (LI.) ssuefi, sswensswefiya --- 
Ex.: ha swe:g ha xu---she lifted up her face, ha | ne /o ko ||kau: Ikauwi:, ha swe:gswe:rija |ko: |!a:--- 
she sits over the ostrich egg, she sitting draws near. 

fer), n. fat, marrow, s. soe, soeg syg.SI. (B. ) ssw^ft. Ex.: sa: kag -|ke: a, ha ||ku:wa, ha !kalo-gu ||kwag 

s''ok"waa-ka sweg the eland yonder, it was fat, so the mierkats are crying about its fat. (LI.) 

ssue''A. Ex.: hi ||kwalg jkammaig sa:, au ha toi, itan ||kwalg se !kug sweg they come carrying that os- 
trich, we shall eat fat. toi !'khu:i ha:l~oa |ki sweg the ostrich thighbone formerly contained marrow. 


Bwsrre, n. storm, SI. (LI. ) sswerre. Ex. :hs swsrre ha: I sa:^ i:^ swerreton ha: I k"war) !khwe, har) k"war), t:j 

e:, ||go;||go: Qpwa ka jkwei k"o,i: and a storm came then, the storm sounded like wind, it sounded 

a little whirlwind does. 

swerritju^ sweswerrita, v. to whisk up, s. surritan, swiswirritsn. SI. (LI.) sswerri-tyu sswe-ssw^rrita i 
Ex.: hs !khwe |ku ha:l ku:i swerritju !kwi|a, hs !kwi|a |ku ||kai:tsn hi ! khwe — this wind whisked n 
the maiden, and the maiden ascended with the wind, uksn ||kwalr) e: ||k"oen, ti e:, ha ykwalr] i: |ke:, ; 
sweswerrita ||kai:t9n you are those that see, that she is verily yonder, having been whisked up. 

sws: u tig, v. to fall insensible. SI. (LI. )sswe u ttin.Ex.: hag |kuku:i sws: u tir|---he fell insensibLj 

swike, V. to ache, hurt. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: n xu oa ko swike --- my head aches. !ge:xa ke "se, ki se !kur:i 
haa, ha ku swike the doctor comes, comes to anoint here what is hurting. 

swiswirritsn, v. to stir, twirl, s. surritsn, swerre, swerritju. SI. (LI.) ssuissuirriten. Ex.: ha hal 
|ne kui, " ! gu: swiswirritsn Ikhwat", au ha hal i kwa au ikliwa: — she said, "ripple stir the water' 
while she did this to the water (moving her right hand backwards and forwards in the water). 


swynja, v. to sit by, s. soar), swerr). SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||oe ||kwofnna^ kie:n ||a swynja 0bo: — the sun 
warm, go sit by the bushes. 

syr), n. fat, s. swer). SII. (D.B.) 

syg, V. to see, s. sir], sg. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma syr) ! ku I see a person. 

sxo, sxu, V. to skin. Nil. (LI.) sSo, sxu. Ex.: ta ! nu daa, ta |xoa, ta |ni, ta sxo |ou — and (he) 
rubbed firestick, and made a fire, and sat down, and skinned the buck, ha e |xwe \ne6, ta sxu n'^m 
llgo, ta ra: n'^Am: ||go he was |xwe, and skinned the cock ostrich, ate the cock ostrich. (Wil.) sxu 

sxwe, s. Jxvie. 


The prepalatal unvoiced fricative / occurs frequently in some Bushman languages, especially i! 
those exposed to Bantu influence, occasionally in others, and not at all in a few. It can combine with 
the velar fricative x as /x, and is often found after t as t/, often a variant of / to ts. In many case 
J" is merely a variant of S, especially m the | xam language. ] 



~J , fern, ending to n., also used as pron. she, short form of J*a, Je. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: faroasa /u:/ ~kwe , 
fkeie the body is put into the pot. tole-J* ko she crawls. j 

~S^f /«'"• ending, also used as pron. she, it, s. /, sa. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ko fku:/a ||nuri, a au:xu, 

|kaum-di /a then the head break off and throw away, the snake's one (head). ! gwij*a tu/ !o: kwe ■ 

! nume tama /a a rope, in the rain trap not with it. This form is found in the phrases /a ko ma, , 

/a ko ||nei it is said, they say or sing. ! 

/a, pron. we, s. si, /i. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /a ka ||kai ki ~lubu — we look at the saltpan, /a di /i fnAm j 
we are two. 


/a, pron. they, usually sa, si. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ||ko wa kambinde, ta /a -de vi/aka — his elder 
brother is Kambinde, and their mother Vi/aka. /a we/e/e a m be ||kau both their fathers died. 

/a, V. to come, come towards, bring, also used as v. part., denoting unfinished action, s. J*e, Js, /i, 
sa, se, si. SV. (C.B. ) Ex.: 0'?wa /a ka /i --- the smoke comes to us. koloi a /a /i, ea /a ||k" ai ||na| 
a wagon comes to us, it comes past there, lakai ka /a /ia ||kokwi a woman comes bringing a cc 


176 ! 

Also used for to go. ! xalla e ta /a ke sekume — !xalla has gone to Secume. wa ka /a \\oh6: ! kha — 

they go to fetch water, i /a t/i ||k"oe||k"oe we ^o to sit in shelter. ||num tu /a /a both men 

are going, sibohiso si /a Hhaito rensi Sibohiso is mending the reins. Ohanna /a /i : the girls 

are coming. SVI. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||e: /a ||garre the sun comes up. ||e: /a ! xwoi the sun sets. |kieb 

e ||a: ka, n /a |jkuin |kieb is at home, I will fetch (him). Nil. (LI.) sha, to come towards, used 

also as towards. Ex. : ta sig ha ba, ta |uwa ||kau kwe ha ||nau, ta ti /a ha ba and (he) saw his 

father, and put an arrow on his bow, and came towards his father, ta ha ! ka /a ha and (he) ran to- 
wards him. ha ~|ni, ti k"aru d5U tanki, e /a ! kaga he sat looking for the other people who were 

bringing (the leaves of) trees. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: /a atibi akwetibe, e a oranakwe swako so /a — 
bring water the women, and by children it is brought. 

'a, V. to fall (rain), pour, bleed, flow, s. Ja'^a, tja, t/ara, Jara. Nil. (LI.) eha, sha. Ex.: ta ||gu ti 

/a: sir), ta /a ! kur) sir) kwe daa and rain fell upon them, and fell killing for them the fire. i~we, 

zuasir) i~"we, /a me | gaa kwe ku o ye, women, o ye, pour into my eye of ( your) -jnilk. ta |xwe ti /a 

|ir)|ir) ~fkhi and | xwe bled much blood, na ti tjTir) Ja ||gu I cry letting fall tears. CIII. (D. 

B. ) Ex.: tissipi /a atamabe a red flows its blood. 

'a, V. to sit, sit down^ be, s. so, /a, J\i. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: r) /a I sit down, ea ha /a ? where is 

he ? gome a ha /a "la ? where are the oxen ? kor)kor) e: ke te e: /a Kokong is this way. 

a, V. to rest, s. /a, so. Nil. (Dk. ) /a. (V.) §f. 

'a, n. man, person, pi. /a:re. SVI. (D.B.) 

'a, n. water. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kan ||kowa ke e /a he stands in the water. Nil. (LI.') sha, fountain. 

'a, n. the root of a creeper named ~kani. Nil. (LI.) ehd. Ex. : m tai ti ||ke ~!khe, ha ti ~gu k"a^~gu /a 
my mother had a stick, she dug the ground, dug the .... root. 

fa'^'a:, v. to pour out, dribble, s. /a. Nil. (Dk.) (LI.) shda. Ex.: ha ba /owa ha kwe ||gu, ! gum ||gu, ta 
/a'^a ha his father spurted water on him, took in his mouth water, and dribbled it on him. 

'abi, n. kaross, skin cloak. SV. (D.B.) 

abu/abu, n. bullroarer, s. t/abut/abu. Nil. (LI.) shabushabu. 

'aha, /ahea, v. to end, finish. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapina i/o /aha tsefui early the sun ends the 

j night, tsifija /ahea ma the night is finished. 

ai, V. to be dark, diminish. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsefija mo ko to /ai the night is dark, kutuku ma 

seta, katu a J*ai full is the moon, then diminishes. 

/ai~/ai, n. a certain fruit plant which lies on the ground, the fruit is boiled. Nil. (LI. ) shaishai. 

Ex.: |kAm ti ku~u ~/ai~J'ai, ta ~/ai~J'ai ! gwasig ti "Ijkao the sun burns the ..... the .... leaves 

become dry. 

aka, n. plant with bulbs. SV. (Schu. ) n schaka. 

>ka, num. five. SV. (D.B.) 

ako, V. to come slowly, do gently. Nil. (LI.) shdko. Ex.: e ! nwerre ||ga ti |kua ! ka /a, ||ga ti /ako, 

||kum |Ah^ ti~/u our country's rain does not hasten to fall, the rain comes slowly, a large black 

cloud merely is there. |kAm tanki, ha ti /ako, ha ma another day it does gently, it blows (wind). 

/ala, n. a certain tree. [Mb. movilia.J NIII. (D.B.) 

a:?le:, n. saddle. Cllb. (Wil.-) sa'lg. 

alia, V. to stay, carry on the head. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: he /alia te ||na: he has stayed at home, ja 

/alia Ike !kha she carries (on her head water). 

allika, v. to be broken, worn out. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nwi a ka /allika, /i ||un the boot is broken, 

throw it away. 

amo, n. Isanzu, the aame of a Bantu tribe living near the Hadzabe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ba me dzeto /amo 

atebi mo --- there comes an Isanzu with water, akitibe to /amob? elaha ma:ku the Isanzu women make 

pots. Jamobi ha kham the Isanzu have gone. ||k"aa no wa dzaito Jamoni ja a dog has come with 


the Isanzu. 

/amuna, v. to collect, gather vegetable food, s. _sa:. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: akwitibe ha~khame /amuna, ; 
miauwi pi txlemebi manako women go out collecting (vegetable foocU' , are seeking the men the game: 

/atg, fat, s. sa:a, swerj, syr). Nil. (Ek.) 

Jana, n. a tall fruit-bearing tree, the fruit of which is eaten raw, s. t/ana. Nil. (LI.) shana. Ex.: \ 

sau, ||kun~na /ana |nesir), kwe ! nwe sa and (he) arose, carried (on his shoulder) the .... berries; 

in two bags. 

J&o, n. millet, s. sao. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i m /So, !o!ku m /ao i ||wa they eat millet, Bushmen eat 

millet they buy. 

/al~o, /a^~u, n. a certain tree. Nil. (LI.) sh|io, shdii. Ex.: /a^~o e ! kar) |nu tga"?!), ||ke||keja ! kuni --- 
the .... is a tall tree, resembling the palm. 

/ara, pron. you, /em. dual, short form of sa/ara, <f «• /era. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /ara ko mi you (two 

women) have said. 

/ara, v. to pour out, s. /a, t/a, t/ara. Nil. (LI.) shara. Ex.: m tai, n a ferri, ta /ara me ||gu — my 
mother, I am thirsty, pour out for me water. 

/ari, n. end, point. Nil. (V.) S^ri. 

/a/a, V. to try, taste, s. t/at/a Nil. (LI.) shasha. 

/a/ani:, v. to rub the hands, s. /aur), /en/eni. Nil. (LI.) shashdni. 

/atu, pron. you, com. pi., s. sa. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ma, kwe ||e:xaba ! gwi/ |kwa~|kwa, "/atu ! gwiba /s, 
na ! num" (he) said, when the captain divided the rope, " you take the rope and trap". 

/au, V. to drive away, go away, s. /a, u. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nobbe /au, ||nobbe ||nAr) go away, go home* 

ha /au /a he drives away. 

/a~u, V. to awake, s. sa, /a, ~u. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAin ~|gi, a ~t/i, ka /a~u — the sun rises, comes,, 
then (he) awakes. 

/a^~u, s. /al~o. 

/auba, /aume, n. winter. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /aum kwe kama ~te, a koa te tama, /auba ko !ku, i tu, ! nu kwn 

! ku in winter when it is still, (the millipede) does not come out, winter goes, it rains, on tW 

veld walks out. 

/aukwe, v. to flap wings. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _!ka: ta ! "^um a /aukwe/aukwe — the knorhaan stands flapp:] 
his wings. 

/aur], V. to rub, s. /a/ani:. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ka /aur) ||ga |k"a — he rubs the eye (with the) hand. 

/a||kau, pron. you, masc. or com. pi. s. sa, /atu. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /a||kau ws||kau ! ku — you all go. \ 

/e, interrog. which ? Nil. (V.) §e. Ex.: a dsu: /e ? which man ? a dsu: /e ua ? which man is i j? 

/•^e:, V. to be satisfied. Nil. (V.) s'e. ' 

/e, /e; , v. to return, come^ go home, turn towards, also used as v. part, denoting unfinished action, s 
/a. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i ka /e ! hAnte kui — we had come from Kui.wa ||kalle |ki /e gome — there tr-- 
ting come oxen, maki a /a ke kokon, a /e ||k"Am /e ke kokon — Maki has gone to Kokong, he will com; 
back from Kokong. na /e /a ke kolui — I will go to the wagon. ||anna bate /i ||num kolui /e /a — ; 
two days the wagon will come. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U a gu 30:, ka _/e ka ~tsi tane hi — people get hoy 

and returning come carrying it. donkeri ku t/i ~! gu ka ku /e: the donkeys came to the water an 

returned. Nil. (Dk.) /e:, to return. (V.) ^le . (Wil.) §e, back. (LI.) she. Ex.: ha sa^ ha ba, ta tg 

" m ba, /e gu mi, tenne, jai:" he heard his father and cried, " my father, come teike me up, car 

(me), oh dear", ha ba /e ha, | ge gu ha his father came to him came to lift him up. ! khum k"aru 

|huni/e, sir) |huni/e Ihag^a, ' ti ! nabba |huni/e, jkiia sir) |huni/e ! harj^a, ta /e- --- the leopard 
sought the mouse, saw the mouse spoor, followed the mouse, did not see the mouse spoor, and returne 
me ! nwerre |kua e, ta na ti /e — my country (this) is not, and I will go home. Ikoija — to turn. 


the head to look forward. J*e to turn the head to look backward. 

fe, Je, V. to fetch, take^ marry, send. CII. (D. B. ) Ex.: /u/a /e fetch the pot. ||exaba ko xau ~kum, a 

kwena bari^ "! geidsi "/e" a |hu||kwa, "gwedsi ~/s " --- the captain cut (the rope) in two, and to the 
Bushmen said, "take the bucks" , and to the White Men, "take the cattle". kweba,ko kwesa Je, a ko 

kola/a kuru a man marries a woman, and makes (her) a kaross. |kake keiba | unakej" ka ||kuba, |kake 

keiba ||o, a ku xaa hal, a Je Ji, a debi taine---old |kake was |unake's father, old |kake died, (I) came 

here, married her, did not return. ||kur) |^arron kwen ko ||nweba | gore ma Je the old people to the 

moon a prayer say (speaking send), kama !ke, ko | gore ma Js, "t/a: tama Je i" when (the moon) re- 
turns, say a prayer, "illness do not send". Cllb. (Wil.) se, to carry. Nil. (vVil.)se, to fetch water. 

fsla, n. wax. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: d30 ki tagga /ela — bees make wax. 

fele, n. lid. SV. (D.B.) 

femiki, n. brother-in-law, wife's brother, s. /imiki. CIII. (D.B.) 

fen, V. to drink. Nil. (Wil.) Sen, nSi'sen. 

fenaxa, /enexa, later. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |k:wan~fku kwe ko dibi |hum-ti donkeri, a ga /enaxa ! kiiq — from 
Olifantskloof returned the white man's donkeys, and will later go on. 

fen/eni, v. to rub the hands, s. /ajani : , /aur). Nil. (LI.) shSnsheni. 

fera, dual ending to fern. n. also used as you, they, s. /ara. CII, (D.B.) Ex.: ho/era ko | kAm, \Q'J ko 
t/u/a i:, /era ko !nu:/era |kAin (of) two wives, (if) the first is angry, they have two huts. 

fe-funta, n. grass sieve. SYl. (D.B.) 

rha:, n. species of veldroot. Nil. (Ek.) 

''hi, n. thing, s. /itsi. Nil. (Dk.) 

'i, V. to come, also used as v. part. s. sa, se, sei, /a, Je . SI. (B. ) sshi. Ex.: hag fkakka ! nau 0pwa 
ti e:, ha |ku Ji !au!au ten /a, au ha: tatti e:, ha e ! ka! k^rro — he says to the little hare that 

he will living return, because he feels that he is the moon. SHI. (D.B.) Ex.: n /i Gpuensi I 

shall sleep. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: u ba ~/i you have come, polisi ba Ji, ea: t/u; the policeman 

comes, he sits down, misis ja /a ! na, e ||k"aba J*i Missis goes away and comes back. Ji Ji S, we 

will eat. /a ki ! nau, hole: ! kha a Ji ijoo go to the waterpit, bring water to wash, sitapi Ji 

||k"a:te lusi:ba — Sitapi plays the bow. Ji Ji ka tju — we are sitting. Ji Ji e: bupi — we have 

eaten meal. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: | garrika Ji |ka: women clap hands, u Ji ||na ka maka they water 

the tobacco. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi tsisi |ki sa, siri ||gwaf fa tsi ke ~tsi, e ||gai ke si ||ga:, si 
! nokuma Ji ~u my sisters have come, yesterday evening they came, and to-day are staying, and to- 
morrow will go. 

i:, V. to pour, s. /a, /a'^a. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sia /aa, ha Ji, ha Ji e ka ||kwalo — bring water, pour 
it on the ground. 

i, V. to rub, s. Jajani:, /aurj. Nil. (LI.) shi. Ex.: ha ti gu Am ta ti ||kam ha ~soa, ti Ji ha ~soa — 
he takes up the fruit, and strikes upon his breast, rubs his breast. 

|i, dem. that is, s. si. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ti Ji ||'?u --- that is the skin. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: Ji ! gaute 
! ''we (it) is one root. Ji |ka:ne, ta Ji funta that is a woman, and that is an old woman. 

^> S^^> pron. we, us, excl. of person addressed, s. si, i. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: Ji Ji a we will eat. Ji 

ka xallate gome ke kanje we have driven oxen to Kanye. ©''wa /a ka /i the smoke comes to us. 

Jia, Ja hb ||ar] we are going to eat. Jia ! kohu ti koloi we have assembled at the wagon, /ia Ja 

||kabbe — let us wake (him). CII. (D.B.) interchanging with Jita, si, sita. Ex.: ! ku Ji ti tite — 

we do not go. Ji ||k"ai ko ||xamma/a |ku we men killed the hartebeest cow. Ji taka xataxa kuru 

Joren we also grew tobacco. 

i, pron. you, fem. short form of saji. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ti ko ma Ji I told you (women). 

i, pron. she, her, they, them, fen. short form of xa/a, xa/i, s. si. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweba ko kwesa Je, 

a !xo: Ji, a ti Ji (when) a man marries a woman, he seizes her, pulls her away, hijeje ko haf |nu 

ka, keij Ji ko fnui — Hi Jeje came at night, then she was black. | nu kwen ko byri ~ta toisi si:se jhu 
kwe, na ||no ga ko Ji ba k"a the Kafirs spoke nicely to the Nama, and let them drink. 


/i, n. tobacco. Sic. (D.B. ) 

_/i, n. wind, s. /isedana. SIIc. (D.B.) 

/i, n. thing, s. J'^hi, tsi, t/i. Nil. (LI.) shi. Ex.: ta ti o ||gom tsema, ta ti taba Ikarra, ta ti txa 

Jif ta /i ti e |kau: and they gather small caterpillars, and make poison, and shoot a thing, and 

the thing, is a buffalo (?). u gu /i go pick up the thing, a J*i ? what thing, why? a /i ma 

Ikurj'^a d5U e ? why didst thou kill this person ? 

/ia^ n. water, s. /a. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha k"e /ia --- she drinks water. 

/la, s Ji, we. 

/ibiri, n. water tortoise. CI. (Do.) shibiri. 

/i-doro-ha, n. tinder. [Her.] Nil. (LI.) shi-dc5ro-h^. 

/igwa:ni, n. wild doves. SV. (D.B.) 

Ji'^i, n. buchu, s. sa:. SVI. (D.B.) 

/ikoi, n. cock, s. /i||kwi. SV. (D.B.) 

/imiki, n. uncle, nephew, father's brother, brother's son, s. /emiki. CIII. (D.B.) j 

/ig, V. to drink, s. /r). Nil. (LI.) shin. Ex.: |xwe zau ~|a ha ! kao kwe ~||gu, ta ha ! kao /ig ~||gu — 

|xwe's wife gave her husband water, and her husband drank water. > 

/ina, to-day. CII. (Pa.) schina. ' 

/ipele, n. pm. [Eng.] SV. (D.B.) 

/irikari, n. Askari. [Swa.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: /irikari ki a~khape ati nina — the Askaris are going to >' 
the water. 

/isedana, n. dustcloud, whirlwind, s: _/i. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /isedana /a ||na — the dust cloud goes awaywj 

/i/i, pron. we excl. s. Ji, e. Nil. (LI.) shi-shi'. Ex.: /i/i ti |hu: we breathe. i 

/ij*i, n. a poisonous black ant, s. J'i3wa. CI. (Do.) shishi. ' 

/ita, pron. our, s. sita. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: Jita kwe ko ~||o, kwena ko tu |ud3i mu: our person dies, | 

people see clouds (rain's hairs). |ka:m kwe -keise fuxwoine _hafnaha jitsi-ti !nu: kwe on the flat! 

is much food in our country. 

/it/alo, n. mat. SV. (D.B.) 

/i3wa, n. black ant, s. /i/i. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /iswa e ||kar)a ja ~||kari --- the black ant crawls on its \ 
legs. j 

/i|guu, n. partridge, s. si|ku. SV. (D.B.) 

/i||gu, n. bird. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i||gu ti e ||gebi the bird is perched. 

/i||kwi, n. fowl, cock, s. /ikoi. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: misisi /i e: /i||kwi --- the ladies have eaten a fowl. 

/i||kwoi, n. snake. SV. (D.B.) ; 

Jn, V. to be. Nil. (Dk.) J*n. 

Jn:, V. to drink, s. /ir|, t/ig. Nil. (Dk.) /n: . 

-/g:, n. liver, s. t/i, t/ig. Nil. (Dk. ) /ij:. ' 

Jo, V. to seem, appear, be likely to, s. SO, s'^o. SI. (B. ) ssho. Ex.: g Hxam se ||a: !ko: !kultan e: kor(:j 

|ku Jo ||gabbitan~a i: I also will go to feel for the eggs, which the jackal seems to have rolled^! 

away, hig |ku e: Jo |a: !khe au jxorre: they are those who are likely to be killed by the cold. ; 



(LI.) S8h6. Ex.: hi fi, ti e:, e /o ©pwoin te:r)'?a au 'jkwonna-ka Qpwoin — they thought "that we ap- 
peared to lie sleeping in the noon-day's sleep. 

*o:, V. to sit, be at, remain at, s. so, s*?©, /u. SI. (B. ) sshcr. Ex.: ! neCu Qwaksn fkakka ha a, ti e:, ha 
|ku ||khwai||khwaita Jo: ti e:, ha a: !ka!karro, ha /o: hi --- the little hare says to him about it, 
that he does deceiving sit (at) the place which he who is the moon sits at. r) sir) ! ham !Ahaitan |ko: 

si, au ti e: !khwa: /o: hi I did first limp near to the place where water was. (LI.) ssho. Ex.: 

! ketsn |ne ||ko: ||a: ! kwi-ta S:, hir) /o ko dafrrakan, au a:-ka ti koiksn dafrrakan |e: ta: ha eqer) — 
people set down the man' s flesh, it remains quivering, while the flesh' s other part quivers in his 

body, har) |har| toi |ai:ti, he ti hir) e:, ha: |ku !kw ai: | har) Jo, i: he married a female ostrich, 

therefore he is once married. SIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: kati a Jo: the cat sits, a /o |ki: you sit on 

the ground, i /o: ki we live there. 

I'o, Jo, V. to perspire, s. t/o:. Nil. (ESt.) /6: . (LI.) sho, sho , ssho. Ex.: |kAm kuu ||ke||ke mi kwe da^, 

I ta na ti Jo the sun burns me like fire, and I am perspiring. |kAm kwi, ta kuu ha, ta ha Jo, Jo 

I kukuwa, Jo |ny |ne ||a the sun was hot, and burned him, and he perspired, perspired very much, 

perspired greatly. Jo:, perspiration. 

0, V. to swell. Nil. (LI.) sh6. - • 

0, V. to peel, pare, s. /wa. QI. (D.B. ) Ex.: hiba ko kuru, a ||kau me, a Jo ire, bo/ kwe a ||kau me, 

||xau/ kwe Jo me a stick I made, chopped it, pared it, with an axe chopped it, with a knife pared 


o:, V. to fetch, s. Je. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ||kate ||a:, ||katena Jo: e when a man dies, the people 

fetch him. 

JS, V. to ram, fall. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: "du _/o --- rain falls. 

0, n. dislike. CI. (Bo.) sho. 


3:, black. Nil. (Wil.) §5. 

d:, n. talisman against lightning. SV. (Schu.) scho. 

Da, V. to rub with fat, soften, s. /i, /a/ani:, /aur). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi ~t/o, ka dgi, ka !nole:, ka 
\ me gum, ka /oa I span (the skin), and tan, and scrape (with a stick), and I work and rub with fat. 

bba, /ome, n. spoon. CI I. (D.B.) 


obba, V. to roar, howl (wind), s. /wabba. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||gauwa fa: |ni J*cbba — ||gauwa's wind there 
i roars. 

3di, n. snuff, tobacco, s. /ore, /uli. CI. (Do.) shodi. 

3di, n. a large hawk. CI. (Do.) shodi. 

51, n. lungs, s. /oo, soa. [Na. sob .J NIII. (D.B.) 

3ko, n. cow. Clb. (Pa.) schoko. 

)li, n. tobacco, s. /odi, /ore. NIa. (Leb. ) n. sp. sholi. 

pm, V. to itch, s. /wa. CI. (Do.) shorn. 

m, n. shade, s. /um, som. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: e /u ka /om Je he sits in the shade. CI. (Do.) shorn. 

5na, n. apron. Nil. (Wil.) S6na. 

>0, V. to desert, forsake. CI. (Do.) shoo. 

>0, n. lungs, s. /oi, soo. [Na. sob.] CI. (Do.) shoo. 

)0, n. jealousy. CI. (Do.) shoo. 

>re, /ori, n. tobacco, smoke, s. /odi, /uri, sore. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mi fkeja fore — I am^dying for to- 
bacco, a |ke /ori |ko |abu he smokes tobacco in a cartridge case (pipe). Nil. (V.) BOfr^, smoke of 


fire. (Dk.) /o:«Li, smoke. (LI.) shorre, shure, smoke. CII. (D.B. ) /ore, Jore/a , /ori/e, /oren. Ex.: 
kwena ko /ore a fkoo — the people smoke tobacco. |kukurri ~fol /ore, koba ko ||ha^, /ori fko — - 

Ikukurri smokes tobacco, fills his pipe, tobacco to smoke, /ori /e|k"arise e the tobacco plant 

is small, /i taka xataxa kuru /oren we also grow tobacco. 

/oreba, n. sun. [Na. sores.] Nllb. (Leb. ) shoreba. 

/orehe, n. sky. Nllb. (Leb.) shorehe. 

/oro, n. tree iguana ' legavaan' . CI. (Do.) shoro. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /oro a ko ||amid3i fn the legavaa 

eats the ants, /oroba ! aba hi:m kwe the male legavaan climbs up the tree. 

/oro, n. tobacco, s. /ore, /oil. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. shoro. i 

/orra, n. assegai-headed arrow, s. /wa:_JLa. Nil. (LI. ) shdrra. 

/o tse, V. to dream. CI. (Do.) sho tse. j 

/o tsi, n. a dream, /o tsithi, dreamer. CI. (Do.) sho tsi, sho tsithi. J 

/ou, V. to roast, cook. s. s'?o, sau, sou. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe da:a a /ou 31, ka /ou ||kha ka k"o: --■ 
the fire (I) roast the nuts, and cook meat in the pot. 


/ou, blind. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. schdu. | 


/ou— da, n. eye, NIa. (Leb. ) ck. sp. schou-da. 

/owa, V. to spurt. Nil. (LI.) sh6wa. Ex.: ha ba /owa ha kwe ||gu his father spurted water on him. [ 

/owa, V. to drive away, s. swai . NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _! ne ki /owa _|gwi the lion drives away the hyenj 


/o-|oa, n. a certain vegetable medicine, s. s'^o:-|a. SI. (LI.) ssho-|6a, emph. ssho-|oan. Ex.: hag jne ; 
|ki |hig /o-|oa e: ha talbba ! ku ko:, 1:, he e:, ha |ki ! kaui ! ku ko:, 1: — he takes out .... withj 
which he works upon the other, then he brings to life the other with it. /o: — |oar) !ko:r) |hir] au 0ho i 
|u the .... grows out of the bush (hakdoorn) stem. 

/u, V. to smoke, s. /uri, /ore. Slid. (Arb. ) ga schu. i 

/u, V. to sit, lie, sleep, some times used as, down, to dive, s. SOU. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: e /u ga /om /e --I 

he sits in the shade. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAm |gi, \3u fna re o tam, mihi ~/u re tsa the sun rose, ! 

the people still danced, I lay and slept, ha /uwa t/i he is lying on his back. ||gu gu ||ke:, ! hU 

/u, ka ku tsi the camel knelt, the white man got down and came. ! nu ma kwe ko !ka:~/u the ) 

little grasshopper jumps down. (Pa.) schu. Nil. (Dk. ) /u:, to sleep, lie down. (V.) su, to sleep, li| 
(LI.) shu, shu, shu. Ex.: sig ti /u — they sleep, t/i |nee ti /uwa k"a^^ ta t/i ~j=khi ti fga k"a -- 

one thing lies on the ground^ and many things lie on the ground. ~/u | Aha to lie awake (merely 

lie), ha ba ti t/ir), ka !ka ~u, ta /uwa ||gu, ||gu |nu | ne ||a: his father cried out, and ran away,l 

and dived into the water, a great water, e ti ! kur) e zau kwe |nubbo, e ti ! xi |nubbo, ti ||nir)-a 
|nubbo kwe zau ~/usi, zau tsasi, ta zau | ge "/u, ta | nubbo ti ||ir| zau — we kill our wives with a ^ 
wooden arrow, we break off a wooden arrow, set the wooden arrow in the woman's lying-place, the wo- { 
man's sleeping-place, and the woman comes to lie down, and the wooden arrow pierces the woman. NIII. 
(D.B.) Ex.: ~|gu ki d30, ~/u ke tsa the night is dark, lie and sleep. 

~/u, n. stone pipe. SIIc. (D.B.) 

/u, n. pot, /uba, clay pot, tall pot, /u/a, iron pot, round pot. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ne-|kesa ko tau, a li, 

/u kwe !xAm, a ko turn the .... fruit (we) stamp, and in a pot cook, and eat. | k"au /uba hana, 

!kore/a ~ka a male (earthen, tall ) pot this is, no wooden pot. ! kabbe ko /ud3i kuru, naron ko ||ai: 

the Tswana make clay pots, the Naron buy (them), /u/a | ni ta i/a ko kuru tama an iron ( f emai 

pot like this (they) do not make. (Pa.) schu. ' 

/ui, /wi, v^ to be light (not heavy), easy, calm. NIa. (Leb.) m. sp. schui, easy. Nil. (V.) Sui, 'leiclij. 
(Dk.) /wi, to be light. (LI.) shui, to be light, calm. Ex.: sa kwonna | gau, ta /wi, sa |kua ti --- 
they two lacked strength, and were light, they were not heavy, a /i me !k"a |kua ~kwi, ta ti /wi ? •'• 
why does my heart not burn, but is calm ? (Wil.) §ui, to be weak. 

/ui, V. to lift. CI. (Do.) shui. 


ula, n. arrow, s. /orra, /wa: _J,a. NIII. (D.B. ) /ula |ke |uwa na dzeni --- the arrow lies on the string. 

'uli, n. tobacco, s. /ore, ^odi, /uri . Clla. (Pa.) echuli. 

uli, n. hookah. NIII. (D.B.) 

um, v.^ to be simple, not initiated. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gusa k"ai -tsisi re o: ho:wa, 3U |nwa he /um ara 
|kwa ho:a --- people having things (tribal marks) see him (the spirit), Bushmen who are quite simple 
do not see him. 

um, so-/um, /um-si, n. bee. NIa. (Leb. ) w. sp. schum. m. sp. so schum. ch. sp. schum-si. 

'um, n. skin of ostrich eggshell. Nil. (Ll.) sh'uifim. 

um-!nu:/i, n. a certain Bushman tribe, s. su-! gnusse. CII. (D.B.) 

iur)kuri, n. dreams, s. /o tse. NI. (D.B.) 

ar) tuan, v. to have a cold. SIII. (D.B.) 

are, n. smoke, s. /ore. 

ari, n. snuff, tobacco, s. /ore, /uru. CI. (Do.) shuri. 

iru, n. tobacco, s. /ore, /uri. NI. (Pa.) schuru. 

iru, n. meal. CI. (Do.) shuru. 

itina, V. to sit down, s. /u. CIII. (D.B.) a /utina ko hama she is sitting down here. 

luta, V. to smoke, s. /ore, /uru. CIII. (D.B.) Ex. : /uuta ba a makwa/a we have smoked with Makwa/a. 

iwi, n. wind. SIII. (D.B.) 

uignoru, n. shoulder, NIa. (Leb.) w. sp. schu! gndru 

fa, V. to itch, irritate, s. /om. CI. (Do.) shwa. 

ra, /wa, v. to scrape, pare, s. /oa, /wi . NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi ke /wa ga n I scrape at this (sticW 

ki ||kau ! gau ta ki /wa/wa, ta ke ! gole ||nau dgam cut the tree, then pare and pare, then wind 

round the bowstring, 

wa, n. water, s. /a. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: nie ||k"wai _/wa I drink water, 

ifabba, v. to blow, whistle, s. /u, /obba. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: fa:ba ko /wabba ta:a, ||gaula =|=a|ba ko /wabba 
the wind blows about, the spirit wind whistles. 

fae, V. to suspect. CI. (Do. ) shwae. 

fao, n. irritation, itch, s. /wa, /om. CI. (Do.) shwao. 

racjia, n. steel arrowhead, s. /orra. Nil. (Ek. ) /wa:<3v^. (Ll.) shuara. 

re, /we:, v. to open, pull out, s. /wi, /xo:. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: /ou 31 a ka Ninum, ka /we: ka, ka m: ka 

roast nuts till done, then pull them out, then eat them. Nil. ( Ll . ) shwe, shue. Ex.: ha ti /we 

Igai — he opens the eyes, ha sir) |ou, | ou ~sa, |ou de sa | ou ||go, ha sig, ta ti /weja ||kausir) — he 
saw buck, two bucks, a doe with a male buck, he saw, and pulled out arrows, ta ||kao |nee, e ti ok"wi 

n!xa, ta ||kao sa, e ti ok"wi /we for one arrow we say 'pick up' and for two arrows we say 'pull 

out'. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: d3U a ~||kam, /we /ela people press, taking out the wax (from the honey). 

i, dem. here. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kha utere !ana, ! kha-ga ! ana /we water is in the pots, the water's 

po-ts here. 


) V. to skin, pull off, s. /we, /xo:. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweba ko Ikweba |u, a ko !xan, a ko ||xaum kwe 

ko ~||hai, a ko /wi, a ko ||xau, a ko koaf/a kuru a man kills a leopard, stabs it, with a spear 

pierces it, skins it, tans (the skin), makes a kaross. /ita ti fuxwoine fkumba, /wia toko xu |oana, a 
farroan fu our food is the locust, pull off and throw away the limbs, and the body eat. 


/wi, s. J\xi, to be light. 

Jxo: , V. to take off skin, get bruised, bump, s. /we,, Jwi. Nil. (Dk. ) 

The alveolar or dental explosive consonant t is in very frequent use in all Bushman language 
both as initial sound and in second syllables. In the Hie language it is often aspirated th. On p. 62 
'The Tati Bushmen (Masarwas) and their Language " Dornan says of th, " a strong dental sound, similar 
to the Irish pronunciation of t in water -- wather". A few examples of this sound are found in other 
languages, t unites with s and / to form the affricates ts and t/, which are sometimes followed by the 
glottal stop. Both t and t/ are found before the velar fricative x, forming tx and t/x. tj occurs in 
some languages, probably a contraction of ti and a second syllable. In Southern languages t often inte 
changes with k. 

In " An Outline of the Phonetics of the Language of the /»hu: Bushmen of North-West Kalahari 
on p. 137 Doke says that t is pronounced " with tongue- tip articulation against the gum ridge, as is c 
mon in southern English". Of the affricates ts*? and t/*? he writes on p. 142: " ts'''. The tongue-positio 
for the formation of this affricate is that of alveolar t'Cxploded slowly, forming the fricative s, but 

pent up with the glottal closure, and hence ejected." t/. In the pronunciation of this affricate 

the tongue-tip is not against the alveolus as for t or d, but it is the blade of the tongue, behind th 
tip, which comes into contact with the division between the alveolus and hard palate." 

In " An Outline of fkhomani Bushman Phonetics" Doke writes on p. 70: t seems to be more of a 
dental than an alveolar consonant, though both pronunciations have been heard. " 

ta, V. to think, remember, wish, s. ka, ta: . SI. (B. ) Ex. : he ti hig e:, si ta si di si 0axai au haha 
therefore we thought we would make our daughter of her. (LI.) ta, t&. Ex.: !k'^wa: a: Ikaggan ha:^ 
a a ha a: |k"a: he tikan e:, !k'?wa: !ki:ja, i:, o har) ta: ||ka ti e:, |k"ai: !ki:ja, he ha hi: hi — 
the hartebeest is the one to whom the Mantis formerly gave of the comb of young bees, therefore the 
hartebeest is red, because he remembers that the comb of young bees was red, when he ate it. ||k"hff:i 
||kha:f se tsi:-a ha the quagga wished the lion would bite him. 

ta:, ta, ta:, v. to feel, try^ seem, become aware of, s. ta. SI. (B. ) ttff, ta, and ta in the phrase ta 
tatti, feels that, because. Ex.: ! au e: ta serrittsn, au ! aur) tatti |kerri e: — the groundfeels (i 
when the ground feels that wet it is. to:i |aiti a: !kwa:i, har| |ne te:r) tata ||nair), hag |ne ta: tij 

llnair) k"o:a a:ksn one hen ostrich lies down to feel the nest, she tries whether the nest appeaij 

nice, r) |ku-g | ne ta:, ti e:, ha ta: |ki rj I feel that it tried to kill me. ha: |ku a: |e:ja !!■! 

au ha do|,a ta twaita !khwa: he it was who had been in the water, as he felt the water pleasant./ 

(LI.) tta, ta, tta. Ex.: he ta: ti e: ! khwe s'^'o /o:we, !khwa:-ka xoro xa se !khou: he they fell; 

where the wind seemed to be, that the water bull might not smell them, hir) | ne bu: |e: ! nabba ||kok;, 

! kauokan se di ku ta |i they burn dry thornbushes, the stones will be made to feel hot (become} 

|kuksn-t@' ha:f ka sir) |ku kamma xai:tan o |ku-g-! nwir), o har) ta: ||ka ti e:, |ku-g-!nwir) a:g9n — j; 
anteater formerly used to be anxious about the lynx, for she felt that the lynx was handsome. ! gOs''; 

llgauSe ju !k6ir), ta:^ !koir) tS: sa: look ye round for grandfather, for grandfather seems to be ij' 

ing. o ha-g |ne |kwei |kwe|kwe, i-g |ne ta: ha ! nwa, o ha: tai:f, |ka'?a ||a: he: ti when he doe ^ 

thus, we see his spoor, when he walks along this place. !kwi|a hat |ne |ku-ta ha, au har) |ku-g |ne 
~! kou ! khe sa: the young woman became aware of him (the Rain bull), as he came up. 

~ta, ta, neg. v. not to do, to be unable to do, s. tia, kia, tam. SI. (LI.) ta. Ex.: he tiksn e:, g k'E 
|ne ~ta |xa|xa i:, au t/wegja |ku-g |ne ~i: |e: ! Aha u-\I, he u-g |ne e |xa-i, au g a-g |ne ~ta |xaS 

therefore I do not shoot, when the things (game) verily go in among ye, and ye are those who a^ 

shooting, while I am the one who does not shoot. ! kwi |ai:ti a ! kwai : , ha a: sig gau:wa au ! gaue, I 
ha |ne ~ta |xa|xa, i: one woman (only) drove (springbok) in the morning, so he was not able to; 



shoot. SIV. (D. B. ) Ex.: r| ta ije erjels I can't speak English. ||kwa:ve ti ta se ||kwa:ve did 

not come. NI. (D.B. ) ~ta, no, ta not. Ex.: dzosi a ~txa ? ~ta do women shoot ? no. fa: ta ~u, t/i 

ko ma the wind does not go, comes and blows. 

ta^ ta:, v. to lie, remain, also used as down. SI. (B. ) id, ta. Ex.: !k?wa: kar) ~|ke: ta, ha |ku:ka — 

a hartebeest lies yonder, it is dead, r) |ku-g |ne tare, au ! i rten! i itakan |ku e: sir) ta: I went,, 

while the sleeping places remained there. (LI.) tta, ta. Ex.: r) a fi:, ti e: fgou:wa ta:, au hi k"ofa 

dola Ikhwetan |ki ! xoe I had thought that peace reigned (lay), while they must have disturbed 

the place. ! khwe-g |ne ta: !kaua the wind was (lay) east. Sllb. (Mh. ) ta. NIII. (D.B.) to be at, 

stay. Ex.: ! nave ke ta t/u — !nave is at the hut. 

ta:, V. trans, to lay, place, loose hold of, s. te. SI. (B. ) ttS". Ex.: ha ! nwa |ku e, hs ha |ku a:ta:fi 
|ki r)-ka !xoe:, ha k" auki ta:li kurri: tS:, ha: ! ku ta:lita:ti ! Ahi ho s'^a: g — his spoor it is, 
so he is the one who walked about my place, he did not walking lay (his spoor), he walked across in 

front of me. hi ka ta: |a:-ka |lneir| they place (make) fighting's houses. (LI.) ttS". Ex.: ! gitan 

ykwalr) |ne ||ar| |kha ta: he a: !khwa:-ka xoro, o he-ta ! xoe the sorcerers go killing to lay down 

for them the water's bull on their land. !hau: hal |ku di kiii ! xwar] ! xwd^r) Ikummi, i:, o ha !a: hoa 
!gwa:lxu^ ha se Ikuitan, ! k'^e se ^enn:, ti e:, he ta: a !khwa:~ka xoro — the thong used to sound 
like a musical instrument, as it passed along in the sky, (that) it might return home, (that^ the 
people might know, they had lost hold of the water's bull. 

ta, V. part. SI. denotes habitual action or a state, interchanges with ka. ( B. ) Ex.: ha se te:r|te:r| ti 
! goa llgaue ! gwal, au hag fl, ti e:, ! gwal ta !ka:ka tig ~||ga: — he will lie looking round seeking 
the hyena, as he thinks the hyena runs round in the dark. (LI.) Ex.: ha k"auki ta ||kai:t8n, ha |gi:ja 

— it is not slight, it is strong, he-g | ne k"auki ! koase he |ka:g8n, ta:, he ta/-g |ne di: tiksntiksn 

!ko!k6:ir) they do not take care of one another, for they are accustomed to do evil things. SII. 

(D.B.) Ex.: g ta r) ||xaur) |i: I am making a fire. SV. denotes unfinished or future action or to be. 

(D.B.) Ex.: masala xarite ta J*i : — the Masarwa women are coming. ||gwanate ta /a ! ga ||ke — the 

stars are in the sky. ia ta Ji e kokog he will come from Kokong. gome ta ti e: the oxen are 

here. ||An ta ti the sun is this. ||na: ta ti a thornbush is this. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: 0pwona ta 

|e: saka the child is very little. ! kha ta | ke !nau:so water is in the river. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: 

tamme ta m ~||khum Tamme eats the porcupine, tamme tai tai a ~||ke, ha dammi e ta |xoa Tamme's 

mother's mother is dead, her children are those who live. 

ta, ta, V. prob. a form of to lie, used in the phrases ta ||i^a, ta ||i:a, to die, be ill, ta |e, to go 

down, set. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ||i:a mo he is dead, ta ||i:a ko wembe Wembe is dead, dondui ta 

||ia mo, basalako ta ||ia kwe Dondui (man) is dead, Basalako (woman) is dead, seta ta | e ta the 

moon goes down. 

-ta, V. ending, a sort, of participle, or pron. it. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pisi kl'^'aata cook is singing. 

|kita na baranakweti tseti tina I have seen a small beehive in a tree. 

-ta, poss. part, following posse ssor , a variation of — ka found after words with e or i. It is dropped be- 
fore words denoting parts of the body or relationships. It is used before ku:, all. SI. (B. ) Ex.: 
! 'J'stsn |ne ||ko: ||a: ! kwi-ta a the people set aside the man's flesh. (LI.) Ex.: dekan-ta ! khum e ? 

— whose ball is it ? !kwa: k6Cu:wa ! xoe-ta ku:, !k'?e-ta ku: se-g |ne |xa-a whai the rain falls on 

all places, all the people will shoot springbok. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: baki, ki-ta ||gute a jacket, its 


-ta, syllable forming cardinal numbers. Slid. (Wu.) Ex.: ||oai— ta, first. U— ta, second. 

;a, conj . different meanings. SI. for, because, therefore, but, although. (B. ) tS, ta. Ex.: Ik'^'wa: k"auki 
|ki twi i:, au lee: (xa: ha, ta Ik'^'wa: ||ko:a Hel , ha |ku:k8n — the hartebeest has not a wound from 
the people who shot it, therefore the hartebeest appears to have died of itself, ta: !k'^wa: ||kwalg 

||uwa, !k'?wagan k"auki |ki |xa|xa^ga twi: although the hartebeest is fat, the hartebeest has no 

shooting wound. (LI.) ta. Ex.: Q |ku-g | ne ||koen, ti e:, ha ola k"auki e !khwa:-ka !gi:xa, ta:, ha sir] 
se ||nau:, ha e !khwa:-ka !gi:xa, ha koa |nek"auki a: !khwa: se-g |ne |hir) o ha |k"a|k"a — I have 
now seen that he was not a rain sorcerer, for he would have done this, if he were a rain sorcerer, he 
would not have let the rain escape from his hands. /o:-|oa k"auki ||na swa:, ta: swa:-ka ! ke |ku ||amma 

hi au !ke e: ||an:na ! kaogan the .... plant is not on the Flat, but the Flat's Bushmen buy it from 

the people who inhabit the mountains. Sllb. (Mh. ) ta, 'denn, jetzt, nun.' SIIc. (D.B.) then. Ex.: ti 

ne sa, ta ti e ~ente ha they come, then they run away. NI. (D.B.) but, because. Ex.: gome |ne^ 

^t/u, ta gome ~!nwi ! ka*i — one cow is bad, but the big cow is good, dabe ! kwa re o tsi:, ta re o 

dzau the boy is laughing, because (he) is happy. Nil. (Wil.) ta, and. (LI.) and, so, but, for. 

Ex.: !nanni ba ti m: ||ka||k^bba, ta tamme ba ti m: ykaykabba — Inanni's father eats the lynx, and 

Tamme's father eats the lynx, m tai ti o~k"wi m ba, " /uwa to:", ta m ba ti /uwa to: my mother 

said to my father, " sleep in the ashes", so my father slept in the ashes. ! num |kua ~||erri, ta ||gabba, 


ta ! kau ||erri a stone does not float in the water, but sinks, but wood floats, na ti !xa!xarri, 

ta !kari ti kwe: I fell down, for tree was like this. NIII. (D.B. ) and, but, when. Ex.: dama x}, t£ 

.llgau r), ta dzeme r)---a woman (is) this, and a man this, and a child this.iiku tsausr)!ko:a fxa^ta _golf 

~|ne si tsau ka fxa,_gole ke ||na'?a,ta fxaha tsau Ekishmen teeth are not filed, but Gole alone, his 

teeth are filed, Gole was big when his teeth were filed. 

ta, prep, of, s. ma, sa. GUI. (D.B.) Ex.: hn [etsa ta madzata — that is the hut of Madzata. auwa e t( 
sandawibe the whip is of the Sandawe. 

ta, n. wild orange. Nil. (LI.) tta, ta. Ex.: |xwe ~! nu, ti saa ||hi, ka si, ||wonna ~Am, Am e ! no sa ta, 

ta ti Ijwonna | xwe stood listening to the hare, and laughing, carrying food, the food was the ... 

fruit and the wild orange, and he carried (them). NIII. (D.B.) 

_ta, n. load. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ki ! ku t/itele, _ta I carried a burden, a load, a gu ta da ! kuli i 

are taking loads to carry (on their heads). 1 

tS:f, n. plain, flat country. SII. (D.B.) i 


~ta, n. dish, pot. Nil. (LI.) ta. 

~ta, n. whirlwind. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~ta kig |hu: the whirlwind is cold. 

ta:, n. darkness. Cllb. (Wil.) ta. 

ta:, n. sting. Nil. (LI.) ta. 

ta:, n. penis. Nil. (Wil.) tS. 

ta, pron. we, short form of sita used before ko. CTI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kad3i ta ko ||kei /aum kwe rootsr 

we eat in winter. | nani ko |ku tama, a ku ta:la, ka ta ko ! gum lice do not kill, (they) bite, sci 

we shave. 

ta, pron. thy, usually a. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ||nAm /i |jko"i thy stomach hurts. SVIb. (D.B.) ta /a 

thy face. 

ta, pron. you, yourself, s. tita, itebi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||k"oata, wata ta scratch yourself, rub!| 

■yourself, ta kwia obs elatibi — you give to us boys, budakwe a _dzana alako ki ta kenene tj'a:kwiti 

Budakwe has brought a sheep which you formerly ordered. I 

ta, pron. It. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: i ^2°> ^^ ^ -lo'^si'^a, _|gwa'?i ||kAm, ykau ta, k"se ta, k"ee ku ||kaisi ta j- 
is a man, goes out to shoot, shoots a springbok, cuts it open, cuts it in pieces. j 

ta, other, another. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: au:J'e ||kei ko kurre, ||nweba ||o, mi tamba !kei, ||nweba ~kei ||ais 'e 

||naua debi hal a long time he works, the moon dies, another comes, the moon gets big, he then cols 

back, ta kuri ka ||kukaa — another year he does it again. |e:s-ti fnum/a, ko ["^u: fnum/a ko ~xu:, i 
ta/a llgu: fire ashes, at dawn the ashes remove, and another (fire) light. ^ 

ta:a, v. to feel, variation of ta: . SI. (B. ) ttS-a, i^r-a. Ex.: hi sag !ha^m ta:a kworrskworre-ka |xwor|^ 
hs e:, hi sag | ne ||xam ta:a ! gaue-ta !hau:lsi ||xwe:tan — they will first feel the evening's cold.j 
and then they will also feel the morning's chill, g |ne f ni : ! gei e: hi, i:, hi se ! halm tS:a |lkar) ]- 
I took away these sheep from them on account of it, that they might first feel hunger. U 

taa, talar), v. to hear, understand. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: r)a ka taa ||kuka, tanate I hear a noise, stampi|j- 

ja ga talag ? do you understand ? 

t^a, V. to lie, taa, down, s. ta:. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 0moi ka ti& the wood lies there, /i ||Am si, /i 

||k"um lean taa we pick it up, we put it down. j 

ta:la, v. to bite, sting, s. ta: . CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nani ko |ku tama, a ku ta:la, ka ta ko ! gum — 1:^ 
do not kill, (they) bite, so we shave. 

taa, V. to work for, s. taba. CI. (Do.) 
taa, V. to choke. CI. (Do.) 
tafat, sharp. SV. (D.B.) 



taa, off, along. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: jaha ko /aba taa, a ko ! kQ the wind blows along, then goes. 

taa, pron. us, short form, of sita, used after v. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |hu-||kwa ko byri taA | gore, a ko byri 
taa, ! xuba ko \kU. tu:u the Nama told us about prayer, and told us, the sky will kill you. 

taa kue, redness, red. CI. (Do.) 

taani, taasi, v. not to have, to lack, s. ta. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ge:xa ki taasi soja the doctor has 

no medicine. 

taa:ni, v. to go away, s. ta:e, tali. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ja soa ta:si, i ki taa:ni — I was small, when 
I went away. 

taba, tjaba, v. to lighten, s. _tabe. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kane taba the sky lightens. 

taba, talbba, v. to work, make^ n. work, s. taa, tabe, tabi. SI. (B. ) td[ba. Ex.: r)-r), r) |ku taba |ki 

Ghoiksn myself, I work getting wood, r) a: |kaggsn, r) | ne da:i ||kaffi, i ||kafri: s'^e ||xam |lk"oen 

g-ka taba I am the Mantis, I work for friends, that our friends may also behold my work. (LI.) 

tt^bba. Ex.: ha se fkAm: 0pwa talbba akken ||kuit9n he will first make nice the screen of bushes. 

hi sir) |ku |ku:wa /o-|oa au ||neir), hi: sir) |ne talbba t/werj e: hi |xS-i — they had put away the .... 
plant at home, that they might work upon (influence) the things they were shooting. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: 
nie _taba'?i — I am working. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ngoba ti taba ||na kwe ||nwa, e ti taba ||na kwe ] Ahd |khu 

the Makoba make the pipe of reed, we make the pipe of the kudu's horn, ha fkum sa ha ba ti taba 

I ha kwe maka his father-in-law and his father work (treat) him with tobacco. k"aru taba to seek 

! in vain, ha k"arutaba ~d3U he sought people in vain. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: taba ~!ni to put under 

the arm. 

taba:, v. to turn, change. Nil. (Wil.) taba. 

'tabbaka, n. tobacco. ['Vfr. tabak.] SI. (B. ) t^bbaka. Ex.: -ka: a: ko:ka tabbaka ha e Ka is one who 

is fond of tobacco. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: a |kau |ke tabbaka thou hast cut tobacco. 

tabbe:, v. to greet, salute, s. t^bet^. SI. (LI.) ttabbe. Ex.: ! kwitsn | ne tabbe: |hu gwai: — the man 

salutes the white man. har) | ne Ikuitsn ha^-ka ||neir), au har) tabbe:ja |hu he returns to his home, 

when he has saluted the white man. 

_tabe, V. to shine, lighten, s. taba. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tu/a ko _tabe the ram lightens. ||nweba ko 

_tabe the moon _ shines. 

iabe, V. to try, s. taba. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: sikuni ei tabe a /a ke, si 3we — Sikuni tried to go to it, it 
flew away. 

-abe, n. salt. CII. (Pa. ) ('Schi. ) 

/abe:, n. 'vlei', a depression in the land, prob. a saltpan. CII.& Clla. (Pa.) tabe. 

.^bat^, V. to greet, say goodbye, s. tabbe:. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi ku ~tsi ku tabetd a I have come to 

greet you. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe taa ko tjam kwe tdbate ku people to us with buchu say good-bye. 

xam-tis kwe/a ko t/aba ma me, a au me, t^bet^ ko mi his wife gives him buchu, presents it, and 

good-bye says. 

abo, n. sandal. Clb. (Pa.) 

adi, n. lightning, s. _tabe. CI. (Do.) 

a:e,_^ta^li, ta:li, v. to walk, go, also used as away, s. teani . SI. (B. ) ta?, tSeya, tSi, tai, tSitSi, 
taetaenya. Ex.: t/oer) e: ta:e IsCu, hir) |ku e: sig |ku:k3n|ku:ksn ta:e, g |ku /i tatti e:,^g |ku tare 

au llga: things which walk on the earth are those which must dying go away, I (moon) f^el that I 

walk in the dark, har) ~|ke: ta:eta:enja ti |um ! kwa au ha xu, har) ~|ke: ta:eta:enja ti ||k"oen ti e: 

||nair) J*o: hi he yonder walking wipes the water from his face, he yonder walking looks at the place 

where the house sits. ! kauruxu kar) |ku ta:§ja, !i:tan |ku ta serritsn, ha |ku |kei tau ta:eja — 
!kauruxu has gone, the sleeping place feels cold, he has been gone a long time, hi se |ku !ko: |i, au 

|ija |ku ta:i hi:ja ts'^wits'^wi they will miss the fire, as the fire has gone away together with 

the things, hi-g | ne tari kau !kei!kei, hir) turn: ~!ko: i-g ||nair), hir) ta:ita:i !ui, hir) !kei!kei, hir) 

turn 1 they walk stopping, they listen in vain at the house, they walk on, they stop, they listen. 

(LI.) ttji, tt^i, tt^tt4,i, ttSi^ya, tt^ittaiya. Ex.: whaiitan | ne tai:l ||kau hoa !kwa: ||ki e: |ka:l — 
the springbok walk passing over the rain liquid which is wet. ha ! g3ar !k"alg9n, ha sair) ||kaokan |kAin 



se ||neir)^ ha se sa, sw'?ai ti tafi !k:"a!k"a he looks round for the crow, he will come to mount 

guard at the nest, he will come to drive away the crows. ! k'^e kie !ke!ke akka i: ha k"auki se |ni 
Ikhwetsn, he se ^ni: |ki tai:lja, ta:, ts'^a: a: tai:l o ||kwonna ha k"auki e, ta: ha |ku tai:l o ||ga: 

the people wish to approach quietly, that he may not notice anything, that they may take him away, 

for a thing that walks at noonday he is not, for he walks at night, harj tailtail Ikiii, har| ta:r)te:r| 

It kept walking back, it kept lying down. Sla. (A-son) (tai ||e ||o) SII. (D.B. ) tai^'. taixexo. 

Ex.: r) |ne ! o^ ki tal.^ — I cannot walk. Slla. (Mg. ) tai. SIV. (D.B.) tai. tai, ta;^i, taitai. Ex.: 
q tai, r| ka |kAn ku: — I went I saw an ostrich . tutai ha ke ||alle tai na lutsipi — Tutai has 

gone away to Lutsipi. fnansi e ka taitSi, e ka |ke ||k"wi n ||ara a fnansi walks along and picks up 

the stick, SV. (D.B.) tai, away. Ex.: lihutitu !a: ka Ja tai Lihutitu is far away (? to walk). 

tae, good, s. ta%twaii. Slid. (Arb.) 

ta~e, n. mother, s. ai, tai. Nil. (Dk. ) ta^. 

ta goin, heavy. SVIa. (Kr. ) 

tahar)ka, n. melon 'makadan'. SV. (D.B.) 

tahr), n. form of tasir), younger sister. NIII. (D.B.) 

tali, s. ta:e, to walk. 

_tai, V. to hear, s. ta:a, tui. SVI. (D.B.) j 

ta:i, V. form of tS:, to feel. SI. (B. ) tt-\ . Ex.: he H'^'u:, hir) |ku e:, si tS:! hi — this fatigue, it I 
is that which we are feeling. , 

tfifi, v. not to do, desist from, must not, s. ta, tSo. Nil. (V.) Ex.: teii ts'^a thou shaft not steal. j 

(LI.) teCi, ttal. Ex.: ||na mi, n a u m ba !nwerre, ~jai, taT. ! kur) mi, ~jai — let me alone, that I 
may go to my father's country, oh dear, desist from killing me, oh dear. |xwe sd^, ta ti t/ir), " rj— r), 

zau teCi ok"Vfime, na ti kwa zau ok"ffi" | xwe heard and cried, "no, woman do not speak to me, I 

am afraid of woman's speaking " . d3U ||na, ta kwe, " d3U tanki tsii ||ke e ! nwerre^* the people ob- j 

jected and said, " other people must not die in our country'.' ' 

tai, tai, i;. to stay, let stay, wait. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: !'?u:ani i:, ! nuani i:, t^ ||kai:a — white are , 

here, black are here, (they) stay together. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: iklikwa ikombo, tai a go to Ikombo.j 

stay there, ikombo kslako i/a hako, hadzabi tai t/a Ikomba is a riverbed like this, Bushmen stay I 

at it. ta kwe he ma, tai — do not call him, let (him) stay, tai ali kl^'oako atonen (we) are 

waiting for the clothes still. I 


tai, n. mother, s. ai, ta~e. NI. (Pa.) (D.B.) Ex.: m tai a naro ~di, m ba a ||kau||e — my mother was a 

Naron woman, my father an Auen. m tai si ~ge paternal grandmother, m tai o dzau my maternal 

grandmother. Nil. (LI.) t^i. Ex.: ! nanni tai taok"wi~!ku Inanni's mother talks Bushman. ||nwai 

tai the moon's mother, the upper pointer to the Southern Cross, taitai maternal grandmother. 

tai ba maternal grandfather, tai sir) mother's sister, aunt, e ti tsema, e ti ok"wi " m tai", 

e ti !kaq, e ti ok"wi e tai kwe " a~i" (when) we are little, we say " my mother" , (when) we 

have grown, we call our mother " ai" . (Wil.) tai. 

tai, n. large frog. NI. (Pa.) 

tai, nice, s. tae, f^ain, twaii. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: d3i ka teCi the nut is nice. 

taide, interrog. what ? SI. (Lich. ) Ex. : a xar) aa taide ? what is your name ? 

tai-khe, n. day. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

fain, f^ainja, soft, supple, s. ta~e, taa. [Na. tsam.] SI. (B. ) tt'ain, tthai:nja. Ex.: hir] sZcTer) Oho 
a: t'?ain — it sat ugpn a soft bush, dabben thappen e th£ii:nja — snow is soft. (LI.) tt 'San, 
tt'ain, tt.ainya, tt-ainya. Ex.: |kuksn-ka ! kaukan e: f^aiin — feathers' children (young feathers) 
are soft. |kwalg3n e ~!kuita, hir) |ne "t'^'fiCin --- the clouds are white, they are soft. 

f^aijn, nearly. SI. (LI.) tt'ain. Ex.: ha !ku!kuxe f'aifn ||kho ||a hi --- he (dog) was chasing, nearly 
catching them (cats). ^ -^ y 

"fain, "fainja , v. to be cunning. SI. (LI.) tt'ain, tt'ainya. Ex.: |ku-g-!nwiij a se | har) ! khoukan, hi,j 
"fainja, ha a |kuksnte k"auki se |ni ha, ta: |kukante salg |ku | ni ||gwalttan', ta: Ijgwa'ittan k"auki'! 


"f^ain kwokwari'^a, ta: |ku-g-! nwir| a: "f^ainja — the lynx is the one who shall marry !khouk©fl, he is 
cunning, he is one whom the anteater shall not see; but the anteater would see the cat, for the cat is 
not really cunning, but the lynx is cunning. 

fairnf^airnja, v. to make soft, s. f^ain. SI. (LI.) tt'Siintt'Sinya. Ex.: he tiksn e:, ha ! khaTua ui, i:, 
!k'?e se |ki t'?ai:nt'?ai:nja ha ! khaua, ! khaua se te:g — this is why his vertebral artery stood up, 
the people must make soft the vertebral artery for him, that the vertebral artery may lie down. 

t'alHa, s. f^aHta, to lick. 

tai:ftsn, v. to fear, be startled, n. terror, uneasiness. SI. (LI.) ttsfiten, t-^i't^n. Ex.: ||k"hwi ha:f 
ka sir) ||kho !xuru, o ha: tai:l ||a:, he tikan e:, |hu|hu | ku |]k"oen ■^ai'Hsnna-ka ha-ka !kwi!kwi:, 

hir) |khi: ha the quagga formerly resembled a boulder, as she walked along, therefore the baboons 

seeing feared her greatness, they killed her. r| ka a Am:f ! gSI xoJnnolwa ke Ikhwft: dofm, ta: Ikhwfl: 

do^m: |ku da: ke tai:Stan I want you just to treat for me the child's throat, for the child's 

throat causes me uneasiness. 

taka, V. to dance, s. tsakateaija. CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: welapina pi taka, txlemevi t/u taka, akwitibe hamaa 

this morning they danced, the men only danced, the women sat, taka pe, a kl'^a^a they dance and 


taka, interrog. how many ? CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: taka ipi so "hakha ? how many of them are going ? taka 

epe tsifibe kwebe ikl'^ikwa jetsana ? how many days are needed to go home ? 

tdkasi, long. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ahapi sa takasi pi her teeth are long. 

tak^ta, V. to want. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: aJcu ate kwi ta ko tak^ta ? — what do you want ? ko tak^ta bumbate 
I (I) want tobacco. 

take-tavita, v. to fence, fight with sticks, a game of the Hadzabe and Sandawe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hadzabe 
piepi take— tavita — two Bushmen are fencing. 

|ba:ko:e:, large, Nil. (Wil.) tak<5^. 

itakovita, v. to hit, break. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: takovita ||anabe break stones. 

':akwa, v. to insert. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsau wa so bisoko tseti nina takwa ta tl'^akwa na tl'^apo ekeltami 
na takwa the tail of a wildebeest in the wood insert, pare, and work, and insert. 

bakwdta, v. to boil, heat. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: se takwd.ta makunu, " takwd,ta te ba seme, ukuwa atibi, hakate 

ti /a takwdbta manako" they boil in a pot; " boil it you for us to eat, there is no water, go and 

dip up to boil the meat". 

idlkffe, neg. do not. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dzanne e — bring it. t^kwe dza:na do not bring it. 

;ala, west (?). CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tala /a i/oko si _dza west (?) where the sun goes down. 

.ala, talata, talate, v. to strike, thunder. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _||go~hr) ka tala — men strike (the bow). 
Ilga _t/a:, ||ga~ua _talata — rain falls, the spirit thunders. Ugalia talate ke !ku m te, !u ! na ! gau 

ta, ka ~||ga talata, t/au wa ~tsa ka ~||ga ne talata the spirit struck and killed my mother, (she) 

stood under a tree and the rain struck, two women the rain struck. 

•ale, den. that. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /ia ||nolle tale bring that stone. 

iali, tari, n. flame. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. da tali, ch. sp. tarl. 

all, n. tongue, s. ta~ri, tsri, teni, ta:in. NIII. (D.B.) 

aSm, V. to vibrate, sound, tremble, n.. vibration. SI. (LI.) tt^M, tt^^. Ex.: ! xwSrj ~!kummi-ta !nu:ig 
e: ka talm, he-g r) sir) ! xwar) r| tu:i he, hir)-ka talm: — like the musical bow's string which vibrates, 
that is what I seemed to hear, its vibration. ! kwi a: tuko doaf |ku ka: |khe i, ha tuko dota e, he 
tiksn e:, ha |ne kdi tafm: o i xoa — a man who really wants to kill us he really is, that is why he 
makes tremble our mother. !nuijar) a: ka tam the bowstring it is which vibrates. 

am, V. to fall, drop, dismount, let fall, throw. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAm ka khwi, ! ga tam the sun is 

hot, rain falls. fgSe |ne, di ku tam — one star, it falls, ma ku ||k"am ! k^, na ka _l|ge:t, |uh^:, ma 
ko so: i I dig out ants, then pick them up, put them in the bag, I drop them in and roast them. 3U 


~tsa fkebbi ku tsi: ka ku _tam two people riding came and dismounted. Nil. (LI.) ttaifim, tdfim, 

tamma. Ex.: ka tam — to alight (as birds). |lcu~i go ti tamma |xwe — .... flowers fell upon |xwe. 

ha ti /e, ta ti | ge ~|ni!, ta ti tam |xu he returned and came to sit down, and threw the divining 

pieces, t/i |ne e' " ! nu ara**, t/i |nu ~^khi " tam ara" ta ||gu, na ti ok"wi " t/ara" --- one thing 
(we) throw away, many things (we) throw away, and (of) water I say pour out. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _! gwi 
e tam a k"a in winter (flowers) fall to the ground. 

~tam, V. not to know, to be ignorant of, used as not, s. ta, m. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi "tarn I do not 

know. Ilgora ma ko k"wika t/anni 5u|nwa kam, ~tam ~t/u gu the baboon talks and dances like a Bush 

man, does not build a hut. Nil. (E3<. ) tam. Ex.: na t^m I don-'t know. (LI.) tamm to be ignoran 

of. (Wil.) t5.m, not to know. 

ta:m, n. tongue, s. tali, tar~i. CII. (Schi.) tam. 

tam, used in the phrases tam |k"0:, dirty, tam |k"au, tam |k"ao, bad. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! gu a Pym, ! gu a 

tam |k"ao,nia |ka t/i ! gu e tam |k"ao the water is clean, the water is dirty, I cannot drink the 

water, it is dirty, dzoma tam |k"au — a bad girl. Nil. (LI.) tam^a"o. Ex.: ma |kua ok"wi dsa ta a 

ok"wi tam Jk"ao^ta e daba ! ko ok"wi thou dost not speak nicely, but thy speech is bad, for (it) 

is a little boy's speech. 

tam, tamma, like this, so many, so, as, often used when counting on fingers. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: dama ! goma 

kurise ku tam the little boy's years are so many (holding up fingers), tsiei si ~||kei, dzosi ku 

tam the sisters are four, so many girls. Nil. (LI.) taifima. Ex.: xe ka sir) ! kao ! gusir) tamma kwe, 

ti ! kur)sir) !kao |nu e although their three names are like this, we kill one of the three. CII. (E 

B. ) Ex.: |ni:m kurrim ko hal, tam ko ~mi one policeman came^so he said, hanko, hankoko, tama ||nai 

hanko, hankoko, so (they) sang, kwe ||e:xaba ! gwi:/a /s, tam ko _!xoba i a _|gora the Bushman 

captain took the rope, as ! xuba divided it. 

tam, n. a certain plant with sweet-smelling leaves. Nil. (LI.) tamm. Ex.: ! kug ti ||khi tam Bushmen 

smoke .... (leaves, when they have no dagga). 

tam, n. porcupine. NIa. C Leb. ) ch. sp. | 

tama, neg. not, s. ta ~tam. [Na. tama.] CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) Ex.: we kwe | ge tama — not all men dance, i 

/aum kwe ! num, ako ! xom kwe ! num, ||naum kwe ! num tama in winter set traps, and in spring set trapj 

in rain- time do not set traps. ~kei kwe e, |k"ora tama many people (they) are, not a few. | 


tama, n. tsama melon. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3u-g ! nwasi m tama — Bushmen eat tsama melons, dzosi o ! noi tamsi 

women play with tsama melons. I 


tama, n. grass. Cla. (Pa.) 

tama, interrog. who ? CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tama tete — who are you ? j 

tamab, n. musical bow with tortoiseshell sounding board. NI. (D.B.) 

tamai, n. uncle, father's brother. CII. (D.B.) , 

taman, n. Bergdamara. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: taman i, kwena i ||eja ha taman |kwa the Bergdamara here, the 

Bushmen here lived with the Bergdamara. 

tamatsu, n. small hives, bees' children. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: r)0 sarjgana tamatsu, samakapi kota t/i:, kota 

sameta ^ pakwipi tamatsupi I found small hives, three were tak^n, were eaten: as big as this the 

bees' children. 

tamba, n. tongue, s. tali, ta:m. Nllb. (Leb.) 

tambi, v. to draw, paint, n. painting. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ko|lkot/eja _dzapi a kenina tambi — pictures' 

Bushmen formerly painted, tambi ami, tambi hupi sissikassipi draw (a path) they, draw (a path) 

here the warrior ants. | kia no tambi assowa I have seen the big painting. 

tambi, v. to gather. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso t/irta seseme, so mudi:ga tambi when catches a lion, 

then vultures gather. 

tam-du, n. thirst, (? no water) NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. tam-du. ' 

tame, interrog. who, what ? s. tama. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ika suina tame ? who is coming there ? tame ! 

190 i 


nini ? — what ? 

tamka, v. to be thick. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ! ger) koasa tamka the wildebeest skin is thick. 

tamma^ v. to be near. Nil. (LI.) taffimo. Ex.: "t/u ti tamma ~||gu the house was near the water. 

tamo^ V. to tie. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: bawa a aijako mu:a akweteja ! unguwe, tamo hu:kwa keta i ||ka — fath- 
er and mother cut the child (the little finger) with string, tie it so that it falls off. 

_tam_tam, n. a certain bird. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _tam_tam wa tsaba ||ka||ka the .... is a big bird. 

tamfka, n. spider. NI. (D.B.) 

tar), V. to feel, be in pain, seem, want, often used as v. part, expressing emphasis , a state, or habit- 
ual action, s. ta, kar). SI. (B. ) tan, ttan. Ex.: hir) s'^'o tar| !k"wein they apparently feel angry. 

r) ta:e /a:, g tar), r) ||ka||ka te r) ! nwa! nwa au |i, au ISu e: |ku ta |i — I came, I was in pain, I 
laid my feet burning with heat on ground which was hot. susuksn e: a, hi k"aukitar), r) se ||xa:, r) 

! xwof f i these are burns, they do not feel as if I may again turn back, r) k"auki tag g se tare 

I do not want to walk, ha Gondeksn ^kakka ha, " si tar] ||kwar) |ke'?a: 0axai" her sons said to her, 

" we indeed got hold of daughter" . (LI.) tS,n, ttan. Ex.: ti tar) |ku f-snni au ha the hole is too 

small for him. sitan tar) si t/unt/un ! khe — we did shutting our eyes stand. !khwa:gan ~a si t/wer] 

e: si tsax^iitsn |ku di kui tag hs |kai:nja the rain gave us things which made our eyes seem 

green, he tiken e:, ~|ku-g jne tar] [kei Ikaggan au ~|ku ||ku ko: — the proteles caught the Mantis 
with the proteles' other arm. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha tar) yk^uri --- he is thirsty. t\i ~||kein t/i tar) --- 

the mouth's teeth ache, ha |k"atar) his stomach aches. Slid. (Wu.) tang, future, shall, will. Ex.; 

tar) "xuekn shall or will beat. 

tag, V. to smell. SI. (B. ) taii. Ex.: g-g a: ||kurru g |na: au ||naig-ta !siu. e: tag toi |kwai — I was 
the one who rubbed my head with the houses' dust, which smelt of the ostrich' s scent. 

tag, V. to love. SVIa. (Kr. ) tan. Ex.: ha tag g he loves me. Slid. (Wu.) tang. 

tag, V. to get up early. CI. (Do.) tan. 

tag, V. to hear. SVI. (D. B. ) 

ta:lg, v. to miss. SI. (B. ) ttSri. Ex.: hag |ku-g |ne ||kein !i:, han ku:i ! xi a:, au hag |ne ||kein ta: fg 

g-g he stabbed the bed, it was torn, when he stabbed missing me. (LI.) ttan. Ex.: g |ke sig ka 

toi se g-g, ta: u ka |kw^:i ku, au u se ta:lg ts'^a I did wish the ostricn was coming to me, for 

you acted as if you would miss the thing. 

tan, V. to walk, s. tai, tean, antean. Slla. (Dk.) tan. 

tag, V. to pull, NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~||kau kwa g i ta ? Ukayka/i — a trap like this pulls strongly. 

jtag, far. SI. (B. ) tdfi. Ex.: sitan |ku-g |ne | guksn ||e: tag we offended went far away. 

tan, tag, dem. that is, those are there. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tan xu, tan ku )k"a, tan |kha, tan _||gafe Una 

tis |kam that is the head, that is a hand, that is the face, those are two shoulders. SV. (D.B.) 

Ex.: ea J|k6 [|kui tan Ja it (ox) is walking about going there, n I|k"on a /an tag I walk along 

there. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: tag ka ta ? --- that is what ? QII. (D.B.) Ex.: tan |ejako --- that is a 
rope. taij,. ||aija atonen throw it there again. 

tag, in, hither. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ga ! kum tag ||ha rub in fat. guwa ja ! kwe tag a sheep comes 


tag, sweetly. Nil. (LI.) ikh. Ex.: ||ku "tag, ||ku |k"ao --:- to smell sweetly, to smell badly. 

^afn:, n. cucumber. SI. (LI.) ttariiT. 

i'^'an, f^ana, tana, v. to speak, talk, ring, crow, resound. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: dolokwe |ka f^an the bell 

rings, ha f^an sesarwa she speaks Sesarwa. 0pvra:a kia tana — the child talks, la^a ke /a f^ana 

that man comes to speak. J'ik"wi ka f^ana the cock is crowing, si ka kumma tanane we have 

talked enough. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: n kai tu oz tana te I hear the person speaking. !xwe: 36 tana 

the rain resounds (thunders). 

ag'J'a, tag*?!, v. to ask for, beg. SI. (B. ) t^A-a, tan-i, Ex.: ha se ||a: ||kao ||kaue, ha se tag'?a ||kaue au 


wai he packal) will go to run after the leopard, that he may ask the leopard for the springbok. 

||kha:r| |ne tar)'?i ! khwi ||nweintu --- the lion begged for the fieldmouse' s chest. (LI.) ttari-l, tUn-i. 
Ex.: ha k"auk:i se tar)*?! ja, k"auki ||xS, ha tax)"? d ha --- he would not beg from him, would not again 
beg of him. SII. (D. B. ) Ex.: g ki tar) '''a gpwai I ask for meat. 

tafg'^a, ta^rj'^i, v. missing, s. ta:fg. 

tana, tane, v. to shoot, s. txa.NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ndala tana ! naika --t a white man shoots the lion. 
goba tane ke ||nau na "soggu — an Mbunda shoots with bow and arrows. 

tana, v. to come here, s. tan, to walk. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsifi ti tana i/oko — in the evening comes 
here the sun. 

tar)*?a, n. body, bulb, used for self. Nil. (LI.) td,ft-a. Ex.: m ba ti Am xam svra, ha jk^Ia Am xam tarj'^a --- 
my father eats the lion's lungs, he does not eat the lion's body, na ti kwa |xwe ba, na ti kwa jxwe 

tai, ta ti kwa jxwe tarj'^a I fear |xwe's father, I fear |xwe's mother, and fear | xwe himself, m:, 

ga tar)'?a --- food, (an onion), its bulb NIII. (D.B.) tar), tarj'^a. Ex.: a tar) ||kha --- his body's 
flesh, ne ke !ku tar) te ~o some people' s bodies broke out (small pox). 

tana, so thus, s. t&. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tana ko ||kur) kwena ~mi — so the old men say. 

tana, tano, num. five. [Swa. mtano.] QII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsivi wa tana ki — five days, o tano e ami 

five there are. 

tanaba, n. head. [Na. tanas.] Nllb. (Leb. ) 

tafg'^ag, verbal n. missing, s. ta:§r|. SI. (LI.) tt^rt-an. Ex.: talg'^ar) |ku e, !kuko: sir) k"auki |khi: -- 
missing it is, the other shall not kill. "* 

tane, tani, tanne, tanni, v._to carry, wear, bring, fetch, s. tare, tjane, tenne. [Na. tani.] SIV. (D.B. 

Ex.: ! wara tane khaa ke xuu the girl is carrying water on (her)head. k"amsa tani to carry 

fastened to the head. | geki ki tane i 0bwa:a, bs a ko ! weko i _0bwa:a a woman carries wood (in he 

kaross), a man shoulders the wood. NI. (D.B.) Ex. : mihi ku tane daba I was carrying the child. 

!nu!nuri ko ma ka ~u, ka ge ho:a tja, ka tani /i — the snails early will come out, and I will get 

them, will bring them. Ihuykwa tane birikosi: white men wear trousers. Nil. (LI.) t^nni. Ex.: ha 

zau I ge guwa, ta |uwa ha kwa ha zau da, ta tanni, tanni ha, tanni ha, ta ha |nu |ne ||a, ta ! g'^ar) da 

his wife went to take hold of him and put him in his wife's kaross, and carried, carried him, 

carried him, and he was large and filled (?) the kaross. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAmtem ||kau||e: kweme e, a 

ga ! koxo ko tani, a ko myrid3i tane jkAmtem is an Auen man, (he) shall come, shall bring meat, 

and bring mealies. 

tane, v. to stay. NIII. (D.B.) Ex. : ma tane wa kwa r) — I shall stay here, iii ~te tane kwa n "t/u my 

mother stayed at the hut. 

ta:r)'?e, v. to give. Slle. (And.) tSq-S. Ex.: ta:q'?e ! 6a give me water. 

tane, n. sand. SIIc. (D.B.) 

tar)'?e, dem. there is, s. tan, tag, Slle. (And.) tag-e. Ex.: tar)'?e |i there is fire. I 

tar)ga, v. to make. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ndala ke taqga ~||gu white people make rain, dso ki tagga I 

Jsla bees make wax. i 

tagga, n. cloth, stuff. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tar)ga ~||gum, suta ~!khwi — cloth is thin, barkcloth iiJ 
warm. !o ! ku ki "to: tar)ga ~! gai Bushmen want red stuff. Cllb. (Wil.) tihga, rag. 

_tanjae, v. to run. SIIc. (D.B.) j 


tanje, v. to dance. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: i e tanje they dance. 

tanki, another, different. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ta ti ||gd ~|hu tanki t/u and visits another white man's 

house. |nat~hi ||ke||k^ja ngoba : |nat~ni tanki, ngoba tanki — the |nani resemble the Makoba ; the 
|nani are different, the Makoba are different. 

tanna, n. hair. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: !k"Witanna --- hair of feather (stripped off). | 

ta:r)'?o, v. to prohibit, say 'musn't'. Nil. (Dk.) 


tantaba:, n. butterfly, s. tentebe:. Nil. (Wil.) tantaba. 

tarjtari, v. to make ache, be very ill. n. illness, great pain, s. tar|. SI. (B. ) ttdntt^ii, tafit^n. Ex.: r) 
|ku-g |ne ta: li tagtar) rj Ikwalkwargsn — I had gone making my legs ache. ||kha:r) k"wa:k"wa Jo:, au 

ha tu, hi— ta taritaq the lion sits moaning about his skin, its great pain. (LI.) ttS.nttan, 

ttantt^n. Ex.: ha ! k'^da se ha e: ha da: ha okan-gu he, o har) ta: ||ka ti e:, ha k"auki ka ha okan-gu 

ee |ni tagtar) a: |xarra she is careful about the food which she prepares for her parents, for she 

feels that she does not want her parents to have an illness which is different, itsn ||xAmki tar)~tag, 
au i(khi: ||kerri we are also ill, if we kill the locust bird. 

tagtar), ~ta:g_ta:r), v. to thunder, hum, s. tana. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||gauwa ki tagtar) — the spirit thund- 
ers. _d30 ~ta:r|_ta:r) the bees hum. 

tantan, v. to cut, pare. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: '^xai ke so tantan — the boy sits cutting ( a stick). 

tan !jih, warm. SI. (Lich.) tant '3Jih. ■ 

tao, V. to give, s. ta:g'?e. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tSo ki Gpwe give me meat. 

tafo, V. to stroke, smoothe. SI. (LI.) ^6, tt^o. Ex.: ha ha:S ku ||nau: ||k"hwija ka: ^i:, ha: tafo aksn 
|ki ||k"hwi, ha ha: I |ku ! kauksn ko: irtan-tl^ ||kha o ||k"hwi — he did this^ when the quagga thought he 
would stroke making nice the quagga, he beat laying his stick on the quagga. ha haf | ne talo akksn 
|ki !kwi, tafo |ki sa gwai: he smoothed making nice the person, made smooth the male eland. 

taolo, n. command. [Tsw.J CI. (Do.) 

taou~taou, n. bird found in numbers in ^shmanland. SI. (LI.) ttaou— ttadU . 

' tara, talra, v. to shine, lighten. NI. (D.B.) Ex.:'mihi ku se: ~! ga re ku tafra, J ga ~|ka t/i — I saw 
' the rain lighten, the rain did not thunder, tara, shining. Nil. (LI.) t^ra, tSrra. Ex.: ||ga ti tara 
j — it lightens (the rain lightens), ka ti t/ir) ka tara it thundered and lightened. 

'tara, n. stork. CII. (D.B.) 

taraol/i, n. a plant, Euphorbia Macquilatera. CII. (D.B.) 

'taras, n. woman, s. tare/a. [Na. taras.] Nile. (Leb. ) 

tare, _tari, v. to carry, bring, s. tane, tjane. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! xaika n si se, n si _tari ||kaisa — 
to-morrow I will come, I will bring clothes. 

tare/a, n. woman, s. taras. [Na. taras] Nllb. (LeD. ) taresha. 

Itari, n. tongue, s. teri, tsni, tali. NI. (D.B.) ta~ri. Nil. (V.) t^ri. (Wil.) tart. 

|tari, flat. CI. (Do.) 

tarraksn, n. pot. SI. (LI.) tirrakfn. Ex.: ha ha I |ne ta, " tarrakan Ikolkoir] "kwa: !khe:, ta: r) !Ahfta 
||kau:" he said, " the old pot must remain, for I lie in the old house" 

t?arri, v. to quiver (?). Nil. (LI.) tt'arri. Ex.: me ykhasir) ti farri — my flesh quivered (?). 

talrro, v. to drive. SI. (LI.) t^r^ro. Ex.: ||kerri ||kwalr) ka ||xou talrro !hou:, he !hou:wa-g |ne ~|e: 
Qhokan the locust birds fly driving the locusts, and the locusts go into the bushes. 

taSrru-gu, n. lizard. SI. (LI.) tdrni-ggu, pi. td,t|rrukfn-ggu. 

tasirj, n. younger sister, younger cousin, s. tsasir), tsisi. Nil. (LI.) t^-ssi^. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha 

tasig we/s/e t/xai her younger sisters all dance, wase-de m tasiq Wase-de is my younger cousin. 

tasit/a, tassa, tasse, v. to buy, sell. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tasit/a ono daraij,ga — I buy meal, /amobi 
tasit/a darag,ga ba seme — the Isanzu sell meal to eat. hadzabi kima /a a/oko se tassa ma:ku zaiko 
— Bushmen take skins and buy pots in the south, tasse hadzabe kataikwapi, tasse ota /amobi — buy 
for the Bushmen beads, buy of the Isanzu. 

|tasse, long, tall. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mua: tasse — a long whip, unuwa hama tasseja unu — this man is 
a tall man. 

tassi, n. leather bag. Clb. (Pa.) 



ta/ule, V. to sharpen. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: n ta/ule ! ko I sharpen the knife. 

taHdl, V. to shake hands. Nil. (LI.) tat|. 

ta-taCt), V. to be dark. SI. (LI.) tSttli(tt). Ex.: ti e:, ! kau~|kauro k"auki fxi: ja, x: , hirj e: !k'?e ta, 

llga tsofmma, au ti ta~ta(t) when the moon does not shine, then the people say night darkness, whe 

the place is dark. 

tata, n. my father. SI. (LI.) t^ta, tSta, emph. t^taken, pi. t^ta-ggii. Ex.: tatakan kar) fkakka ke — my 
father used to say to me. si |ku ka " ibbo" , sitsn |ku ka " i o:a" , au ! kaukan e: |ne Ikarlgsn yna^ 
hiq e: |ne ta " ta:ta" , hirj sair) ka " ibbo": kum a:, hi ta " ta:ta", a:, hag |ku |hir) bure — we 
(Bushmen) say "ibbo" , my father, we say "i o:a", our father, while the children who are lately there 
are those who say "tata" , my father, they should say " ibbo" ; the fashion of saying " tata", comes 
from the Boers, tata-gu my father and mother. SIV.& SVI. (D.B.) tata. 

tata, pron. we, form of sita. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: xaba /ataue a ta !k3, tata |uwa ha — he may perhaps ha\ 

gone, we do not know. k"amska k"wisii " ! nerrime " tata ko ~mi (in) the Bushman language "sky" v 


tataba, tatama, n. butterfly, moth, s. dadaba, thantabure. NI. (D.B.) tataba, butterfly, tatama ko fS: -j 

the butterfly flies, tatamasi moths. Nil. (LI.) tataba, tatdbba. Ex.: ta ti Am tataba — it eatil 

butterflies, tatabba ||ke the moth is dead, tataba ma little moths. 

tataro, tata^u, v. to whisper, speak slowly. Nil. (LI.) tat^ro. Ex.: ha tataro t/ir| it (dog) whispe: 

ing whines (whines softly). (Ek. ) tataStU. to speak slowly. 

ta~tafra, v. to be helpless, paralysed. SI. (LI . ) ttattarra. Ex.: ha ||ku||ku | ne di kiii ta ta~tarra — hj 

arms became helpless. 

tati, dem. it is, that is. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa:ku e Opwa tati e, e afa tati e: — |kwa:ku's child thi ! 

is, her father it is. 

tatakwa, v. to chop. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e tatdkwa re ato t/eka ts'^oko nini — they are chopping and spl 
ting wood. 

f'aftta, f^aifta, "f^afttsn, v. to lick. SI. (LI.) tt'Jt-tS, tt'^ita, tt'itten. Ex.: l|kha: Ir) kiii, ha 

fkauwa ! kwi ha siq f^aftta ha tsaxditsn-ta ! khwetan the lion said, he wanted the man, whose eyes 

tears he had licked. ! kwi k"wa:, i:, he ha^f^aHtan ! kwi tsa^di : tan-ta Ikwetji the man wept, and 

he licked the man' s eyes' tears. 

tattsn, tatStttan, v. to fall, drop, make fall, used as down. SI. (B. ) tattfn, tat^ttfn. Ex.: ha kar) k"« 
|ku tattan o:a — he must have fallen down, ha |ki |hir| !kwe: a: ha sir) ||kein |ki a akka ! gaufa a:, 

hs ha ! aukan tattan ho: ha au !kwe:-ta ||kha he took off the digging stone, with which he had bee! 

digging out wild honey, and he struck knocking it (the calf) down with the digging stone's stick, q 
|ku-g |ne !u:xe: tat^ttan au | i-ta ||k"oe, hiq |ne: dauko tatdittan au hir) ||k"i||k"i !au:nta r) ! nwa 

||ka:||k^:tu I running dropped the fire's embers, they on the way fell from (where) they stood fas 

between my toes. (LI.) ttattatten, Ex.: ha: taufko ! na! ndbbitan, o ha: ! na! n^bbitan tatdttan Ikole'w 
o ha |na: it (hare) going along shakes its head, while it shakes its head making fall the lice fiin 

its head. i 


tatti, that, feel that, contrac. of ta ti, feel the thing, often used in phrases. SI. (B. ) Ex.: hirj u;: 
hir) s?oe:r) 0ho a: f^ain au hig tatti, 0ho ||ken^i hi --- it arose, it sat upon a soft bush, as it feJI 
that^the (other) bush was pricking it. (LI.) tatti. Ex.: he ti hir) e:, & |ku dalrrakan, au a:r) tatt:i 
e:, a: ! kauwa --- that is why the flesh moves, for the flesh feels that the flesh lives. 

tau, V. to be angry, afraid. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: e ti tau we we are afraid (of a woman). 

tau, V. to pound, stamp. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kannise a ko |ko, a ko tau, a ko tum nuts (I) gather, 

stamp, eat. a !k"uj*kwe _lne|kesa | ga na tau into the mortar seeds put and pound. 

tau, V. to burn, s. dau. CII. (Schi.) 

~tau, V. perceive. SI. (LI.) ttjiii. Ex.: wai ||kwara a: !kwai, tsi !khe:, ha satr) ku ~tau &, ha kwa:f sa 
ho: !khwa, ha kwa: f fnammi ki |e: ! khwa au wai !kau:ukan --- one mother springbok ^grazing stands, sj 
will perceive him (the hunter), she will make the child (kid) arise, she will drive the child in amg 
the body of the springbok. 

tau, n. ashes, s. dau. CII. (Pa.). 



bau, conj . connecting double verbs, or n. and pron. s. kau^ ki, ko. SI. (B. ) Ex.: korokan |ku a: sir) 
akke !khwa:, e: rj sir) ta:e tau ku: ||ka; ||ka: r) ! nwa i: --- the jackal is one who must give me water, 

that I may go to pour wetting my foot with it. (LI.) ttS.u. Ex.: t6i e: tai : ^ tau hi: ||go:a the 

ostriches are those who go along eating the blossom. ! nwir] a: ha sir) ||a ha a,:, he tau ! kukan! kuksn, 

he tau ||khwai: kokkd, he sir) ||a ha a: the kaross which he had gone to give her, and the shoes, 

and the quiver too, they must go after him. 

jaua, V. to turn round (of an object.) Nil. (Oc.) taua. Ex.: taua kweja turn this way. q: taua 

to turn round (of a person while sitting). 

iau ho, a phrase, there it goes. SI. (LI.) ttau ho. Ex.: ha |ne ||gebbita !na:f— ka-ti, har) hal |ne kui, 

" !na:l-ka-ti we, tau ho" he (the son of the Wind) rolled (a ball) to !na-ka-ti, he exclaimed, 

" o !na-ka-ti, there it goes" . 

iauHtan, v. to work magic with, deal with, work off, n. work. SI. (LI.) ttaui-tfn. Ex.: ! kwi a:, ha e 
! !khwa:-ka !gi:xa !kerri, ha fenrna ti e:, ! k'?e |kwe:ik"o, hir) taulitan hi !khwa:-ka xoro i: — this 
! man, he is an old rain-sorcerer,, he knows that the people did thus, they worked magic with the ^ater- 
bull. har) ||nau:, har] ki ta: ti e:, ha tu: ||kwalri tag, hag k"auki k"war)ha ta: ha tu:,o hag ta:,||ka ti 
e:, ha j=en:na ti e:, |kaggan a: |kwe:i k'-okan tau:li"tan hi ha — he does this, if he feels that his 
skin smarts, he does not show (that) he feels his skin, for he feels that he knows that the Mantis is 
I acting thus, dealing with him. g ha: I |k"e:ja |hu: a:, |hu: aim: k"auki |kha si, ha ~i: ~a si, si 
I tau: Hta ha a:, o ha k"auki |kha si, ta:-g g k"auki fkau:wa ha |kha g o:a, ta:, g kag se a: taufitan 
g 6ar-ka taulitan, e: ha sig jkha: ! gei, i:, g se taulitan ||k"e hi, g-ka tauHtan, o-g g dar-ka taulitan 

I I told the master, the master should not kill us, he really should allow us to work for him for 

. it, instead of killing us, for I did not want him to kill my father, for I should be the one to work 
off my father's work for having killed the sheep, I would work off both together, my work and my 
father' s work. 

aukan, toukan, v. to go in all directions, disperse, gather from all sides, s. tauko, dauko. SI. (LI.) 
't^ukfn, tduken. Ex.: ha |ne ||xa, ha ~!xwonni, he ! k'^e a: ha sig |kalti ! kuxe si taukan, ha |ne !a: 

sigya, ha |ne !xe: tig it (springbok) again turned back, and the people who had just run from 

different directions, they were level with it, they lay hidden. ! kau | ku-g | ne kiii ! gwa u |kAm 
~!kauwi, i: , he ~! kauwi-ta tikantikan-ta ! kaukan |ku— g |ne |kabbu ka ||e taukan — the stone strikes 
upon the egg, and little bits of the egg fly in all directions, hi doa |ku ! kagan kau ~!kou tig sa ~i, 

itan |k"wa: ||e toukan they must have come early avoiding us, when we dispersed to gather food. 

Ik'^e |ku-g |ne !kuitan se toukan the people returned, gathering from all sides. 

auko, V. to go along, s. tau ho, dauko. SI. (LI.) tt^uko. Ex.: si se |ku ||nau:, si |na: ||kha: ,! nwa,si se 
|ku i: !kwe!kwe ! khe te, o si |ka:gan, o sija |ku tauko tai:l, o si k"auki !khe: — we should do 
this, (if) we saw a lion's spoor, we should merely look at each other, while we continued to go a- 
long, while we did not stand, hag fnsii :l ts'^a, ha |ku-g |ne tauko !kaukan'?i: ts'?a — he kicked the 
thing, (animal), he went along beating the thing. 

aune, n. hand, s. tsau. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. taune. 

lauo, V. to be better. CI. (Do. ) 

^uro, n. troop (of springbok), SI. (LI.) ttauro. Ex.: waitan k"auki |k"wai : ja, ta: , wai |ku fenni 
Gpwonni, he tikan e:, ! k'^e ta ka tauro Qpwonni i:, tauro Qpwa kag |ku a, ha |ku ||kerritan||kerritan 

the springbok are not numerous, for the springbok are few, therefore the people say small troops 

to them, a small troop is here, it is round. 

kurutauru, flat (?). SI. (LI.) ttauruttauru. Ex.: |nutarra |na: kag k"auki oa |kwa~ilja i: e: ! k'^e 

I kuitan, i |na:, ta: ha |na: 0pwa (ku ~oa taurutauru, hig |kwsiifja to:i — the old woman's head did 

not resemble us who are other people, our heads, for her little head was f^at (?), it resembled an 


iu:t^u:, V. to be gentle, fall gently (?), s. tu:. SI. (LI.) ttSu-ttSu. Ex.: ! khwa se kwerre, ! khwa se 
di ku !xwa tau:tau:, o !khwa: k"auki ! kal! kafrrakan*?!: — the rain will become cool, the rain will 
seem to be gentle (?), while the rain does not make a noise of rattling thunder. 

wwe, V. to lick, s. f^aHta. CI. (Do.) 

iva, V. to work, s. taba. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: i ka tava --- they work. 

«a, V. to make drunk. CI. (Do. ) tagha. 



taxa, n. thing. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: /ita narota a ko _dau, we taxa ta ko _dau — we Naron do burn, all 
things do burn. 

te, tS:, V. to lay, lie, used as down, s. ta, terj. SI. (B.) tie, t^. Ex.: harj |ne te: ||khwai:, au hai) 

S^o: and he laid down the quiver, as he sat. !ai:ti ko: | ne !kwai: te: ||nair) the other femal 

alone lies in the house. (LI.) tte. Ex.: hir) Jurritsn !kwa |kum: ui /o-|oa||k"a, hir) te ui hi, hig J 

te /o— |oa !kwa!kwa:gan they twisting break off the ....'s foliage, they lay it aside, they put i: 

(to the bag) the ....'s roots. 

te, te, V. to fly, spring, get up, throw. SI. (LI.) tte. Ex.: ! ki : tg ! kabbu the jackal-trap spring 

bang. ~3U te giiin — the beetle is throwing (letting fly). ~||khouksn hal |ku-g |ne kui, "~xe(t) te t 

te te", !k'»ettate ||a au ~3U the striped mouse said, "xet te te te te " (the noise of the stick) 

letting fly back at the beetle. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: k"annisa ko tg the male ants fly up.NIII.(D. B. ) [ 

sorjgu te: the arrow flies. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |k6/a ||ka te the owl flies about. |kauba a ~te, 

te, kwe k"a:a the cobra gets up, stands, bites the man. ! gwi/a ~te tama the trap does not 

spring, cm. (D.B.) Ex.: te |i:be plunges in (the bird). 

~te, ~te, V. to stand, stay, stick together, pick up. Nil. (LI.) th, t6. Ex.: |xwe e |xwe, ta: ! kabba 

tjana, ta ti te tjana |nesir) | xwe was |xwe, and climbed a .... tree, and picked .... fruit, t^, 

to stick together. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwad3i ko hid3 kwe ~te the calves under the trees stand. 

||a:m kwe farroane ~te — in the flower the fruit stands. (kAmt/era ! nut/era hanahal, ||ku/ara di/era 
! nuj* kwe te ha two huts there are, the other two daughters in the huts stay. 

~te, te, V. desist from, leave off, not to do, s. ta, tama. Nil. (LI.) te, te. Ex.: ha zau ti ok"wi d3U 

" i ~tg si me !ka~o" his wife said to the people, " desist from laughing at my husband", m tai, 

te feAiD ! kar)'^a m ba |ne my mother, do not beat wounding my father's head. 

te:, interrog. what ? how ? s. de, tee. SI. (LI.) tte, t^. Ex.: hi |ne tutd: |ni: Gpwa, ti e:, ha |nu 

sir) te: da, har) !kwi: sa: they asked the young ichneumon, what he (Mantis) had said, (when) he 

called the eland, r) |ne se te: |ki q di ? — what shall I do ? u xa dola te: k"og8n |xa i:, o ||khS: 

? he u k"auki do?a ka u |kha ||kha:f ? how did ye shoot at the lion, that ye did not kill the lioi 

? SVIa. (Kr.) -te, ts'oa^te, which matter ? which cause ? what? why ? Ex. : ts'^oa-te g yan ti e a 7 -- 

what do I smell here ? ts'^oei-te r) di u g |a ||ui aa ? what did I do that I must die to-day ? 

ts'?oa-te ts'^yn g fgaggan har) kx'^ou toai ? why thing I say not good ? (why is what I say bad ?) Nil. 

(V.) te, which usually applied to things. Ex.: gome te na ti u: 9 which ox shall I take ? (LI.) 

t6f te, where ? Ex. : m ba t^ ? where is my father ? me ||ha t^ ? where is my child ? 

-te, pi. suffix. Slle. (And.) Ex.: tsaxu, tsaxu-te eye , eyes. 

te, V. part. s. ti. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kam te ~|gi the sun rises, mihi !kwe, ka te _gu mi, te ||na m 

|ko my man, when (he)took mej marked my forehead. 

te, dem. this, it, there, and part, used before numerals , « . tes, ten, ti . Sllb. (Mh. ) t5, this one. SI. 
(D.B.) Ex.: kwe te so — she there sits, te ! "^uko, te _dwene — two, three. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: fi ^^ 
~fu_u — one man. _||kowa te ||kari — many arrows. _l|kowa ||na te |kam — two arrows. |ksn te e — 

this day, to-day. tan |no te a that is the nose there. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: kune a /i, te /i the 

wagon comes, there comes, ea /a H'i'hunte thabe ke makudje te e she has come from Thabe to Makudje 

here, misis a te /o Missis is sitting there. 

te, conj . and. Nil. (V.) Ex.: na /u:, te |koii vho: dsi: I went and received nothing. 

te, prep, to, on, in, at, from, s. ke. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: g ga /i te ~||ka I have come to the camel thor 

tree, he a ka |k"wake ||garre, he a /a |kAm te kolui — he is passing with the basin, he is putting 
it on the wagon, si ~||kau te ! kha te !no:e — we dip up water m the tortoise-shell, /i ta Gpwoin t 

kenje we shall sleep at Kenye. 0moi ha ||kaHa te ~||ka • the wood has fallen from the camelthor 


~te, n. mother, also applied to mother's elder brother or younger sister, s. de. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m t 
a maxa my mother is Maxa. 

te:, n. liver, s. t/e, t/i. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. t5. ; 

tS, n. thigh, s. ter). SI. (B. ) ttg, pi. ttette. Ex.: har) |kau: ho !k'?wa: te — she cut off the harte» | 
beest's thigh, ha-g | ne Igailgdija: |e: ta |kubbi a: tete-ta eg — he moaned in the bush about his 
thigh's flesh. Slla. (Mg. ) te, thS. SIIc. (D.B.) ts. Ex.: rj ki'ts --- my thigh. SIII. (D.B.") te. CD 
(D.B.) te/a, thigh. Ugai te — left thigh. 

te:, te, te/a, n. bow, s. desa, teg. CII. (Pa.) t5.(D.B.) te, te/a pi. tesi. Ex.: te ||abbo — bow stri 


ie; pron. thou, you. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ono, te k"lodzo ba kenina — I, you, we talk together, takwata 
te, ba seme — boil (it) you, we eat. pakapaa ko i/o teko — greater is the sun than you fem. tama 
tete ? who are you masc. ? 

:e, pron. me, s. tita. CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) Ex.: | geruba ko k"a te — the wasp has bitten me. du/a !ko:a 
ha a au te tama ? what (are you) holding and do not give to me ? 

iea, V. to call, say. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: one tea marutu — me (he) calls Marutu. tea ba: a mama, man 
||aia monjoda — he said to the lady, am asking for salt, teata teko said you. 

;eaba, n. hind leg, s. tS, tee. CII. (D.B.) dual teat/era. 

iean, v. to walk, go, s. antean, tsii. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n tean — I walk, ha tean — she goes away. 
tearni run away. 

is'^a:g, n. food. Sllb. (Mh. ) te^Sn. 

igbbe, V. to beat off, rub off. SI. (B. ) Ex.: har) |ku-g |ne t^:eta:eja ti kau tebbe ! aiu au ha tsexu — 
he did walking rub off the dust from his back. 

;ebbi, n. lower eyelid. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: | ga^ tebbi — eye's lower lid. ] ga^ tebbisir) — eyes' lower 

iebbutebbusi:, n. butterfly, butterflies, s. tataba. SI. (B. ) tt^bbutt^bbussi. 

;ee, v. to drive away. CI. (Do.) 

■'66:, V. to whistle. Nil. (LI.) tee. 

iee, n. thigh, hind leg, s. te, teaba. CI. (Do.) 

ie^:, n. bird like a fowl. Nil. (LI.) te-e, ttee', tee. Ex.: te^: |lke||keja kuku, ha ti ! ga, ha Ikwisigti 
! ga, ha ti ||ke||keja kuku de the .... resembles the fowl, it is red, its feathers are red, it re- 
sembles a hen. 

be:e, n. arrow. NI. (Pa.) tee. 

teeja, v. to cover. CIII. (D.B.) 

bei, V. to arise, s. te, te. CII. (Schi.) 

tei, n. a bird, 'Sandhuhn'. Nil. (Wil.) 

ieke, V. to pierce, stick. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ungu e ma ||kauwa, teke ja manina utumeko — the Masai 

killed him , stuck him (in) the body a spear. t/a:ti amo, ha teke amo pis^ upukwa tina he is ill, 

has pierced a thorn into his foot. 

ieketd, tekit^, v. to fight with sticks, s. take-tavita. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: teket^ pi unubi piepi — two 
men fight, tekatd ja unu — a man fights, txlemepi tekita pi, ba sandawepi — men fight, they are 

lekise, red, s. tissiuni. CIII. (D.B.) 

;elel6, n. grasshopper. CIII. (D.B.) 

;s:lin, short. Sllb. (Mh. ) tSlin. 

bem, conj . then, so. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mu ku ts'?a~a 3U ku ok"wi, tem kuni ku ~tsi I heard people talk- 
ing, then the wagon came. 

beme, v. to say, call, s. tea. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |hu||kwa koko byri taa, !xo:ba teme --- the Namas used to 
tell us to say ! xoba. ti Ukun/ ko IkwSne aba, nos ka tira |gi, Hgeis ko i: ne |urru-||aisi teme --- (if) 
my daughter bears a child, then I will name (it), if it is a girl, |urru-||aisi will call (it). 

beme, in a little while. CI. (Do.) 

bemmi, v. to roll up. SI. (LI.) ttSmmi. Ex.: ha ka !k'e ko:^of se tsmmi |e: ha, o !kw'?a: tutu e: 

|k"waija, ||kha:& xa se sa |ni ha he wanted the people to roll him up in many hartebeest skins, so 

that the lion should not come and get him. 


te:r), te:n, v. to lie, lie down, reign, s. ta, te, tete. SI. (B. ) ten, ten. Ex.: |ka:kagsn |ne tare, I 

|ka:gsn-ka ku:, au hag |ne te:r), ha se 6oer) ||nairi' the hens go, all the hens, while he lies he \| 

will sleep in the nest. te:n njau ti |ks" lie you down yonder. ^Ll.) tten, ten, ttentten, ttenya,' 

Ex.: har) |ne ||koaksn !ke!ke ||koesir|, ha se |ku-g |ne te:n, au har) tatti e:, na |ki |e:ja ha |na: au i 

||kuitsn-ta Ghotksn he altogether waits quietly (?) inside, that he may lie down, when he feels til 

he has put his head inside the boughs of the screen of bushes, har) tail u ||a:, fgoukan tern, au hai, 

|ku— g I ne ||ar) suer| ha— ka ||neir) he went away, quiet reigned, while he went to sit at his house, il 

jne ||ar ^kakkon ||na||n^ toi ar terntern ti fkakksn har-ka ||neir) — I went away to talk with an ostri/ 

which lying talks at its house, ter) ||a lying go, float along, aksn |ku a ||k"oen, ~! guru er ter| ] 

hi e thou art the one who beholdest, white clouds which float along these are. r| sir) ta, ha t/u" 

terrjja ~hi I had wished it (wind) blowing should lie down for us (should gently blow for us), d: 

terr)ja — made to lie, to be done, happen, ha | ki e ts'^a ar |ku Ikhour, ti er di tergja h.6 ti — : 
(the game) is a thing which smells that which has been done at that place. 

tSr), n. thigh, emph. form of te, thigh. SI. (LI.) tten. Ex.: toi ||nwairntu e Ikwargsn, toi ter) e ar --■ 
the ostrich's chest is bone, the ostrich's thigh is flesh. 

ter), n. bow, s. tS, de/a. CII. (Pa.) teng. 

tern, interrog. how ? Sllb. (Mh. ) ten. Ex.: a xa tern fardika ? — how are you ? 

tenane, n. stick. CI. (Do.) "^ 

tene, tenne, v. to carry, bring, s. tane. [Na. tani.] NI. (D.B. ). Ex.: tene ||ersi — carry grass. Nil. 

(LI.) t^nne. Ex.: !kur) ti gu !kar) ! gwasig, ta ti ||khunna, ta ti tenne t/u Bushmen take the treel 

leaves, and put (them) over the shoulder, and carry (them) home. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tene |gaisi, tene 

gad3i the women are carrying, carrying grass, faroan -kei ko si t/aua, ko tene a misis ka | gwa i 

many bulbs (I) will dig out and bring to Missis in the evening. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ave tene t/a |a 
meriko (he) carries on the shoulder a load. ! 

tenee, v. to swing anything. CI. (Do.) Ex. : tenee kakho to swing about. 

tenee, by and by. CI. (Do.) 

tenteber, n. butterfly, s. tantabar . Cllb. (Wil.) tSntebe. 

teo,-ii. to cease. CI. (Do.) 

teo, n. marriage ceremony. CI. (Do.) 

tepe, n. cap. NIII. (D.B.) 

tepe, n. bag, quiver. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: pana tepe arrow bag. 

tepi, n. bucket, tin. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: /a atebi tepi tina fetch water in a tin. 

ter^i, interrog. where ? SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a hsma a terdi ? where is he ? 

_tari, V. to thunder, s. tala, tana. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a J:sri — it thunders. 

terre, v. to crumble and fall, to turn. SI. (LI.) tt|rre. Ex.: hurru-si-tuturriten tuko dola e, har !k 

|ku tdrre o ti er, ha |ka a he the anteater really it is for whom the earth crumbles and falls 

(? turns over) at the place where she goes along. ! gwarra ||kei terreta the edge of the knife is 



terfir, v. to splash, plunge into. SI. (B. ) tefri. Ex.: har) |ne kdi ! kum tefrir, ha-g |ne kui 6xuru Ia, 
hir) !kwar he plunging splashes, he swam on top of the water. 

terri, n. tongue, s. tar~i, tali. Nil. (LI.) t^rri. Ex.: d3U tsrri a person's tongue. 

tsrri, n. clotof^blood. SI. (LI.) tterri, pi. ttett^tten. Ex.: Ijxaukan ||kwalr) e, hir) |ne e terri, hir)|i 
tar ||khoe tig ~twir it is blood, it is a clot of blood, it is that which lies in the wound. { 

t^errija, v. to rub (?). SI. (LI.) tt'erriya. Ex.: ha ka ha f^errija ~!kwi ar twir, o ha |nunu — he 
(sorcerer) wishes to rub the person at the wound with his nose. 

territanterritsn, v. to roll, s. terre. SI. (B. ) territent^rriten. Ex.: hag ||kaur tig ! kui tan kui tan, ; 

198 ; 


!naunko ! Ahl !khe: ||nair|, hag te:r) si territanterritsn e:, harj k"oaq |kammir) |kAm hi-ka ku: — he 
(jackal) lies upon the other eggs which still stand in the nest, he lies rolling on them, he arising 
carries them all. 

3~taminainja, v. to disappear. SI. (LI.) ttettammainya. Ex.: i ||gwi Ik'^ui au ha, au ha |ku-g |ne "ykwara 

ts~tammainja, au i ! naunko !k^u |e: sa |ka:lo we go astray from- it, when it canters, disappearing 

while we are still coming below the hill. 

te, te~te:g, v. to lay down, lie down, throw away, form of te:r). SI. (B. ) tt^tt^, tet^. Ex.-. r) | ne 8*^0 
ko !kAn!kAh ! kwa jkam hi-ta ||koro, r) |ku-g |ne tete u:i hi — I sat and taking hold broke off their 

singed parts, I threw them away. (LI.) tSttfen. Ex.: hir) |ne jjar) te~ter) tag ~0pwoiri they went to 

lie down yonder to sleep. 

jte, s. te, thou. 

;:te:, n. thighs, s. te. 

;teina, good. SI. (Lich. ) Ex.: aa |koar) teteina thou good man. 

Stse, V. to return. CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: obi hadzabi ota elata hamana, elata ota t^tse we Bushmen did 

clear this, having cleared returned. 

la, V. to lay, s. ta, ta: . Slid. (Wu.) th^. 

la, V. to feel, s. ta. [Ko. tha.] Sllb. (Mh.) that Slid. (Wu.) tha. 

a, V. to carve, cut. CI. (Do.) 

iQif V. to drink. (H. (Do.) 

a, n. meat. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

aae, v. to split, divide, s. tha, to cut. CI. (Do.) 

adho, n. piece. CI. (Do.) 

ai, hard. Slid. (Arb.) 

aka, n. blood. CI. (Do.) Ex.: thaka ha — dysentry. thaka |kwa — a drop of blood, thaka ||xadi — a 
blister of blood, thaka kwa xa kwa d3wa bleeding at the nose, thaka lesikaa artery. 

'ame, n. secretary bird. CI. (Do.) 

an, V. to stand by, wake up. CI. (Do. ) Ex. : thanaha standing up. thanakho to cause to rise up. 

thari kakho — to cause to stand. 

an, n. nettlerash. CI. (Do.) 

tana, v. to sprout, bloom, n. berry. CI. (Do.) 

■tianao, n. sprout, bloom, flower, fruit. CI. (Do.) 

■tantabure, n. butterfly, s. tataba, dadaba. CI. (Do.) 

■tao, ,;. to teach. CI. (Do.) 

+Aothi, n. teacher. CI. (Do.) 

^api, n. fish. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

■tira, V. to flutter the hands. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ha ti thara he (doctor) flutters his hands. 

tlitia, n. lightning. Nil. (Ot.) 

^.ira, V. to tear, crack. CI. (Do.) 

tira,' n. grain bin. CI. (Do.) 


tharanja, v. to become torn, s. thara. CI. (Do.) tharanya. 

thari, v. to bruise. CI. (Do.) 

thathi, n. carpenter. CI. (Do.) 

thau, V. to startle. CI. (Do.) 

thau, n. woman, s. tsau, dzau. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. th^u. 

thau, n. leather. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. th^u. 

tha'^u:, n. belly. Sllb. (Mh. ) tha'u. 

thauo, V. to put in posts or poles. CI. (Do.) 

thauo, n. a decree. CI. (Do.) 

thauthau, v. to disappoint. CI. (Do.) 

thajto, n. sparrow. [Tsw.} CI. (Do.) tagho. 

the, V. to stand, s. te. CI. (Do. ) 

thee, V. to give. CI. (Do.) Ex.: thee tj*u to give food to another. 

f'hee, n, thigh, s. te. SI. (Lich. ) t'hee. 

theo, n. gift, s. thee. CI. (Do.) 

thibelela kwa hohwa, n. camp. CI. (Do.) ■ 

thii, prep, to, with, s. ta. CI. (Do.) 

f^him, V. to clean. SVI. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||ka ||garri |ni, u f^him ko — bring the shoes here, clean them, 

thoa, n. whey. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

thoa:ra, n. caput penis. SI. (B. ) tthSSr^. 

thoe, V. to depart. CI. (Do.) 

tho:e:, n. fish. Sllb. (Mh.) th^e. 

thoeha, v. to stay a day. CI. (Do.) 

thom, V. to swallow, eat up. Q. (Do.) thorn. 

thoq, n. hedgehog. CI. (Do.) thon. 

thoo, V. to be sorry for. n. mercy, pain, repentance. CI. (Do.) Ex.: thoo t/om to feel sorry for. 

thoo tJ"om kakho to hurt, oppress, thoo tJ*om oo distress, sorrow. 

thoo, always. CI. (Do.) 

thoo bakwa, on account of. CI. (Do.) 

thora, n. God, spirit. [Ba.] CI. (Do.) 

thoro, n. hat. [Tsw.jCI. (Do.) Ex.: thoro aree to put on a hat. thoro t/waho to take off a hat. 

thoro, V. to pull tight, s. toro. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ahi ku ||i !gwi:, ku Hi, ku thoro — you have tied th 
rope, tied, pulled tight. 

thotha, V. to honour. CI. (Do.) 

thotsera, n. fruitstone, pip. CI. (Do.) 


thowe, n. sore, boil. CI. (Do.) 

thu:, V. to go out (fire), breathe, s. tu: . SI. (LI.) tthu. Ex.: si kolof k"auki se a: |i se thu: we 

must not allow the fire to go out. ha ta: ts'?a a: ! kaur) !khe: ha ||kwa||kwin, har) ||kwalr) a:, ha |kwg:i 

k"ok8nthu:, a: she felt a thing which rested (inside) upon her throat, that was why she breathed 

in this way. Sllb. (IVlh. ) thu, put out (fire). 

thu:, V. to be heavy. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: !ku: e ti koko thu: --- the head is heavy to look. 

thuathua, v. to begin. [.Ko.] Sllb. thuathy^a. 

thuba, n. kilt. a. (Do.) 

thukaa, yesterday. CI. (Do.) 

thum:, V. to bury, s. turn. SI. (LI.) tthumB. Ex.: ha ka ha se ||gwai:f ||khe||khe: Ikvri, ha koe thum: 
ts'?a-ka |khara, thum: ||kho he o ti |ke:, ha jkha ta: "ts'^ai: — he (lion) would cut open (the sto- 
mach) like a man, that he might bury the thing's contents of the stomach, burying cover them in a the 
place yonder, where he had killing laid down the game. 

thuru, n. mouse, rat, s. dirib. CI. (Do.) 

thurru, v. to pull out, pluck, strip, s. turru. SI. (B.) tthurru. Ex.: u si !kan: ||kwe: au ha !no!n\Intu, 
u sir) !kanna a |ku, u si thurru ha |ku, u se thurru ~ho: u hl^ — you must hold strongly by her (lynx) 
ears, you must hold by the hair, you must strip her, you must pull out her hair, you must pull it off. 

ithusa, V. to keep. CI. (Do.) 

thuthun, n. tadpoles. SI. (LI.) 

f^huus, n. rain, s. tu:. SI. (Lich. ) t'huus.' 

thu zera, n. swallow. CI. (Do.) 

(thu |koo, n. rainbow, s. tu: . CI. (Do.) 

_thwe, n. a plant with red berries eaten by Bushmen NIII. (D.B.) 

ti, V. to lay on, let fall, s. tS, te. SI. (B. ) tti, ti. Ex.: ||kaxai ~|ke: Jo, ha se xwain ti !k'!'wa: 

||k"oe elder sister sitting there, she shall slinging lay on the hartebeest's back. ! kwar) !ku: ti 

!k?wa: |na: the child let fall the hartebeest's head. 

ti, V. to make, do, s. di, also used as v. part. Sllh. (Mh. ) ti, to make, ti indicates the present. Ex.: 

fo e: ti ga a man stands. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ka ti kofi, n |no k"a you make coffee, that I 

may drink, n ~xu ti ts*?!: my head aches. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ja ga ti ke jnulle he does (it) with 

a stone, /i ia ti ||k"we: we are cold, na ti |k"a — I give. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: sa ti jnaa — we 

go. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: jnabusib ti xau ||k"wa — |nabusib cuts the stick. Nil. (Dk. ) Ex.: gumi ti tava 

— the ox turns round. (V.) Ex.: na ti gu I take, na ti o gu I will take. (LI.) Ex.: ~!ku ti 

kwa:S goba — Bushmen fear the Makbba. Jnabbe ti |ka~a tamme ka ~|hu the Ovambo gave Tamme to the 

white man. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsaba ti okwi tsatsa the bird is singing. 

ti, V. to be heavy. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a: ti the thing is heavy. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. ti, rich. Nil. 

(LI.) ti, tti. Ex.: sa kwonna | gau, ta /wi, sa |kua ti — they (two) lacked strength and were light, 
they were not heavy. ! nwe ti |nu |ne ||a, ta ti — the bag was large and heavy. 

. n. thigh, s. te. [Na. ffs. Ko. tSp.] SI. (B. ) tti, tt'i. Ex.: |ha |ku ||a: jkammen ti si to:e ti au-g 
llnair) the husband does going bring an ostrich thigh to the house. 

tl, n. place, thing, part, piece, emph. form tikan, pi. ti, tiksntikQn, which often stands for actions, 
doings, ti is referred to in sing. & pi. by the pronouns hi & e: . SI. (B.) Ex.: ha ||kaxaitsn fkakkan, 
"he ti, hi tar) e:, !k^wa: k"auki |ki twi i:, au I'^e: e: (xS ha" — her elder sister said, " this 
thing it seems to be, the hartebeest has not a wound from the people who shot it", toi-ta |ka:ka |ku-g 
|ne ! hammi ta:eja, he: |ku-g |ne ||a: kag 0oeg tig ti e: |xarra — the ostrich wives have fearing gone 
away, they have gone to lie sleeping at a place which is different. !k"wakk8n-ga ti 0wa |ku e: sag |ne 

txi:~ja, au ||o:injag |ne |a: ha the little piece of the decayed (moon) it xs which shall make 

light, for the sun .cut him. ! kwi a: a, ha Ofa tuko dofa a: s'^o ti e: this person must have been 

the one who sat here (at this, place)^. te:n niau,ti Ike lie you, down there(at yondec, place) . tiei is 

often used as a conj . that, then, if, whether, han ||k"oen, ti ei , 1 kaukan [ku pa: fkel jineiq --- he 


saw that the children had reached home, he ti hig e: this thing it is, these things they are is a, 

phrase used as therefore, this is why, then, s. he, ha |ku sir) jxorro ka ||a: )|ga:, au tiksn |ku ts'^i i 

ta he rustliijg went at night, while the place was still dark, ti de ? which place, where ? i 

(LI.) ti, tfkentikfn. Ex.: ti e: g ||ke:||ke: s*?©: au wai, i:, hig e: g ||Ahaif, i: — when I sit imi- 
tating a springbok, then I cough, ha se ||k"oen, ti e: ! gaue kwairja toi, i:, au toitsn ta: hi — he ; 
will see the place at which day will dawn for the ostrich, while the ostrich lies at it. ha: sig I 
! gSai tiksntiksn-ta ku: — he will look round at all the places, ha ! koase g-g, tikan |kwe:ik"0, 1:1 

or ti e: g |kwe:ik"o, 1: he should watch me, the thing which I thus did. si tutii: tata, i:, ti 

e: tata jnS |na: Ikwitsn o ti de ? we asked father, where father had got the eggs ? (Lich.) Ex.: 

||kag ig !ain ti I came from thence. Sllb. (Mh.) Ex.: ti de: ? why ? 

ti, dem. this, that, it, pass, a form of ti, thing. Sllb. (Mh. ) Ex. : fo ti this man SIIc. (D. B. ) Ex.: 

g 0pwo ka ti my son is this. |a:ti ga ti a girl is that. SIV. (D. B. ) ti ! guru it thunders 

_||kum ka ti i a springbok spur that is. ti /i pu that is the skin. ! ware ti e |ka tis ! nwona. 

the girls there are three. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ! gum ka ti a bag is this. ||na: ta: ti e: a 

stick it is. ti na t/i, meai ha t/i it is finished, the knives are finished. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ti 

g ~ta ? what is that ? ti ka ta ? what is it ? ti sa ||ki it is good. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: ti 

e a here, ti |ge: — there, ts'^oate g ||an ti e a ? — what do I smell here ? aggan ganin ! gou , 

ti Ige: thou must look for water there. \ 


ti:, n. a certain tree, ' wittgat^boom' . SII. (D.B.) i 

ti, conj . connecting verbs, s. ki, ko, kau. SI. (B. ) Ex.: ha se t^:gte:g ti !g6a: ||gaue ! gwSi he wil 

lie looking round for the hyena, ha ka Ikammin ti t^:eja ha Ikwitan he carried and went his eggs 

(he brought his eggs.) 

ti, prep. With various meanings, s. ki. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: si |na ko toa ti ta ki ||nai ||k"e: — we have 
laid him down in a hole, u |kwi ti k"auo — they arrive at twilight, u na saa ti Johannesburg k"auo] 

they come from Johannesburg in twilight, fkaman n ti |k"au carry on the back. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 

si /a ti koloi we have come to the wagon na ka ||a ti tobollo I kill it with a gun. NI. (D.B.)' 

used after noun. Ex.: mihi ku /uwa da:f ti, ku ~tsa: I lie down by the fire and sleep. 3U ~wa na 

ka ku tsa da: fa ti all people sleep by the fire. ; 

ti, part, used before numerals, s. te, tes, tis. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: de ti fu one man. ~fi ti ~ttt_U ---"H 

one person. !ke!ke ti ~tu_u one finger. 

-ti, pass. part, used after noun & pron. s. -di. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: dabeba fnu~keba-ti ||koba Dabeba } 

(is) tnu~keba's son. /ita-ti furwoine fkumba — our food is locusts. 

ti, pron. I, my, short form of tira. [Na. ta, tita.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ti xare ko "kuru ti t/og-||kasa !ka 

I these have made for my grandchild's apron, ti ko kobbe a ||e I go to visit and barter, ti j 

hoba ko waxa kuru my husband made them all (clothes). I 


ti, pron. thy, short form of titi, titina. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: awa ni kaku, awa ti jaku — my mouth is | 
this, thy mouth is that. I 

tia, V. to lie, s. ta. past tieg. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g tia, g xg tieg — I lie, I have lain, tuig Ike tie 
! fiCu the dog lies on the ground. i 

tia:, V. to hear, understand, s. tu. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha xg ||kallaa, ma g |na tia: ha he spoke, but j 

I did not hear him. g tia: ag ka ||kallSa I hear what you say. j 


ti4_, neg. not, will not, s. ta, ka. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n ti^ ~||kau ! numa I do not smoke tobacco, a se j 

"keiraee, n ti^ ku k»'u haa — you are old, I will not marry you. 

tia, dem. there, s. ti. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: u Hk^alla tia — you stay there. NI. (D..B. ) Ex.: ka tia ! gu --•■ 
and there (is) water. I 

tia, alone. NI. (D.B.) Ex.; ko ku -gu gome ka |k"au, ~tia ku ~t/i kusi, |ka au mi (he) caught the c] 

and milked, alone drank the milk, did not give me Vany).mihi ~tia sisi 1 alone worked. I 

ti:a, many. Cllb. (Wil.) tia. much^ tiS. 

tiag, V. to feel, ache, s. ta, tjhalg, kiag. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: n ||kai tiag my tooth aches. SIV. (D.B 

Ex.: n kia tiag ||oJ^ I am feeling cold. 

tiau, n. calf. SII. (D.B.) 

tidi, interrog. where. SI. (Lich.) Ex.: a xag lain tidi ? where do you come from ? 



tidjam, pron. we, s. ti. CII. (Pa.) 

tier)^ s. tia, to lie. 

tiga, tika, v. to sharpen. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: tiga ||kau ke |nwele sharpen the axe on the stone, tika 

!go: sharpen the knife. 

tikan, s. ti, thing. 

tikantikaksn, n. legs, unusual word, prob. really things. SI. (LI.) tik^ntikaken. Ex.: r|-ka tiksntikaksn 
Ijkwalr) Ikei:, o kakan i gaukan |ki ||a ha ! nwa — my legs were stiff, as I followed her spoor. 

tikit/e, blue, green. CIII. (D.B.) 

tiko, tikwa, dem.. this, is, this one. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ukwaJco pakapaako be||k"autiko the big foot 

of the elephant this is. tikwa ||keti bam, tikwa ||keti hako this one stands up, this one stands 

I here. 

tir), V. to lie down, s. ten, ter). SI. (B. ) tin. Ex.: |kaka:-g |ne ||a: ||kan: tig har-ka ||nair) — the Man- 
tis goes hungry to lie down at his house. 

tir), V. to go round, go about, used as round, about. SI. (B. ) tin. Ex.: ! gwai ta !ka:ka tir] ~||ga: — the 
the hyena runs round in the dark. (LI.) ttlri. Ex.: ha |ku taiifja tir), ha sir) ||k"oen!k'^e kuitan e: 
tai:tja tir) he walked about, that he might look at other people who walked about. 

tina, prep, up, on, to, follows noun. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~kha ha:ta tseti tina climb up the tree. 

hakha mo boma tina — he went to the fort, ngallditi jako kl'^oma tina — a crest is on its head. 

tir|'?a, straight. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~! gau _!hale, ~! gau tir)'?a a forked stick, a straight stick. 

tir)!a, n. cloak. Nil. (Pa.) ting 3^. 

tio, n. skin, usually til. SII. (D.B.) 

ti'of, n. bowels. Slid. (Mh. ) ti'o. 

itio:ke, n. clouds, s. tu: . SII. (D.B.) Ex.: _!kal ka~u tio:ke rain falls from the clouds. 

tira, tire, n. a big girl, a grown-up. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a ha i so tire si ||An, so tira, ti fu ha tisi 
||An there sits the big girl in the hut, sits as a big girl, stays alone in the hut. 

tira, tire, pron. I, s. ti. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tira ko ~!nu: ka ! koa _hal — I went far away, tira kama 

fnQa I only sat. tire ko ~|gi, tira m tama I danced the .... dance, I saw nothing, tira my 

tama hi/e/a — I did not see Hi/e/a. tire | uwa ha — I do not know it. 

tirau, n. path. SII. (D.B.) 

tire, interrog. where ? s. tirre. SI. (Lich. ) Ex.: tire xa sir) |aua ? where have you seen it ? 

tiri, n. tongue, s. tari : . Nil. (Wil.) tiri . 

tiri, blunt. CII. (Schi.) 

tiro, n. work. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

tirre, interrog. where ? in what place ? contrac. of ti, place, & re interrog. part. SI. (LI.) tirre. Ex.: 

hag |k"e: kottan, " tirre | nu a: !khwa: |kAin: ||a hi ?" she asked the partridge, "what place is it 

that the child has gone to ?" ||kha:r) tutu: |a:-kum:, o har) ta:, "tirre xa a, a-g ||na he"? the lion 

asked |a:kum: as she lay, " where art thou ?" (what place is it thou art at it). 

tis, part, used before num. s. ti_, tes . SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ke | kake tis | kam — two children Opwa | na tis 
inwona three boys. |ke te "f^u, |ke | na tis |kam one woman, two women. 

-tis, poss. part, used after n. s. -ti, -di . CII. (L.B. ) Ex.: namani-tis ||k"wi/a the Nama's language. 

tis, pron. my, s. ti. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tis kwesa sam kwe _ha my wife stayed with me. 


tiea, V. to ask, s. te, ti, titi. [Na. te.^ NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a tisa mi — you ask me. | 

tissari:ti, cold. SI. (Lich. ) tiesariti. ! 

tiesi, V. to grow, be big. GUI. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa no komi, o kweme e, kwa no tissi, a makwa/a when I 

was small, was (called) Kweme, when I was big, Makwa/a. kwin heja olanakwe idibabe, so kwin, so tissit} 
suck here children milk, will suck, will grow. ! 

tissi, tiesiuni, red. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a haipi tissiunipi, tissi pi /a atamabe a — its wings are red,| 
red like blood. { 

tita, pron. thou, used after v. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: te, sese tita thou, thou eatest. ; 

tite, titi, neg. not, cannot, used after pron. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku /e tite we do not go. kuru ra 

tite I cannot do it. tire \\i titi I cannot eat. j 

titi:, V. to peep, look up. SI. (B. ) titi. Ex.: har) |ne ||aq |e: ! nwa, ha ||kaxaitan |ne titi: |e: ta I 

! nwa she goes into the reeds, her sister peeps in the reeds, q ||k"oer) ||gaue jki ha ts'^ax^itsn, a\{ 

har) k"oadofa titi: |ki g au ! au I seeking looked for his eyes, while he looked up to me from th«| 

ground. I 


titi, V. to work for. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa titi t/iner)gu, a |na t/u (she) does not work for T/ineij 

gu, sits at home. 

titi, pron. thy, s. ti, tita, titina. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: itlako titi jako — thy knife it is. 

titia, n. father, unusual word s. tata. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: titia fkomani si, ma |a\ini si — father is a 
fkomani , mother an jauni. i 

titije, titiko, n. a certain bird, masc. & fern. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||naena titije I hear the bird. i 

hauja a sa titiko the feather is of the bird. ' 

titina, pron. thou, you, sing. s. titi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: guruma a adza titina ? — why does he come til 
you ? ' 

titsi, hooked. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: awa .ni kaku titsi ako — its beak is hooked. j 

tja, V. to be accustomed to, used to, usually, ka. SI. (LI.) ty^. Ex. ^ he tja da: ha a: ||neir| — they 

are accustomed to make a house for her. i tja |ku tAm:se swerq k»»wanni we are used gently sittinj 

to turn round. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: kx'^amkje n tja xwe na oom wolfie.. — true, I .... say Oom Wolfie. { 

-tja, poss. part, usually -ka, -ta. SI. (LI.) -tyS. Ex.: he-tja |xam-ka |ka:gan ka ! koase he:-ta !kwi|a 
their Bushmen women take care of their maidens. 

tja, pron. him^it, s. gjaa. SIVb. (St.) 

tja, tju, neg. no, s. ta, tia. SIVb. (St.) 

tja:, interrog. where ? SIVb. (St.) I 

tja"i, V. to feel, s. tiar), tjhafn. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n tjai ||oJ»J=a a — I am feeling cold. 

tjai, n. leg. Sib. (St.) Ex.: k"ar| tjai prob. that is a leg. | 

tjaai, i;. to go. SIVb. (St.) 

_tjane, v. to carry, s. tane, tare. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: na ||kam, na _dwa ka ||kamau, a fkama a, a _tjane, a| 
_||anu I cut, lay together what is cut, tie up, carry it, return home. ' 

tjaxu, n. eye, s. tsaxau. Slle. (And.) pi. tjaxute. 

tjhafn, V. to feel, s. tja*i . Slla. (Mg. ) tjhafn. Ex.: g tjhaJn ||ko:we, "^rj-lr)* --- I feel (a) man, I (c ■ 

■tjhu, tj'?u, V. to hear, listen, s. tu. Slla. (Mg. ) tjhu. Ex.: nja ||ko si tjhu I shall not hear. |keil 

tjhuu, ir)kje ||ku ka _gau --- listen, I not say (a) thing. | ga tj^u ^r) |ka ka fnui --- (to be togethcj 
listen with your ears. 

tjhuxai, interrog. who ? Slla. (Mg. ) tjhuxai. Ex.: tjhuxai ! nu '''rikua ? who thus say ? tjhutjhese xai h« 


— whose is it ? 

tji, pron. me, usually ki . SI. (LI.) tyi. Ex.: |ne fkakkai tji, ti s: u-ka ! k'?e ||na he — tell me where 
your people live. 

tji'^'u, V. to turn round. Sllb. (Mh. ) tji'u. 

tjoe, V. to be fat. SIVb. (St.) 

tju, n. head, s. tu. Cllb. (Sei.) 

tju, s. tja, neg. 

tjwe, n. ostrich, s. toi, twe. Slla. (Mg. ) 

tkingwa^ n. black footed cat, 'sebala', Microfelis nigritis. NI. (Sh.) 

tl'^agate, n. rhinoceros. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: kdmi a tl'^agate, pakaps/^ be||k"au — smaller is the rhinoceros 
bigger the elephant. 

tl'^ako, V. to cut, n. tattoo-mark, s. xlako, txlako. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hi t/iatose hi tl'^ako --- the 
split (arrowshaft) is cut. waine t/a tl'^akopi all of them are tattoo-marks. 

tl'^arigase, n. sheath (of pen) QII. (D.B.) 

tl'^ehen, down, CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a mo i/a tl*?ehen — it lies down. 

tl'^eketl'^eka, v. to peck (eggs). QII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso uxlebi ko tl'^eketl'^eka, so hn fe olanakwe — 
when the eggs are pecked, will come out chicks. 

tl'^emako, big. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: komi a gogogoko a malana, tl'^emako saako — small are the .... bird and 
the stork, big is the .... bird. 

tl'^etl'^'aka, v. to return. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i kl'^ikwa te, ba tl'^etl'^aka a obe --- go ye, then return to 

tl'etl^ehe, v. to fly. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ita tl^etl-^ehe, e ikl'?ikwa ta tl'?etl*?ehe, .-- so (it) flies, 
runs and flies. 

tl'J'oa:, V. to tie. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kenena hadzapi mu:a tj*eket/ane a, tl'^'oa: se ko kl'!*oma — in old 
days Bushmen cut off the little finger, tied it on to the head (at the baby's soft spot). 

tl'oa, n. clothes, a kaross. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |usa he a tl'^oa they put on clothes. 

tloatloa, n. arrow. Slid. (Arb.) 

tl^oko, tl'!'otl'!'oko, V. to gather firewood, to make a fire burn, s. ts'^oko CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwa mi 

tl'^'otl'^oko a !kor)ga a odzamme then they gathered wood, the hare and the hyena, kamo tl'^oko wa 

atonena, kamo dididina ts'^oko when it was alight, then flamed up the fire. 

tl'?omasako, n. pipe, s. kl'^omasako. CIII. (D.B.) . 

tl'?o/ote , V. to roast. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: piama pe ts'^oko e se tl'^'o/ote — put them in the fire and 
roast (them). 

tl'^utl'^e, n. a hut with earth or clay on the branch shelter. CIII. (D.B.) 

tn, V. to lie, s. ta. Sllb. (Mh. ) tn. 

t'na, n. man. SI. (Lich.) t'na. 

"to:, V. to want, like. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ~to tarjga — I want stuff. !o!ku ki ~to: tarjga ~! gai — 
Bushmen like red stuff. 

to, V. to be straight, smooth. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kao. ri to: --- the stick is straight. Nil. (LI.) 16, t6. 

Ex.: d3U tanki ti "^kAbbi d3U tanki ti to one person is bent, another person is straight. ~to, 

to be smooth (as haiir). 


_to, V. to hang down, s. toxo. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ko ! kai dgi, ko _to tie them, to hang down (strings) 

to, V. to do, & V. part, similar to ti. SIII (D.B.) Ex.: aku me to hamana ? — who has done this ? 
/irikari me to ! kuta the Askaris have shot it. nwite to ||gallite on the arm wear it. 

~to:, ~to:, n. red haematite. SI. (LI.) tto, ttg, emph. ttogen. Ex.: ! ku koikan hal |ne ta, " ~to: e, hi: 

e:, g ka, r) sir) | howa wai hi" another said, " it is red haematite, therefore I will draw a spring 

bok with it", phara ||kwalr) e: |ke |hoaka, !k'?etan tAm*?! hi |nar|, i:, au ~to:gan ~!ki:ja, he k"auki h: 

er)eri i:, au hi IksCu : hi the stone is black, people anoint their heads with it (having first mixd 

it with fat), while red haematite is red, and people rub their bodies with it, when they have pounded 

f^o, n. male. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: |a:ti ga ti, f^o ga ti a girl is that, a boy is that, toe f^o a 

male ostrich. 

to:, n. mug, cup. NX. (D.B.) Ex.: na to:, m a t/i ! gu: give a cup, I will drink water. 

tol, to:, n. ashes. Nil. (LI.) tt5, t6. Ex.: ha ti /uwa to:, ta ti ! kao he slept in the ashes and wa 

white, tol, or tgwa, woodashes. 

to:, n. vulture. Nil. (Wil.) to. 

to, n. sweet food from a flying insect, found in a tree. Nil. (LI. ) to. 

toa, V. to hear, listen, s. tu. SI. (B. ) ttda. Ex.: Ikaggan ku:i, '* |ne toa, tsakan a:, g-ka ! kwa k"auki 

ka |kwe:da a: ?" the Mantis said, " listen, what is the matter, my child does not usually speak si 

? " uksnk"au |ne toa, o-g g sir) |k"e:ja hu: do you not hear, what I told you about it? 

toa, V. to finish, be finished, leave, leave off, go away, take away, s. tu:, toe. SI. (B. ) tt6a. Ex.: 

ukan |ku do: la !n^u!nau xu toa hi toi you must hiding leave for us the ostrich (eggs). (LI.) tda. 

Ex.: !kwa: kau |kAm toa ||goa the rain falls, taking away the thornflower. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: i to^ 

ki e jnwas ko |askei, a jkabo i ||An we finish putting them (sticks) in, and thatch the hut. kofi 

ki t(5a the coffee is finished. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ta t/om toa |e: /e/a ! khum you are finished, 

laid in the grave. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kuri ku toa the year is finished, xam ~ko m, gu ~t/i ka m, k 

m _tda, ka t/e ka ~u the lion eats, catches a thing and eats, when he has finished eating, he gee 

gome tsi u toa the cows are going away. 3u ok"wi ka ko ||gauwa ~|a, ka ko ~gu ko tda — people sa 

spirit wind, because it seizes and takes away, tda run away (said to a child). Nil. (LI.) toa, tc 

tda. Ex. : d3U |ne~e fkwi tod, ykau one person finishes poisoning the arrow. ka~ru d3i, ta ti fxar), 

fxar), taba !koro, fxav^, taba !koro, ti taba toS ! koro Ka~ru was wet, and trembled, trembled, work 

ed the hole, trembled, worked the hole, finished working the hole. d3u ti ~t/ir), na ti o~k"wi, " ||na 

d3U tod" a person cries, I say," leave the person alone" toa ~u go away(said to one person),. 

||xu^a, |na a toa ! ka ~u--- I rob thee, do thou run away. (Wil . )t6a, go, Imp. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: /u:la ki 
/i ~||a toa t/i, toa fkxa the arrow is shot off, let fly. tda go away (said to children). j 

toa, V. to lie down, come down, sit. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |e |a _toa it falls down, khai _toa water | 

comes down, o toa ki ! gS (he) lies on the ground. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: toa g a k"a sit on the 

ground. _|gwi a ke oa muje, ~||kaija a | r) a toa yesterday you went to Muye, to-day you stayed at J 

home . 1 

toa, V. to lay down, bury, s. toa, to lie down. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: si | na ki toa ti fkoa a,e si ku toa tii 

we lay a skin on the ground, and we lay him on it. | oruve anki ka toa: a, ku xanki ke toa a-- 

loruve's father is buried, his mother is buried. 

toa, V. to tear. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ko toa it is torn (coat) (Schi.) toa, to tear up. 

toa, dem. this is, here is. Nil. (LI.) to 'a, toa. Ex.: fa ti ma |nani ! khu tsema, daf !khu tsema, ta daij 

||xwe ti tda the wind blows the little back-dress of the |nani, the little 'muishond' back-dress, i| 

for a 'muishond' tail this is. ha ! nud, ta kwe, " ~hai, ~hai, i ~Am tod, |ne i ~Am" he threw awa^j 

and said, " hi, hi, your food is here, eat". ' 

toa, toa, n. cucumber, s. toroba, Coccinea seselli folia & Cucumis africanus . NI. (D.B.) Ex.: m: toa, j 
toasi eat a cucumber, cucumbers, da fko turn toa Da puts to roast the cucumber. CII. (D.B.) t' 

p I . toad3i . J 

toa:, n. tinder, s. tol, twa: . Nil. (V.) to^. 
toa:, much. Clb. (Pa.) toa. 


oa, yesterday. CII. (Pa. ) 

oai^ good, s. t'vairi. SVI. (Kr. ) 

■^oaksn, n. darkness. SI- (B. ) tt'daken. 

obae, i;. to take away. (SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: n |ontle tobae people took me away. 

obollo, toboro, n. gun. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: gona a Ike tobollo |ki the Motswana is carrying a gun there. 

Cla. (Pa.) toboro. Nil. ( Wil .) toboro. 

oe, toe, V. to move, come, crawl. CII. (Schi.) toe. (D.B.) Ex.: sol na ga te:, ||go/a te:, a ga toe ha 

Saul is ill, his chest is ill, or he would come here, kaba/e | "^uka toe kovikwe a to-morrow 

early will move to Gobabis. HeiJ-di/a toe xu, a ta/a /i Unei his hut (she) moving leaves, and at 

another she lives. 

oe, n. ostrich, s. toi, twe, tjwe, kwe. SI. (B. ) tSe. Sllb. (Mh. ) toe, tue..SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: toe f^o— 
male ostrich, toe ["^ati female ostrich 

;oe, pretty, s. toi. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: IkAm/a ki _! gwa, ako ||nobbebe _ha:, toe i — the sun goes low, and 
and the rainbow comes, it is pretty. 

[ogu, n. hippopotamus. Slid. (Arb.) 

^oi, V. to stand up, get up, s. to:o. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U N!go:, 3U o t|^oi ka ||ka: — people sit, a per- 
son gets up. 

D:i,- toi, n. ostrich, s. toe, twe, tjwe, kwe. SI. (B. ) toi, t6i, emph. toit^n, poss. tSi-ta. Ex.: 

|xAin-ka Ikwitsn |ki: to:i au to:i-ta Ikwitsn a Bushman kills an ostrich at the ostrich's eggs. 

||go|lgo Qpwaksn | ne s'^a: hi-hi, hag jne ts'^u ho to:i |ku a little whirlwind comes to them, it blows 

up the ostrich feather, toi gwai, toi-ta tukan male ostrich, male ostriches, r) ||kwag ||a: tori 

||nair| xu,^ g |ne |ni to:itan Jhoaksn ~ta: I went to the ostrich nest, I saw a black ostrich lying. 

(LI.) ttoi. Ex.: |xAm-ka !k'^e kar) ka toil tsaxau o ts'^a a:, i ||k"oen ||koir| a: Bushmen say 'ostrich 

eye' to the place where we the sun (sunrise). Slla. (Mg. ) toi. SIV. (D.B.) toi, tois, poss. borrowed, 

s. ko:. Ex.: tois ||ke, ||ku:s ||ke hen ostrich, hen bird, toi e ||kS, a /a:a the ostrich is nice, 

is fat. 

51, toise, good, kind, nice, nicely, s. toe, twairi. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | kwa kak"aT., ! kal/e hana, a 

toi/e hana the child is laughing, it is happy, it is good, namani ko toina i, keina i the 

Namas were kind and friendly. | nu kwen ko byri ~ta toise sisi |hu kwe the Kafirs spoke nicely 

with the Namas. 

'ofiforli, V. to run gently. SI. (LI.) tt'oitt'oi. Ex.: r) k"auki ta rj | kha |ofa Qpwa, au r] tatti e:, 
hak"auki k"watwaitsn ||ka: ha, au ha t*?of if^o: ^i, f^o^if^o: li ||a: — I was not willing to kill the 
leveret, because I felt that nothing acted as prettily as it, when it was gently running, gently run- 
ning along. 

)ka, V. to thread. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: kana t/o ka toka then on a sinew thread (beads). 

)kwa, V. to travel. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: na tokwa mi /amobi there travelled the Isanzu. 

»kwa, brown. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

'lo, V. to rub in (?). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ja ba ke n _||gala, _||gala ka _d30, a |kum, a tolo ka _d30 — 
his father marked (tattooed) him, marked with black, cut and rubbed in (?) with black. 

lo, n. necklace. SIII. (D.B.) 

Olo, n. moon. SIIc. (D.B.) 

loko, n. bell. [Afr. klok.j SV. (D.B.) Ex.: gome a /ie toloko ke !k"um the ox has a bell on its 


lotolo, V. to play the pipe, s. torotoro. CIII. (D.B.) 

o:m, V. to hear, s. tu. Nil. (Ck.) t6:m. 
■ttn, toma, v. to be near. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/u ri tom the house is near, si |ka !xa:, si toma si 



-they are not far, they are near. 

_toma, n. musical bow. SIIc. ( D. B. ) 

tomke, tumke, v. to wrap up, fold. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.; ja tomke dukwe he folds the handkerchief, ja ka 

tumke tabaica he wraps up tobacco. 

tona, V. to beg, ask for, s. tonaa, tutu. CI. (Do.) 

tona, V. to pull out. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: itan tona k"ada atonen then pull out the poison again (like 

gum, with the fingers). 

tona, away, s. tone. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: txlikwa tona a mama — going away from the lady. 

tonaa, n. request, s. tona. CI. (Do.) 

tonathi, n. beggar, s. tona. CI. (Do.) 

tondosu, n. trunk of tree. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tondosu asseana — the trunk is tall. 

tone, n. a certain long bulb used as food. CII. (D.B.) 

tone, away, on, s. tona, tonena. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: txlikwa a tone — (I) am going away, a t/eka tseti a 
tone tl'^ehen — put the stick down on it. 

tonee, v. to pinch. CI. (Do.) 

tonena, tonina, below, down, s. tona, tone. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: olanakwe a tonena hame — the children 
are below there, manako, a txleta, a tonina meat, cut it and put it down. 

tofnno, V. to creep. SI. (LI.) ttonno. Ex.: hag |ne |ku tofnno |hiri ||a: au ||neir) he crept out of the 

house. |ku-g-!nwigjar) |ne |ku tofnno r) |e: sa:, har) |ne |ku kau te:r) sa — the lynx crept in, he c&mt 
to lie down. 

to:o, V. to rise. Nil. (LI.) ttoo. Ex.: da to:o the flame rises. 

too:, n. ashes, s. tof. NI. (D.B.) 

too:, n. tooth. Cllb. (Sei.) too. 

too, n. honey of some wild bee or wasp, & the insect itself. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku gu too a |ku: gova 

Bushmen get wild honey and give to the Mbunda. too dani ke, ta d30 dani ke the .... are insects, 

and bees are insects. 

tool, interrog. what ? Slid. (Wu. ) 

to:ol3, V. to play. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: daba to:ols, daba r) a to:ol8 a child plays, this child plays. 

_t'?ora, V. to hold up. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ahi ku _t'^ora — you hold it up (a cloth). 

tori, V. to shoot off, let fly. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a t/i tori t/i |na:fka he is shooting off the arrow. 

to~J='o, V. to pierce. Slla. (Dk. ) 

toro, torro, totoro, v. to pour, streeun, become wet, be drenched. SI. (B. ) ttdrro, ttott6r5, *ft6ttorowa. 
Ex.: ha |ku-g |ne !ai i, au ha Ikautuksn torro ! khs — he was startled, as his body stood streaming 
(with blood), ha |ne jkammer) llka||ka: i-i. au ha ! kauukan-ka !kwa:, i-g |ne totorowa au ha er)er|-ka 

!kwa: he carried us, wetting us with his body's water, we were wetted with his flesh's water. (LI. 

toro, tott6rro. Ex.: r| sir] |ka:lti to~torro, r) k"auki tar| g sir) ||xa r) to~torro I was lately j 

drenched, I do not wish that I may be again drenched, ha |ne "jkAin ! kwagan, ha |ne ||a toro ! ho ! kwagsi 
au he: ti he takes up the bones, he goes to pour down the bones at this place. 

toro, toroksntoroksn, tot(5rro, v. to twist, whirl, s. torritofri, tworeja. SI. (LI.) ttdrokf nttdroken . i 
Ex.: Ikaggsn |ku-g |ne torokantorokan !khwa tsax^u — the Mantis whirled round the child's eye. har| i\ 
|ku torokantorokan Inabbe, har) |ku ||khwerritan ! khum — he shook out (by whirling round) the feather I 

brush, he played with the ball. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: toro tsike, ka khaua ~|ne !k"wisi twist here, and 

let hang down the head's hair. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ha totdrro !ka he twisting ran (springing from sid 


to side, so that the scent should not lie), QI. (D.B.) Ex.: kwesa ko | am/a _t/au ako toro --- a wo- 
woman digs 'giftbol', and 

oro, n. troop. SI. (LI.) ttdro. Ex.; he ti dofa ei , a k"auki tu:i ^oa, i:, ka toro gwai:e:,a ||kwafr) 

fkakka ke: a: therefore it must have been that thou didst not hear the elephants, their great 

troop which thou hast told me about. 

oroba, n. cucumber, s. toa. CII. (Pa.) 

or:o-bai:t9n, n. buttons. [Eng. ?] SI. (LI.) ttorS-bbeTit^n. Ex.: tor : o-bai : ten ||hou /o — the buttons 
are on it. 

orotoro, n. musical pipe made of a hollow curved branch, s. tolotolo. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: ekekela na 
torotoro na ! kolo I made the pipe of the .... tree. 

or~ri, V. to fill up, fill in. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nid3i _aifd3i tor~ri a ko |nu:a kuru, a ko |ke:, xumsa 
ko tor~ri him kwe these holes fill up and make flat put in , earth fill in with a stick. 

orritofri, v. to whirl round, s. toro, tworeja. SI. (B. ) ttorfi-ttorfiya. Ex.: jkukan 0wakan |ne tattan 

|a: |hig !gwa:xu, harj |ne torritorrija ||khoe: the little feather falls down out of the sky, it 

having whirled round falls down. 

otla, n. stick, a hand long, used for digging. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a t/et/e ta totla ko ||abe put the 

stick among the stones. 

ot<5, s. tutvi:, to ask. 

otdfroka, to~toroksn, very old, weak, worn out. SI. (LI.) totdroka, totbrokfn. Ex.: ||kun~nar) |ku 
Ikerriten kwokwari'^'a, |ku-g |ne Ikerritsn totolroka, au x] |ku sir) ! naugko e ! khwa — ||kunn was a 
really old man, was a very old man, when I was still a child, si ||kwafr| d6af |hir) |kofa, ! koete |kofa 

~||kai:e, he r) | i ta to~torok8n we have come out of a stomach, the old woman's stomach, and my 

heart feels weak in consequence. 

b:~u, V. to jump. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha to:~u — he jumps, haken to_wa he has jumped, ha haf to:~u 

-- he will jump. 

3U, V. to be afraid of. Nil. (LI.) tdu. 

oukan, s. taukan. 

Duki, ye are, contrac. of u-u ki. SI. (LI.) ttouki. 

pu/a, n. ashes, s. _to:, too:. CII. (D.B.) 

Ijutsntoutsn, v. to be round. SI. (LI.) ttoutfnttout^n. 

boveei, v. to become fat. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ti si tovesi i !nara ti haa in order to get fat we cook 

porridge of seeds. 

>wa:ni, n. bulbs, wild onions. SIII. (D.B.) 

owe, n. snake. SIIc. (D.B.) 

pxo, V. to put, lay, stay. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: fn tako a toxo, ! "^u ka fu food we put aside, to-morrow 

'<- early eat. ||gweba a ko !ku, a ko J*e |ni kwe ko !ku, ko |koro toxo the tortoise walks, (I) caught 

i him here walking, an his back laid (him). fa:ba xum/ kwe toxo a t/orre a reed in the ground put 

; and suck, a ||em ||kweba a /i toxo, ta/ ko toe while one side stays, the other crawls. 

'Xlehe, V. to make a garden, hoe. CIII. (D.B.) 

^^> V. to give, bring, s. sa. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: tea ke |ku: — give me tobacco, tea ke sekeri — bring 
me sugar. 

'a, V. to shoot, past, ts'^ai'!*!. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n ts'?a _||kum — I shoot a springbok, n ts'^'ai'^'i !gi: 
— I shot a hyena. 

a> V. to put on. SIVb. (St.) 


tea, tea:, te^a, v. to sleep, lie. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: rj tsa: Opwoin --- I sleep. NI. £D.B.) _ tsa, ts^a: . J 

Ex.: ha ka ~tsa, _koma ka ~tsi he will sleep, to-morrow will come. 5U ! nasi fkhi ri ku ts^a:, 

~3U gue k"a: re _! nauwa, hai te'^a: a Bushman dies and sleeps, people dig the earth and bury him,( 

he sleeps. Nil. (Oi. ) ts'?a: . (LI.) ts^, tsd. Ex.: | xwe e |xwe, ta "fu ha t/u tsema, lie_t;u, ta 

"tsa I xwe was |xwe, and lay down in his little hut, a grass hut, and slept, tamme ti tsa f nanni i 

Tamme nods with sleep. NIII. (D.B.) ts'^a, tsa, Ex.: ~|gu na dso: ! ku ka t/u a ts^a --- night is darti 

people lie and sleep, tsa | nAm to nod drowsily. 

tsa, ts'^a, V. to steal, s. tsaa, t/a. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ko ko m, e ko a tsS sa m --- (the moon) looks ai, 
sees them steal . (Schi . ) Ja. 

tsa, V. to beat. Nil. (Wil.) 

ts'?a, -tsa, V. to hear, know, s. t/'^a, "sa, s'?a. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: tem ka "tsa m |kwisi, mu ku "tsa ka ki 

~tsi, mu ku ts'^aa 3U ku o-k"wi first my ears heard, I heard it (wagon) coming, I heard the peop. 

talking, cm. (D.B.) Ex.: akwd. na tsa I do not know. ' 

tea:, v. to tickle. Nil. (Wil.) tsS. . 

tsa, V. to warm oneself, s. tsaa. CI. (Do.) | 

ts'?a, n. thing, s. ts*?oer), ts'^oig, t/wer), t/wit/wi. SI. (B. ) ts'a, emph^ ts'aken. Ex.: r| sir) di ts'^a -I 
I have made the thing.' ts'^a k"auki ||na --- nothing is here, ts'^a ba a, !k6:ir) ||kwar) /o da: |a: --- 
what thing is it, that the old man seems to have fought about ? har) |ne tutu ha 0on~ds, " ts'?a ds b.| 

"a: ? u ||kwar| |]koa Ikia: ||kaxai" she asked her sons," what is it ? you really seem to have got 1 

your sister.'' (LI.) tss'a Ex.: ts'^a de xa a: , !k'?e k"auki |ne fkakkon, o Ik'^eja e ? --- why (for 
what thing) is it, that the people do not speak, if they be people ? ts'^a: (ts'^a a:) a Hkwalr] ^en-.n, 

ti e:, ||k6xaitsn ||ku||kutt9n |kweitan tuko |ku doal e ! gaufoki a thing that thou shouldst know i' 

that a Kafir's nails always are poisonous. 

tsa, n. water, s. t/a. Cla. (Pa.) CII. (Pa.) Ex.: tsa ! ko --- chalk pan, prob. water pan. Qla. (Pa.) 

aia, Cllb. (Sei) 


tea, n.'buchu' and scented herbs used for toilet or ceremonial purposesj. the following plants were so' 
called: Lepidum rurale, L. , Ocimum fruticulosum, Burch. , Peliostomum leucorhizum, E. Meyer, Epaltes' 
gariepina, Steetz, Hibiscus Elliothiae , Haro . , a Sutera species. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: misis ku nabbo tslj 
--- Missis is gathering buchu. CII. (D.B.) ; 

tsa:, n. thorny cucumber, Citrullus caffer. NI. (D.B.) j 

tsa, n. gravy, fat, soup. CI. (Do. ) j 

tsa, "tsa, tsal, tsS, num. two, s. sa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: sa re tsa re fkebbi ha |ne-e — they two are i" 

ing one horse, donki o tsa te -|ka: "t/i two donkeys did not come. Nil. (LI.) tsa, ts5, tsa. ExI 

d3u tsa ti fnwa — two persons speak, tsa: I ti u: — two go, or they two go. t/i |ne'^e,^t/i tsa_, 1 
t/i !kao, t/i"fkhi --- one thing, two thing, three things, many things. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku _||go 
"tsa two Bushman men.deve tsa q two children are there. 

tsaa, V. to steal, rob, plunder, s. tsa. CI. (Do.) | 


tsaa, V. to boil, bubble up, leap, be hot, s. tsa, to warm oneself. CI. (Do.) ! 


tsaa, n. water, v. to wring out, s. tsa, t/a. CI. (Do.) Ex.: tsaa go to wade in water, tsaa debi I- 

a salt pan (water pan), tsaa ! kodi rubbish swept down by a flood, tsaa- kwaho fountain, cascla 

tsaa ona behwa a waterless desert, tsaa wa |gai to plunge in water. ) 

tsaa nakasi koo, v. to make haste. CI. (Do.) 

tsaba, n. bird, s. tsama, ts^ava. Nil. (Wil.) tsftba. (LI.) Ex.: ||gu ki t/a tsaba — rain falls upon 
birds, tsaba tiuk"we:i --- the bird talks. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsaba ti te ""m --- birds eat it. 

tsabatsae, v. to play. CIII. (D.B.) 

teago-kolo, n. eye of millet, s. tsaxau. Slid. (Arb.) 

teaha, v. to understand, s. ts'^a, to hear. CIII. (D,B. ) Ex.: aknd mo tsaha notana kl'^odzo t/a: na — 
does not understand nicely to talk. 



sa hai, v. to scorch, tsa haie, to be scorched. CI. (Do.) 

sa hai^ n. sparrow. CI. (Do.) 

saho, n. to dig. Q. (Do. ) 

saho^ n. tail, s. tsau. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: taaho wa ko sa biso the tail is of the wildebeest. 

eahoba, v. to speak. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ko tsahoba obe hadzabe --- we speak Bushman. 

seCi, n. agama lizard, 'kogelmann' . NI. (D.B.) Ex.: tsai Ijgo, tseii ~di male lizard, female lizard. 

s'?ai, n. liver, s. t/i:. CLI. (Schi.) ts'ai. 

is'^aila, ts'^'alH, ts'^eifa, v. to moisten, dip in fat. SI. (LI.) tss'sii-S, tss'sii-i, tss'ei-S. Ex.: i se 
1 ts'^ai^a au kwerrekwerre ka ti e: a, ta: toi gwai : ka ||k'?uwa — we shall dip (flesh) into fat this 

evening, for a male ostrich is wont to be fat. hig ||xaiii ts'^aili, au toi-ta eg au toi-ta sweg they 

also dip with the ostrich flesh into the ostrich fat. 

3aieta, v. to understand, s. ts'^a, tsaha. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: it/amebi idi:ga akvrd: na tsaieta — some 
words I do not understand. 

ai:ja, v. to be sharp, s. tei:, to bite. SI. (LI.) ttssStya. Ex.: bar) haS ka sig |ku ~|ku ta: ! kuruksn 

au ||neir|, hir) koa ||kei kwokwar) a tsai:ja she (rhinocerus) was wont to put away the short horn at 

the hut, both that and the real horn which was sharp. 

JsCin, n. pi. eyes, s. tsaxu. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ban tsaln pu — two eyes. 

saje, n. ditch, channel. CI. (Do.) tsaye. 

lakatsaija, tsakatse, s. to dance, play. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: teakatsaija kwa: muna |ki i/oko — danced 
till here stood the sun. tsakatse waina me they all are playing. 

lakho, V. to cook, roast, bake, s. teaa. CI. (Do.) 

pamr'^a, ts'^'afmr'^i: , v. to drop, drip, SI. (LI) ttss'^mm-S, ttss'a™^*-* Ex.: i-g |ne |k"am: i 

, ||ka: f ||ka: Hu: , he ||xaukan ka ts'?am:'^a hi, au i-g |ne |k.\mmain |(a: we feel a sensation in the 

hollows under our knees, upon which the blood drops as we go along carrying (the game), he si ||khoe 

||a: ||neir), i:, he !khwa: ts'^alm'^i: si i: then we sat under the hut, and the rain dripped onto us 


iama, n. knobkerrie, s. tsalmme, tsamo. SII. (D.B.) 

ama, n. bird, s. tsaba, ts'^ava. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: tsama ! nwi — a big bird, tsama ma — a little bird. 
NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: goba ~!ku tsama the Mbunda kills a bird, tsama ta khwi the bird chirps. 

"lama, n. wild melon. CI. (Do.) 

Uma, little, s. tsema. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. ts^ma. 

tamaxa, n. bead. SIVb. (St.) 


tami:, long. Nil. (Wil.) tsami. 


^:mx:, long. Nil. (Wil.) tsau 
tfamka, negligent. CIIl(Schi. 

tfamm&s'?e, ts'^ammats'^e, v. to poison, bewitch. SI. (B. ) ts'ammass'e, ts'ammats'e. Ex.: sitan ||kwag |ne e 

!ku!ku:xe |hir), au sitsn ka: ts'^ammas'^e !gaue-|i |ha we ran away, when we had poisoned the Day's 

heart's wife, si kar) e: |k"abbe:ja, ti e:, si se ts'^ammats'^'e ! ko:gsn-! nwig-tara — we are those who 
conspired together that we should bewitch the lynx. 

tpmme, n. whip, s. tsama, tsamo. Nil. (LI.) tssamme. 

imo, n. stick, s. tsama, tsafmme. CI. (Do.) 

'^r), V. to assent. Nil. (LI.) tsSii. Ex.: na ti tsafr), na ti rj: I assented, I said yes. 

ari, n. nose, s.~ts'?u, ~su, tsrj, t/u. Nil. (LI.) ts^n. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: "tsag g --- a nose it is. 


tsanaee, raw. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: |ka m ka tsanase — do not eat it raw. 

tsaggana, v. to become mature, reach the age of puberty. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dzema ||kai||kai ! ku ti t/o:, 

daba dzema ki o tsaggana a big girl people marked, a little girl who had reached the age of 


tsani, V. to dance. Nil. (V.) ts9,ni. 

tsani, n. cord made of sanseveria. NIII. (D.B.) 

tsao, V. to milk, tsaowe, to be milked s. tsau. CI. (Do.) 

teao, many, CI. (Do.) Ex.: tsao tj*ware crowd, company (many people). 

tsapale, v. to dig. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/okwa man teapale — a hole is dug. 

tsapane, n. stick for digging. CIII. (D.B.) 

tsar, tearu, n. warthog. Nil. (Sh.) 

tsara, v. to stop, open, divide. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ga ro ~tsi, ! ga ra ka tsara the rain has come, th 

rain has stopped, ka |kAin ~|gi, si tsara ka when the sun rises, we stop it (dancing), kwi ka like: 

kwi ke tsara make it (book) shut, make it open. Nil. (LI.) to divide, as the fibres of a feather 

tsara, interrog. what ? why ? SI. (LI.) ts&ra, ts^ra, tss'Sra. Ex.: i ||kwalq k"auki fenna, ti e: , sa kai 

"tsara |nu e we did not know what sort of an eland it was !khwa: ka tsara ka ||ke a ? what ki; 

of child is yonder ? tsara u xau ||khoa si ! ka r) a*.? why do you seem not to be waiting for me ? | 

_t8ara, swift. CI. (Do.) . i 

tsaraa, easy. CI. (Do.) j 

tsara ka, quickly. CI. (Do.) 

tsaraka dhan, v. to be in a rage. CI. (Do.) 

tsarao, light, quick, fast. CI. (Do.) 

tsarasi kahe, to be m a hurry. CI. (Do.) 

teare, n. berries. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: !kaud3i tsare ko turn tama the ....berries we do not eat. 

tsari, n. small kaross worn on shoulders. SIV. (D.B.) 

tsari, n. chair. Nil. (V.) ts^ri . (Wil.) tsi,ri, saddle. 

tsarokwe, n. a Bushman tribe related to the Naron living to the N. E. of them. CII. (D.B.) 

tsaru, V. to choke, suffocate. CI. (Do.) 

tsaru, n. secretary bird. Nil. (LI.) 

tsaruwe, v. to lie down as cattle. CI. (Do.) 

tsa-si, n. sleeping-place, s. tsa. Nil. (LI.) ts^si, tsd[r-ssi. Ex.: e ti !xi |nubbo,ti Unig"^ a |nubbo k 

zau ~/u— si, zau tsa^— si we break off a wooden arrow, setting the wooden arrow upright in the wifs 

place of lying down, the wife's sleeping-place. 

tsasig, tsa:sn, n. sister, prob. younger sister, s. tasir), tsisi. Nil. (LI.) ts&-ssiri. Ex.: a tsasig -, 
thy sister. (V.) ts?5n, pi. ts^snsn. 

tsathi, n. robber, thief, s. tsaa, to steal. CI. (Do.) * 

tsatsa, V. to go, start. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso ssta _dza: ba tsn tsatsa when the moon comes we 

shall start. 

tsattsani, v. to tickle . Nil. (V.) tsStsani. 


bsatsailni, v. to do gently. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ||ni tsatsa£ni — put down (the thing) gently. 

bsatsanu, v. to work. Nil. (LI.) tslJtsInu. 

bs'^ate'^axukan, s. ts'^axau. 

tsatsia^ v. to disappear. CI. (Do. ) 

be'^au:, tsau:, v. to milk, s. tsao. SI. (B. ) ts'eulu. Ex.: korowakgn | ne ts'?au:u^|e: ha ! khwei ||ki au ||xe: 

the jackal milked in her breast milk into the 'Bushman rice'. (LI.) ttsBSu. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: saa 

xAinma, kier) teau: bring the cow, that we may milk, r) ts'^au: te'^au: mirrig I milk the goats. 

SIVb. (St.) ts'^au. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: m ku ~tsi, ~tsi ||ga:, _||gwaf ka ts'^au gume — I have come, come 
to stay, in the evening to milk cows. Cll. (Schi.) "^au. 

bsau, tsautsau, "ts''' au, v. to become fat. CI. (Do.) tsau, tsauteau. CHI. (D.B.) Ex.: xasa ta ko fu, xas 
kwe "ts'^au these we eat, with them become fat. 

bsau, "tsau, v. to arise, awake, get up, take up. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 311 ||gu, ka<-g "tsau put it down, 

and take it up. Nil. (Oc.) ts'^au. Ex.: ts'^au ~!!no --- to stand up, get up. (LI.) tssSii, tsail, ts^u. 

Ex.: ha tsau: she arises, ha zau ti o~k"wi^ " |xwe, na ti siq a, jna "tsau" — his wife says, 

" |xwe, I now see thee, awake", ha kwe, "fnort-hol", ta tsau, ta ti fhau: he said "oho" , and 

got up and walked. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gova ki ||kxaua |au, ke "tsau, ke t/ir) the Mbunda trapped a 

buck, which jumped up, and cried. |kAm na t/'?u, kovekove na tsau, a tsau ta |g the sun sleeps, at 

dawn gets up, sets up and sits. , 

tsau, o. tooth, tusk, point, bill, edge. NI. (D.B.) tsausi, tsousi, teeth. (Pa.) tsaus-i. Nil. (Dk.) 
te'^aHu: . (Wil.) (LI.) tssau, tsau, pi. tsau-sslA. Ex.: d3u "tsau — a person's tooth, tsaba tsau — 

a bird's bill. ! ku ti |a ngoba ko t/i e, ! xo "tsau, ngoba ti |a "!ku gommi the Bushmen give the 

Makoba this thing, an elephant's tusk, the Makoba give the Bushmen a bull, fke tsau e an arrow 

head (quartz) edge it is. ! garru tsau knobkerri point. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gole tsau ka ga fxa 

(kile's tooth has been filed. ! ku tsausr) !ko:a fxa a Bushman's teeth are not filed. 

bsau, n. nose, end of quill, s. "ts'^u, ~su. Nil. (LI.) tsa~u, tssau. Ex.: ha ti o k"wi ha "tsa~u — he 
j spoke through his nose. !k"witsau quill end,of feather. 

jbsau, n. brother, s. tsi. Nil. (LI.) 

tsau, n. woman, female, s. dzau, dzou. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. tsau, bride, tsau ! gna old woman. Nil. (Pa.) 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m tsau my wife. _gova gua "tsau kwa g — _Gova took a wife over there. 

;sau, n. hand, finger, arm, tail. s. t/au. CI. (Do.) Ex.: tsaui kakho to embrace, tsau ! kham to 

clap hands, tsauo palm of hand, tsau ||kono to wag the tail. Cla. , Clb. , CII. , Clla. (Pa.) 

hand. cm. (D.B.) tail. Cllb. (Wil.) t§au, hand, t§aua, finger. 

■/saukwe, n. name of a tribe of Bushmen related to the Naron, living in the Kwachanei. NI. CII. (D.B.) 

tsauru, n. a ground creeper with edible fruit. Nil. (LI.) tsaiiru. 

:Sau~t8ebbu:, v. to be weak. SI. (LI.) tssautss^bbu. Ex.: au !khwa: ||ke||keja |kum, !khwa: ||kitsn k"auki 
|ne !kui!kuita, hag |ne tsau"tsebbu when the rain is like mist, the rain liquid is not strong. 

s'^ava, n. bird, s. tsaba, tsama. Nil. (Ek. ) ts'^av^. (V.) ts'^va. . _■ 

sawa, n. name. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsawa aije mboga my name is Mboga. 

sax^u^ ts'^ax^u, tsaxu, ts'^axu, tsaxem, tsaxe. n. eye, berry. SI. (B. ) ts'af^u, pi. ts'^axaitfn, 
ts'Siaitak^n, ts'ats'axuken. . Ex.: ts'^axau e ! oa: i — one eye. he ||xau||xauk8n e: hi: ||ka:o te'^ax^itsn 

— these fieldmice are those that eat thornbush berries, tsaxil'ka ! goritsn he !kui:"ta the eye 

ball is white. |i tsaxdu live coal, spark, (fire's eye). (LI.) ts&xau, pi. ts&xSitfn, ts&xSi^itakf n . 

Ejc. : ha tsaxditan |hum|hum e jhoaka, hi ||nu:g ||a hi, au ha tsax^u tsinxu — his eyes' pupils are 
black, they go behind themselves to his eyes' back, ha tsaxai:taksn |ki !kwa:gan — its eyes have 
bones. SII. (D.B.) ts^xu, tsatxem, pi. tsdxu:ke, tsaxu:g. Ex.: ha tsaxu:g ! "^ukan kia:g — his eyes 
are both ill. Igisi xr) !ka: tsdlxu:ke ? — what has hurt the eyes ? ha tsfCxu ||'^we, ha ts^Lxuke !*?u:, ha 

tsixugeg ! "^u: his one eye, his two eyes, his two eyes. Slla. (Dk.) ts'^a~xAm, ts'^a~xam, t6'?a"x8m. 

(Mg. ) ts'^'axau, ts'^axu, pi. ts'^axsm, ts'^ajcuke. Ex.: ! nau-ka ts'^axsm — the hare's eyes. ||kaig ka 
ts'^axuke --- the reed's eyes. Sllb. (Mh. ) ts'a+xo', pi. ts'ax9-t?n SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: g tsaxu ||k"oa, g 



tsa:xer) ! "^u — my one eye, my two eyes. SIII. (D. B. ) ts^xu, tsau, pi. tssCin. SIV. (D. B. ) ts'^'axu, pl\ 
ts'^aixuke, s. tsoo. 

tsaxo, V. to roast, s. tsa. Q. (Do.) tsagho. 

teaxuga, n. needle. SV. (D.B. ) 

tsa |noe, n. slender mongoose, s. tsoa:ni:sa. CII. (Sh. ) j 


tse, ie'^e:, v. to come. Sllb. (Mh.) ts'f, having come. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m ~te, a "tse, na ~||gu --- my 

mother, come, give water. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ono hako ta dzanna, na ti tse I here will go, and 

will come back. 

tse, V. to send. CI. (Do. ) 

tse, big(?small) s. ts'?e:, tsema. Cla. (Pa.) 

ts'^e:, small, s. tsema. Nil. (V.) ts'e. (Wil.) tse. 

tse, sharp, cold. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. cold. CII. (Schi.) Je. sharp. 

tse, tse:, ts'^'e:, n. back, used also as backwards, behind, s. tsi:, tsirjxu. SI. (B. ) ts'e, tse. Ex.: 

koro se ||nu:r) ! ho 0ho a ts'^e: the jackal will stand behind the tree, at (its^ back, g qa |ne 

fkakkan ki |wa:l l|a: au r) tse — I walked backwards behind me. (LI.) ttss^, ts'e. Ex.: ~||khal haf 

jne !khe:, tse ! khe ha, ~||khal |ne turn: ha the lion stood, stood behind him, listened to him. hs\ 

kar) tse 8*^0: i he sits with his back to us. he kag tsets^ja i they sit with their backs to i. 

tse, n. bushy-tailed mierkat. NI. (Sh.) 

ts-^e, n. forehead. SVIa. (Kr. ) ts'S. 

tse, n. ear. Cla. (Pa. ) 

tse, n. buchu, s. sa. SVI. (D.B.) 

tsea, V. to finish. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsefijipi bonepi wa mi xlaka a tsea bi — in four days they fin* 
ished cutting. 

t§k:, meat-soup. Cllb. (Wil.) tSgS. 

tsealo, n. bird, s. tselealo. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsealopi little birds. k"umbiko tsealolo dit/i --- 

the .... is a black bird. 

tsee, V. to take, command, s. se, /e. CI. (Do.) 

tsee, V. to leak. CI. (Do.) 

tsefi, tsefui, tsefue, t;. to grow dark, set (sun), used also as day, evening, night, s. tsifi, tsifu. 

CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i/oko tsefi, iso dza the sun sets, then (he) comes, tsefi jamo it is eve 

ing. tsefi jako i/oko as the sun is setting, tsefijipi bonepi wa mi xlaka in four days they 

were cut. welapina i/o /aha teefui early the sun ends the night, it/ama ko tsefue one eveni 

tseheja, n. young man, youngster. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: misia mo sami tseheja died Sami as a boy. 

tsehejapibi makwa /a a r|0/ar)giri young men are Makwa/a and r)o/ar)giri. 

tsehome, truly. CI. (Do.) 

ts'^eiSa, s. ts'^aita, to moisten. 

tseja 1|kai, v. to bite. SVI. (D.B.) 

tseka:, good; tseka: te:, very good. Cllb. (Wil.) tseka, tseks te. 

tseki, V. to catch by the leg. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: o api ko " |n«, a tseki |geki, a ko ko "hee , hee" -■ 
old Api says " wait", catches by the leg the woman, she screams " oh, oh". 

tselealo, tseloalo, n. bird, paauw, s. tsealo. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kot^ga not^na ko baba ka siggiri mabfi i 


a ko ts^loalo Icwarta 6no sama made is a trap by father, with rope, and the paauw caught I eat. 

csema, tseme, little, small, s. ts'^e:, ma. NI. (Pa.) tsema. (D.B. ) Ex.: ! ga tBerma ku |nAm — a little 
rain fell, t/u !na:Bi, t/u ~ma tsema — a big house, a little house, e sa 3U Inwasi e t/usi tserma 

we Bushmen have small houses. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. tsSma. Nil. (Dit.) ts'^erma (Wil.) tsSma. (Li.) 

ts^ma, tsiema, pi. ts6me. Ex.: t/u ti tsema — the hut is small. ! ku t/usir) tseme, ta ||kua ||kfe: — 

the people's houses are small, and not large. ka~i ti tserema, ta ti ! ga the poison beetle is 

small and is red. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ti _! goa tse:ma kue ~|ni Bushmen build a little shelter. 

;sema, large, (? small). Nil. (Pa.) 

isenda, n. yolk (of egg) NIII. (D.B.) 

;sene, flame, smoke. CI. (Do.) Ex.: tsene kwa nga to send up a smoke. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |e: tsene sii 

the fire is smoking. 

:8e:r]xu, ts'?s:nxu, n. back, s. tsS, tsir)xu. SI. (B. ) tsenSu, ts'enxu, pi. ts'^ts'f^nSuken. Ex.: ha |ke 

|ku Ikammen ||kau ! hoa ! kuitsn a: tsS:rixu-ka tu he (jackal) is used to carry placing the eggs upon 

his back's skin. !gaue-|i: 0pwa | ne zu:k8n u:i, har] |ne zu:ksn |e: ! korgsn-! nwiq-tara ts'^sinxu the 

Day's-Heart child jumped up, he jumped into the lynx-mother's back (into the kaross). hi te'^e: ts'^ein 
xuksn |hoa:ka their backs are black. 

sere, v. to put out a fire. CI. (Do. ) 

sere, h. mane of lion. CI. (Do.) 

.seriaha, v. to dry up. CI. (Do.) 

's'^erre, v. to bewitch, s. ts'^ammas'^e. SI. (Li.) tts'drre, ttss'^rre. Ex,: !k'?e e: , ka taurfwitan ||na, 

he tar) ||kwalr| e: ||xa:, hs ts'^erre f^weg he tiksn e:, t/wer) |kwe:i k"o, 1: the people >kho work 

magic there^ they are those who bewitch the things, hence the things behave like this. 

serre, v. to warm oneself. Nil. (LI.) tserre. Ex.: ! ku ti |u |nani t/u, ta ti |ni |nani da^^, sa ti 

teerre |nani dad Bushmen went into a ...'s house, and sat down by the ....'s fire, they (two) 

warmed themselves at the ...'s fire. 

serre, v. to be small, used in sing, with neg. s. ts'^ettan. SI. (LI.) tsB^rre, tserre. Ex.: hi |ku-g 

|ne ~bu |i gwai, a: ha k"auki tserre they make a large fire which is not small. ! gofe tag |ku e, 

Ik'^etsn |ne ta |kappsm ~a, au hirj tatti, ha k"auki tserre — a tortoise is that, people call it ..... 
because they feel it is not small. 

aetaja, tset/atja, v. to wash, s. dzetaja. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsetaja dzendzerips — (he) is washing the 
tins. tset/a:ja mendapi pisi is washing clothes the cook. 

Betapi, n. pi. eyes, perhaps eyelids, s. tsa;Xau. CIII. (D.B.) 

J3eti, n. tree, bush, plant, wood, veg. medicine. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: na enapi |kita na a tsetipi wainet/i 

— I see grass and trees everywhere. pand3upe tseti je the .... is a plant. kir)giko elata ko 

jetsako tseti tina the ... bird makes its nest in a tree, salame ta tina dCsseta elata tsetibi 

in a shelter sleeps, made of bushes, ekekeldta tseti ja ||k"owako made of wood is the shaft, kivesi 

boku unu, iso xlaka niggi nina tseti when it is a person, then cuts the doctor (putting) in medi- 

ietse, n. sieve. CI. (Do. ) 

letsea, v. to De old. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: borukil bipi tsetsea mo — Boruku is old. 

ietse:ja, ts'^e: ts'?e:nxuksn, s. tse:, ts'?e:gxu, back. 

I'^'ettan, v. to be small, little, used in pi. with neg. s. tserre. SI. (B. ) ts'^tten, ts-etten. Ex.: i 
|wa|wain k"auki ts'^ettan — our cheeks are not small, a tsgLx^itakan jkweitsn k'^uki ts'^ettan — thy eyes 
are always not little. (LI . ) ttss^tten. Ex.: ha !nu!nun:tu k"auki | ne ts'^ettan his ears are not little. 

"e:xu, n. unusual form of ts'^e:r)xu, back. SI. (B. ) ts'efu. 

i:, ts'?i, tsi, V. to bite, be sharp, ache. SI. (B. ) tsi, ts'i, ts'i. Ex.: t\ ts'^i a I bite thee, ha: 

se-g |ne s'?a tsi:'?a f-i — she will come to bite us har) |ne ts'i:i lei kwitan, — she bites other 



people. ||kha: koiksn | ne fkakka ||kha: ko:, ti e: hi se ts*!*!: |kao: !g<5e:^ — one lion says to the j 
other lion that they must bite breaking the tortoise. (LI.) ttss'i, tssi. Ex.: ||kha:l | ne ts*?!: |khi 
k"au:-(ioro — the lion bit the young man to death. ! kwi |a xoa se ~a ! kwi |a a ! gwara a: ka ~tsi: -| 
the girl's mother should give the girl a knife which was sharp. SII. (D. B. ) tsi, "ts'^i. Ex.: ha "ts*? I 

ha she bites it. ! kwekia ha tsi a, ha e a the gemsbok bites for you, eats for you. r) ||e'?a: | 

~tsi my stomach aches Slla. (Ek.) ts'^ii, to bite. (Mg. ) ts'^ii, ache. Ex.: Iga ts'^ii headache' 

(head aches ?). SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: r] "xu ti ts'^i: --- my head aches. SIVb. (St.) tui:, to bite. SVIa. ! 
(Kr. ) ts'i, to bite. 

ts'^i, ~tsi, V. to come, s. se, si. SIVb. (St.) ts^i. NI. (D.B.) ~tsi. Ex.: !kabe t/i e, titim |kwa ko j 

"tsi a Motswana it is, with Titim comes. e o^si o ts'^a, ! hu ~tsi we all were asleep, the j 

master came. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ga ~tsi ga ts'^a two have come, fuelu a kwi ~||gu a kwe ~tsi - — 

Fuelu gets water and then comes, a ke _||nam, tawa a ~tsi he travelled away, and came back, tsi n| 

to come give, to bring. I 


ts?i:, V. to sit. SIVb. (St. ) ! 

tsi:, V. to pin down. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |no ka ~tsi:, ka t/ifa ka ~fge the skin pin down and a kaross 

sew. i 

tsi, V. to speak. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n tsi | auo I speak |auni. 



tsi, tsi:, V. to sing, cry, thunder. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ga o k"wi, ! ga o tsi -the rain speaks, the ra 

thunders, tsama m tsi: of a bird he sings. ! kou a k"xe: a ~tsi the hyena barks and cries. 

tsi, V. to laugh, s. si. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: dabe ! kwa re o "tsi — the boy is laughing. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: 1: 
ti tsxerre daA, ka tsi ha ba, | ge ~|ni, ta tsi ha ba — he warmed himself at the fire, and laughed j; 
his father, came to sit down and laughed at his father. 

ts?i, n. head. SVIa. (Kr. ) ts'i. i 

tsi, tsi:, ts'^i:, n. mouth, hole, door, beak. NI. (Sei.) tsi, mouth, lip. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi ku au: a msi 

dama ! goma o tsi, mihi _|uwa a tsi: 1 give food to this child by the mouth, I put it into its mou!. 

m tsi Ikwisi !ka: — my beard (mouth hair) is ugly. 3U ka txa: ~f=ge ka k-'aija tsi ||o, ka t/ane t/xaii- 
a person shoots a stork and sticks the beak on (his head) and dances. NII.(V. ) ts'i:. Ex.: ts'^i: !g 

lip. ts'?i:\!n mouth cavity. (Wil.) tsi, mouth. (Leb. ) tsi fkhoi, beard. (LI.) tsi, tsi, tssi 

sir) ~tsi ti |kua j^ga'^ar], ti !ko:mar, ti |lke||k6ja dama ~tsi — their mouth is not long, is short, res'b 
les the Herero mouth, t/u ~tsi — hut door. ~tsi, grave. ! kar) tsi tsema e f^umma k"ae ti ok"wi !kar] 

~! num a small hole in a tree which is near the ground we call a tree navel. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.:' tiiffl 

a ~tsi — eat it with the mouth, tsi: | no — lips, ahi _||nau ka tsi ~! ni — your pistol's holes, m ]ii 

ki ||ke, !ku ~j^khij=khi gu tsi:, gu ~tso ta, ta ti |u:a tsi: my grandfather died, many people dug aj 

hole^ lifted him up, put him in the hole. 

~tsi, n. green turtle. Nil. (LI.) tsi. ^ j 

ts'^i, tsi:, n. back, used as behind, s. ts'^'e, ts'?gr)xu, ts'?ir)xu. SI. (B. ) tsT, ts'i. Ex.: korokan ||ar) |1] 

||nu:r) au !xu:i tsi: the jackal goes out behind the thornbush back, ha: se ||nu:r) ho jkafo ~|ke: , 

ha ts'^i he will pass behind the hill lying yonder, its back. |lo:ir)jari |e: ||a: ! kau ts'?i: th. 

sun setting goes behind the mountain. ~! khwa:-| na:— ts'^i— ta ' siiu water's head's back's ground, 

water's bank. (LI.) tssii:. Ex.: ha: se Ija kha:r| taiftaifja ti daiHan ha ts'^i: it will go far 

walking and looking behind its back. j 

tsi, n. the hinder parts. CI. (Do.) 

~tsi, n. shoulder. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a ! ka ~tsi you carry on the shoulder. 

tsi, n. brother, s. tsia, tsisi, tsaiu. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: tsi |nee ka Igl one brother is tall. 

tsi, n. springbok. Cla. (Pa. ) 


tsi, rel. who, dem. this, here. SIVb. (St.) tsi:, who. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U oasi tsi t/au ! kau ||gauwa keu | 

all people who die (?sleep) become spirits. ~!ku tsi a thorn this. | hu tsi e a European' ' 

this is. ! numsi tsi ke stones are these, or are here, m tai ka ! nau tsi ke my mother lived 

here. 3U o ykai tsi ~he the people held like this. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: o gu !ku!ku tsine (we)j j 

have these spears. 

tsi, tsia, dem. there, to stand there, used with pointing. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: elata ota t^tse kwako tsiij-j 
having worked returned when (the sun) was there, mu tsia mo i/o there stands the sun. 


si, ill. Cla. (Pa.) 

s*?!, lame. CII. (Schi.) Ti. 

s*?!, wet. Nil. (Dk. ) (Wil.) tsi, damp. 

sia, n. brother, s. tsi, tsau tsisi. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: raasai e m tsia koko Masai is my little broth- 

sia, a little, short form of tsema. Nil. (LI.) tsia. Ex.: |xe-||n'?u si fne'^Am tsia ~mi — |xe-l|nu has 
beaten me a little. 

si'^a, tsi'^a, pron. we, s. si. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tsi'^a ho ti ~|ko we get honey, tsi^'a a: ti Qpwoe: 

we eat of the meat. 

siaa, V. to need. CI. (Eb. ) 

sianaa, v. to need. CI. (Do.) 

sianaa, v. to be wanting, sad. CI. (Do.) 

sia tsikha, v. to abolish. CI. (Do. ) 

isibita, V. to come along. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: seseme tsibita mo kelako the lion came along the river- 

: bed. 

pie, V. to drop, as rain. CI. (Do. ) 


gifi, n. day, marked by the sunset, sometimes pronounced tsivi, s. tsefi, tsef ui . CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

I tsifi ja ko tsut/ipi, tsifi ja ko ts'^okowa — the day is cold, the day is warm, tsifi je t/ameya — 

one day. tsifi samakapi three days, tsivi bonepi bonepi tsifipi four days, tsifi ja /aheama 

the day is finished. 

sifu, tsifua, n. night, s. tsefi, tsifi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsifu i ko kl'^ekwa ||kuiko by night bites 

the mosquito, tsifua naia dza ati in the night fell the rain, tsifua ko a fua: tsirigaoko at 

night drinks the gemsbok. 

3i— gu, n. flower. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. - 

3ii, V. to grow, sprout. CI. (Eb. ) 

|3iit/a, V. to pour out, s. tset/aija, tsit/a:ja — CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsiit/a mo atebi — he pours out 

dkaa, n. sword, battleaxe. CI. (Do.) 

3i^, pron. they, usually sir) Nil. (LI.) tsifi. Ex.: ta tsirj ti fhau ka si, " ha, ha, ha" — and they 
(leopard carrying bird) went and laughed, " ha, ha, ha" . 

I'^ir), behind, s. ts*^!, ts'?i:nxu. SI. (LI.) tss'in. Ex. : g a |ku-g |ne ||a: swerg ts'^iri — I am the one 
who goes to sit down behind. 

iri'^a, tsiri'^a, tsArj'^a, n. footprints of one thing . Nil. (LI.) tsin-a, tsin-a Ex.: d3U | ne~e tsig'^a, d3U 

fkhi ~kusir| one person's footprints, many persons' footprints, ha sir) bambam tsig'^a (bambam 

|k"isir))--- he saw the bird's footprints, (the bird's feet). NIII. (D.B.) tSAg'^a. Ex.: _!nai tsAg'^a 

t) a lion's footprints are these. ^"^ 

1— na, n. grandson. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi tsi— na my grandson (said by father's mother). 

irjgao, n. gemsbok.. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsirigaopi ak"okula — herds of gemsbok. mete, mete, makana ebita 
||aketa mo tsirjgaoko ta ||i:akwe give, give, feed us the thighs of this gemsbok cow which has died. 

iriga'J'o, yesterday. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsirjga'^o na _dzadza kwa a mamako yesterday I came to mother. 

intsinse, v. to shake. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsintsinse tagga shake the cloth. 

'''i:nxu, tsi:r)xu, n. back, s. tsi, tse, ts'^erjxu. SI. (B. ) ts»tnxu. Ex.: ha |ku |kammir) |kAm hi au ha 



ts'^itnxu he does carry, bringing them on his back. (LI.) tssinxu, the back between the shoulders. 

tsig-!a, n. cloak. Nil. (Wil.) tsin-!a. 

teir|-!o:, n. Up. Nil. (Wil.) tsin-!o. 

tsir) ||ha:, v. to shoot. Nil. (Wil.) tsiA ||ha. 

teio, n. old age. CI. (Do.) 

tsipi, n. prob. metal. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) bell, iron. Cla. (Pa.) finger ring, earring. 

teiri, v. to play, tsiri tsikho, n. merriment. CI. (Do.) 

ts'^irri, smoke. CI I. (Schi.) 

ts^isa, n. snake. SIVb. (St.) 

tsiei, n. sister, s. tsi. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: mihi k"ei tsisi si sa fkhi, mihi k"eitsi |ne~e I have 

sisters which are many, I have one brother, mihi ||a: m tsisi I am the elder sister. 

tsisi, tsisir), n. things, s. ts'?a. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: misis ku !naula tsisi Missis packs the things. NI 

(LI.) tssi-ssifi. Ex.: m tai ti ma: ^ me tsisir) ha ti sir) ti "fki my mother carried me on her back, 

the things I saw were numerous. 

tsissaxi, large. NI, (Pa.) tsissachi. 

ts'^ita, tsi'^'ta, v. to be dark, s. ts'^itsn. SI. (B. ) ts'ita. Ex.: ha. |ku sir) |xorro:ka ||a: ~||ga:, au tik? 

|ku ts'^ita, hs: ~||ga: |ku ! naunko e he did rustling go at night, while the place was still dark, 

and night it still was. (LI. )ttssi-ta. Ex.: har) |ku-g | ne l|nau ! gaue, o tikan naun tsi'^ta, har) |ku-g 

|ne ||aq |kei fxoa ! nwa he did this at dawn when the place was still dark, he went to trace the 

elephants' footprints. 

ts'^itan, V. to grow dark, become dusk, s. ts'^'ita. SI. (LI.) tss'iten. Ex.: ||koir) se |ku |e:, o ka: ta:, , 

he ti |ku ts'^itsn ho r), au r) a: ta: the sun will set, while I lie, and the place will grow dark i 

over me, as I lie. j 

. _ I 
tsitsi:, V. to make bite, s. tsi:, to bite. SI. (LI.) tssitssT. Ex.: ha haf | ne kui, " ! gwara k"auki ti|, 

r) sir) |kau ~|kAm" au ha ~|kou tsitsi: ! gwara he said, " the knife does not bite, that I may cut| 

off", while he sharpened making bite the knife. ! 

tsitsi, V. to enlarge, exalt. CI. (Do. ) I 

ts'?its'?i, V. to bring. SIVb. (St.) 

tsitsi, n. feeding place. CI. (Do.) 

tsitsiria:ka, n. tin. SV. (D.B.) 

tsi~tso, n. mouse. SIV. (D.B.) 

tsifa, n. blanket, kaross, s. t/ila, NI. (Pa.) tsi-2a. 

tsi fkhoi, n. beard. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. 

tsn, V. to cry, crow, s. tsi, to sing. NI. (V.) | 

tsr), n. younger brother, s. tsi, tsau. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kaku ~||ko, _wase tsr) ||kaka the elder 

brother, Wase the younger brother, masalade tsr) wa mihi Masalade's younger brother am I. 

ts^o, V. to stink. CII. (Schi.) ts'O. 

- ■ - ■ ' 
~tso, V. to stand up, rise, draw up, often used as up. s. tsau. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAm |gi, a t/i, ka-l 

J'a~u, ka ~tso ko ~! nu the sun rises and comes, he awakes and rises and stands up. mihi ku ~tso, 

tsa u ~! go I stand up and you two sit. ahi ku gu ~tso you have lifted it up. "tso ~u rui^ 

away (said to a child). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: daba ~u, a tso, a ~u the child goes, gets up and goes 

~||hi ~|gu a ti ~tso ta ki ~u, ti m t/u ||ai the hare at night gets up, comes out, eats the hut 



218 ! ' 

ts'i'o, n. hartebeest, s. _d30: . Nil. (Oc. ) (Wil.) ts5. 

ts*?©:^ n. ostrich. Nil. (Pa.) ts-o. 

tso:, tso, n. sinew, thread, cord. Nil. (V.) tso. (LI.) tsso. (Wil.) tso, bracelet. 

ts'^oa, n. flat, form of swa: . SI. (B. ) ts'o^^ tsoa. 

tsoa, n. hail. Cla. , CII. (Pa.) 

tsoa, n. red colour, ochre. SIV. (D. B. ) 

tsoa, n. wild cat, ' Ginsterkatze' . Nil. (Wil.) ts5S. 

tsora, dem. that, s. tsi. SIVb. (St.) 

tsoa, s. tswaf, chest, lung. 

ts'oa, n. matter. SVIa. (Kr. ) ts'oa. Ex.: di : ||gaggen ts'^oa | ge a do quickly this matter (make haste 

with what you are doing). 

bs'oaggan, ts'^'oar), on this account, therefore, prob. derived from te'^oa, matter. SVI. a. (Kr. ) ts'oaggen, 
ts'oan. Ex.: rj |oue ||ka-ga !nti, r| ts'^'oaggsn ||kx'?ou dae ||ga — I have seen the lion's traces, I there- 
fore shall not travel at night, rj ||k?oar| dui ts'?yr| |ge: y fgaggan, hr) ts'^oag g ga !kon!kon — I have 
heard the things you talk, on this account I take my horse. 

S-a'oafksn, v. to disperse, s. t/ola^ken. SI. (LI.) ttss'daken. Ex.: !khwa:-ka Ikwar&gan |kii ts'^oalksn 
!kum:, o !khwa: k"auki kau: — the rain clouds disperse and the rain does not fall. 

;soa:iii:ea, n. slender mongoose, s. tsa |noe. NI. Nil. (Sh. ) 

is'?oate, interrog. what ? why ? prob. derived from ts'^oa, thing, matter. SVIa. (Kr. ) ts'oate. Ex.: ts'^oate 

g ||ar) ti e a ? — what do I smell here ? ts'^oate. ts'^yrj g fgaggsn har) kxou toai ? why (is) the 

thing I say not good ?. 

stoats'? oattsn, v. to say angrily. SI. (B. ) ts'o^ts' Gotten. Ex.: jkakakksn ts'^oats'^'oatten i, " !k'?wa-ka 
Ikaukan arruko s'?oe:n" the Mantis angrily says, " hartebeest children quickly sit" . 

;soa:xais, n. red rock hare. Nlla. (Sh.) 

is'oeg, t'J'eoir), n. pi. things, s. tsa, t/wer|. SI. (B. ) ts'oen, ts'oenja. Ex.: r) tar) k"auki |na: ts'^oerj 

I did not see the things, ha tatti, ts'''oer)ja |ku-g |ne ta:e s'^a: he thinks the things do come. 

(Lich. ) t'soir). Ex.: aar-ka f^soir) thy goods. 

sogu_ludi, n. iron tipped rear end of spear. CIII. (D. B. ) 

SOko, n. a muddy pool. CI. (Do.) 

s'oko, n. wood, firewood, ashes, used as fire. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ts'^oko si dzanne t/osi txlemebi — 

firewood is brought and put down by the men. k"wa utape ts'^oko ko (she) is splitting wood, ts'^oko 

pa i — take off the wooden lid. poijube a ||nobabi ||kutije ts'^oko nina — pound baobab seed, place 
near the fire, plaint pe ts'^oko, e se tl'?o/ote — put them in the ashes and roast them. 

soko, tsokonjoo, n. porridge, corn ( ? Kafir corn). CI. (Do.) 

s'okwana, n. giraffe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kata na ts'^'okwanako boku tassiko — I saw a very tall female 
giraffe, ts'^okwanabi piepe — two giraffes. 

BOm, n. picture. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a _soa tsom, ka ! k'^oe he scratched pictures, scraped (them) in. 

some, n. hyena. QII. (D.B.) 

3'omma, ts'umma:, used after ||ga night, to express pitch dark, or the middle of the night. SI. (B. ) 
ts'dmma. Ex.: u sag ~|k"e: ki !kei ! ho r) au-g ||nair), g k"au sag !kui:tsn ||gai: !u, ta ~||ga: ts'^omma 

|ku e you shall calling answer me at the house, that I may not returning pass by (the house), for 

pitch dark it is (LI.) ttss'Smma, ttss'ummS. Ex.: ti e:, !kau~!kauro k"auki fxi:ja i:, hig e:, ! k'?e 
ta, llga ts'i'o^mma, au ti tSt~ta(tt) when the moon does not shine, then people say night darkness, 




when the place is dark. !ko: sig kwog Ikoeja Ike a:^ Ike se Ikaigan Ikiiitan au ||ga: ts'^'umma: — the 
Milky Way should give a little light for the people that the people may return home by night, in the 
middle of the night. 

tso:ne:, n. baboon. [Tsw.j Sllb. (Mh. ) tsone. 

tsonoo, V. to twist, tsonoja, twisted. CI. (Do.) tsonoya. 

ts3fo, V. to hear. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: uku tsofo u 8we:i you hear, you sit. 

_ts'?oSof, V. to dance. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||k"abe ku ||i:ja johannisbur, lorike ku si e |ne |nori, ki 
_ts'i*ofof ||k"abe has gone to Johannisburg, the lorry came and took him to dance. 

taoo, V. to refuse. Q. (Do.) 

tsoo, n. eye, eyes, s. ts'^arxu. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: tan tsoo ten f^u, tan tsoo ||nate si |kAin — that is om 
eye, those are two eyes. 

tsora, V. to advise some one. Nil. (V.) tspra. 

tsori, n. ants. SIV. (D.B.) j 

ts'J'orokan, ts'^'oroki, tsoroka, old. SI. (B. ) ts'drokfn, ts'6roki. Ex.: hi ! naunko ! nsrritan ||na, au hi 
k"auki Ihafm |na: hi ! gel !nwa ts'^'oroksn — they still seek about there, though they do not even seej 

their sheeps' old spoor. ts'?a ts'^oroki, ! kxikan ts'^oroki an old thing, an old shoe. (LI.) ! 

ttssdroka, tss'drSkfn. Ex.: a k"auki sal-g |ne |ni: fxoa ! nwa, au hi tsoroka — you would not see thij 
elephants' footprints, if they were old. ! goa oa |ku |kau !kwa fkemmi-tu ! nwa, au hag ! Ahi ! khe ||a: 

||neig ts'^orokan quartz once cut deep into fkemmi-tu's foot, as he was running over an old hut. 


tso:si, n. lungs, s. s*?©:, t/o. (31. (D.B.) I 

tsortso, n. blackfooted sebala cat. Micro felis nigritis , s. tutj*u. CII. (Sh.) 

ts'!*ot/epi, tsutipi , v. to be cold. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: wakindega ts'?ot/epi the Bushmen are cold, ati , 

tsut/ipi cold water. I 

tsot/epi, n. wind, s. ts'^ot/epi . QII. (D.B.) Ex.: poijapi enabi tsot/epi — blows the grass the wind. I 

ts'^ou, n. pips, seeds. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||k"uru ^kn ts'<*ou — scrape up the pips, ^kni ts'ou — seeds o:' 

ts'ou, n. tooth, s. tsau. NI. (D.B.) pi. ts'^ousi. (Sei.) tso ussi. 

tsou ||a, n. cheek. NIa. (Leb.) m sp. tsdu ||4w 


ts'!*u, tsu, tsu, V. to blow, s. tsot/epi. SI. (B. ) ts'dw Ex.: ||go||go Gpwakan |ne s'^'a: hi-hi, hag |ne ts*?' 

ho tori |ku a little whirlwind comes to them, it blows up the ostrich feathers. (LI.) tss'ii, aft 

neg. tss'ui. Ex.: ! khwe a: ta: wurri, hag a: |ku ts'^u |ki |wa:f ||a !khwa:-ka |kwa:gsn — the wind ' 
which lies in the west, it is the one which blows turning back the rain's clouds. ! khwe a: ta Ikaufai 

hag k"auki tAm 0pwa ts'?u:i the wind which lies in the east, it does not a little blow. SII. (D.EJ 

Ex.: |he ki ts'^u, |he ki e !na§i: the wind blows, the wind is strong. ||gau he ts'^u the thorni 

bush blows (is blown). SIV. (D.B.) tsu, ts'^use. Ex.: ^=kwe:, ha ke tsu |nu:a the wind it blows I 

(from) afar, i ts'^'use ke konse, ~||kani ki fkee it is blowing past, much it rains. SIVb. (St.) \ 

ts*?u, to blow into. SVI. (D.B.) tsu. Ex.: tsu ma |a: --- blow the fire. Nil. (LI.) tsu. Ex.: na ti 1 

tsu: da I blow at the lighted candle. NIII. (D.B.) tsu. Ex.: ma ki tsu ~fi _daa I have blowtij 

the fire, ki _tsu ||kai k"a — blow off the dust. j 

ts^u, V. to feel heat, s. susukan. SI. (B. ) ts'u. Ex.: g ||kwag a: k"aukiku:i ts'u au g ! nwa-ka |i — ' 
was the one who did feel the heat of my foot's burn. i 

ts'^u, V. to stamp, grind with stones. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n |hjm ko kofi, n ts'u I pick up coffee, I 

grind. i 

ts'?u, -tsu, n. nose, s. su, tsug. Nil. (Dk.) ts'fl. (LI.) tsu. 

tsu, n. thombush, 'hakdoorn'. Cla. (Pa.) 
tsu, n. village, house, s. tju. Nil. (Pa.) 


8U, n. grandfather, cousin, niece, uncle, s. t/u, txu. Nil. (LI.) tsu^ pi. tsii-ssin. Ex.: m tsu — my 

father's brother, pi. for more than two. m tsusir). m tai ba na ti o~k"wi ♦m tsu' my mother's 

father I call my grandfather. NIII. (D.B.) cousin, niece. Ex.: m tsu tsn my father's brother's 

elder son. mi tsu my father's brother's younger son. mi tsu ma my sister's daughter, m. sp. m 

pa tsumesiq ||ko debe my father's nieces, elder brother's children. 

sue:e, small, s. tsema. Qa. (Pa.) tsuee. 

a'uer), n. pi. things, s. t/wer). SI. (B. ) ts'ijen. (LI.) ttssuen. 

sui, n. nose, s. ts'^u. Qa. (Pa.) 

8uka, V. to shoot, s. tsur). SII. (D.B.) Ex.: do |ln a:, ha xn tsuka ! kae — that man has shot a gemsbok. 

sukutsuku, verhal n. shouting. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nai eta a tsukutsuku ma olanakwe — we hear the 
shouting of the children. 

s'uli, n. protea. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ts'^uli ! gau ~|kwi m the protea bush is not food. 

suma^ V. to run. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tean u, a tsuma ai — go away, you must run away. 

Bumbi, n. fowl. [Mb. kasumbi.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _goba ~!k3 tsumbi the Mbunda kills a fowl. 

sume^ V. to look for. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: an tsume ||kabbi — I look for the oxen. 

s'umma, s. ts'^'omma. 

s'un, V. to wink at. SI. (B. ) ts'unn. Ex.: ! kwag daiStsn, jkakkakan ts'^'un !kwa: the child looked be- 
hind her, the Mantis winked at the child. 

sun, tsug, v. to shoot, s. tsuka. Sllb. (Mh. ) tsun, tsun before click or nasal. 

sur), V. to take. NI. (Pa.) tsung. 

jsur), V. to call, s. tsir). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a tsug ha ~ba, "m ~ba joo" --- he calls his father, "my 
father ohe" . Nil. (Wil.) tsun, to call, blow. 

aug, n. nose, s. tsQ. NIII. (D.B.) Nil. (Wil.) tsun. 

suqgu, n. European. [Swa. mzungu.] CIII. (D.B.) 

3Upa, n. weevil. CI. (Do.) 

Jura:, to consult. Nil. (Wil.) tsurS, to persuade, tsura. 

J3uro, n. pi. goods. CI. (Do.) 


3'uJ\i_ke, n. mouse. Slla. (Dk.) 

luruku-sir), v. to vanish, disappear. SI. (LI.) ts\iruku-ssin . Ex.: ha ! nwa! nwa |ku ~i:, |ke: kui 

tsuruku-sig [kwaSgsn, ha ik"auki ~kettau-g |ne Ini; ha his footprints really yonder vanished in 

the clouds so that we no longer saw him. 

bsi, n. bottle. Nil. (Wil.) tsusi. 

lutau, tsutto, n. mosquito. SI. (LI.) tssd-t&u, tssutto. Ex.: ti tag, g k"auki se Gpwoin, o tsutauwata, 
||ke:n'!*a |ki g, ta: tsutau |ku sQ:, he tsutau k"auki tAmse |k" wai:ja — it seems that I shall not 
sleep, for the mosquitoes keep stinging me, for the mosquitoes hum, and the mosquitoes are not a 
little numerous. 

utjipi, s. ts'^otj'epi. 

'Am, ts^Amma, v. to shut the mouth, taste, feel. SI. (B. ) ts»&m, ts'dmma. Ex.: n |ki bo:k©n ! ho g tu, 
g ts'^Am — I open my mouth, I shut the mouth, hi k'auki ts'^iunma |xorre:,^ au ||o:inja |ne |e:ja — 
they did not feel the cold when the sun had gone down. (LI.) tssamm, tsfMa. Ex.: ! k'oksn ha» |ne tsAin 
llnwag, Ik'oksn hal |ne kui, " ~||ka, ~||ka" the Blue Crane tasted the liver, the Blue Crane exclaim- 
ed, " excellent, excellent" ! guwakam a: |ne |ki si ~hi !ku ko:, au !kwi|ar-ka ~S, hag a hat ka, 


"tsAmma" ! gu was the one who got the other to eat of the girl's flesh, he said, " taste" . 

tsAm, V. to sharpen (a piece of wood), s. fxAin. Nil. (LI.) ttssamm. J 

tswa, V. to stay. SIVb. (St.) 

_tswa, V. to pluck out, pull up. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: tsamama _dore _! ka ~u, sau ha ~tsa, ka _tswa !kwisir) -• 
the other birds flew away, he roasted two and plucked out the feathers. Nil. (LI.) tsy^. Ex.: tswaf 

pull up grass. 


tswa, V. to come out. [Tsw.] CI. (Do.) 

tswa, tswal^ n. chest, breast, s. soa tsorsi, lungs. Nil. (LI.) tsoa, tss6|, tsua. Ex.: ha ba /owa ha 
kwe llgu, ! gum ||gu, ta Jaa ha, /aa ha tswa — his father squirted water upon him, took water into hi 
mouth, and dribbled on him, dribbled on his chest. 

tswaa, n. fat. SIVb. (St.) 

tswai^tsfwai: In, n. thickets. SI. (LI.) ttssu^ttssu^n. Ex.: tswailtswai: In Ex.: hir) k"auki |ki ti e:,,, 
se ||k"oen ki ||e, i: thickets, they have not a place through which we can look. 

tswakho, V. to be dug out, pull out, s. tswa. CI. (Do.) 

tswatswa, v. to speak angrily. SI. (B. ) Ex.: |kaggan |ne tewatswa ta !u se, au ha: ~||ka: — the Mantis 
angrily speaking comes, when he is wet. 

tswele, n. hornet. CI. (Do.) 

tswitswi:, ts'^wits'^wi, n.^ pi. things, s. tea, ts'!*uer), f^wer], t/wit/wi. SI. (B. ) tswitewi. tsui'tsui, 
ts'uits'ui, emph. tsuitei^it^n. Ex.: hir) |ne e: k"auki [ni |ki ~||a: ts'^wits'^wi, au ti e:, ts'^wits'^wi! 

e'^o ||a: i: they are those who did not see the taking away of the things to the place to which tl 

things seemed to have gone, sitsn k"auki | ne |ko: i au sita tswitswi:, sitsn |lkwar| |ne !u!u:xe: xu 

u:i hi we did not look well after our things, we just ran away leaving them, ha sir) ||khau||khau, ; 

~||ko: ui ha-ka tswitswi:, ha-ka tswitswi :t9n ||nau ti e:, hi ta:e — he has flying left his things, 
his things think that they (will) go. akan s'?o: ka, g k"au |ku se ||oak9n xu: tu r]-ka tswitswi: — 
thou dost seem to think, I should not really have left my things. (LI.) tssyitssui Ex.: ha hal |nei 

|kwa: haha-ka tswitswi, i:, au ha ! ke ||a ! k'?e he unloosed his things there, when he had reached 

the people. 

ts'^yr), n. thing, things, s. t/wer). SVIa. (Kr. ) ts'un. Ex.: a ^gaggsn ts'^yg ks'^'ou toai — thou sayest 
things not good. 

tsxa, i;. to.pierce or wound in several places at once, as by a wooden arrow with several points. Nil. 

(LI.) tsia. 


ts'^xairo, v. to see, s. t/ai. Cla. (Pa.) ts-chairo. 

ts'^xam, greeting. NI. CII. (Pa.) ts-cham. , 1 

tsxar), n. lizard, Regenia albogularis . Nil. (LI.) tsfar). Ex.: |kAm tanki e sir) tsxar), e ! nabbo tsxar) -{ 
another day we see the lizard, we follow the lizard's spoor. 

tsxani, v. to stamp, s. txani, t/xani. Nil. (V.) tsx^/ni. 

tsxani:, n. splinter. Nil. (Wil.) tsxlni ;j 

tsxarre, tsxari, tsxerre, v. to warm oneself, bask. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||gau tse sia tsika, kak"auda:, I, 

tsxari winter has come, make fire to warm ourselves. Nil. (V. ) tsx^re, to warm the hands over £ 

fire. (LI.) tsxdLrre, tsxarre. Elx. : |xwe |kua ||ke, ta sau, ta ti tsxerre ha tai da^ — | xwe was not 
dead, but arose and warmed himself at his mother's fire. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi | r) a tsxare |kAm — 
sit basking in the sun. 


te'^xau, s. ts'^axau, eye. 

tsxe, n. iguana. NIII. (D.B.) 

ts'^xeitsn, s. ts'^axaitsn, eyes. ; 



tsxo:, V. to swell (as a boil) Nil. (V.) tsxo: . 

tsxo:^ V. to slaughter. Nil. (V.) tsx5. 

sxo^ n. eye, s. ts'^axau. SVIb. (St.) 

s'^xu:, s. ts'^axau, eye. 

sxwai, V. to ache, to be ill. SIVb. (St.) 

3xwe, V. to put in the hair, s. Jxwe. Nil. (LI.) tsxue. Ex.: ha tsxwe n'^am !k"wi 6.30, ta ||kau n'^am de 
|ne he put in his hair black ostrich feathers, and wore the hen ostrich's head. 

3xwek*?a, red. SIVb. (St.) 

pa, V. to hear, s. sa, ts'^a. NI. (D. B. ) Ex.: ||exa si tp&, |hum~si tj"?a the mistress will hear, 

hear nicely. 

fa, V. to pour, drench, drop, spill, fall, throw out, flow, s. /a. NI. (D.B.) _t/af, Ex.: _t/al |na, 

gume ka o t/i pour out water, the oxen will drink. ||gu ku _tj*a^ water has spilled, misi ku 

_t/aia ~! gu — Missis throws out water. Nil. (V.) tS'a. (LI.) tchd tcha, tchS. Ex.: ha zau | ge t/a ha 

kwe llgu tanki, ta ||gu ~! gar) k"o, ta t/a ~!kur| da^ his wife came to "French him with other water, 

and the water filled the pot, and overflowed putting out the fire. ||gu ti t/a: f rain falls. 

||nolru t/a^ k"a: blood fell upon the ground, t/a wora throw out water. Nlll. (D.B.) _t/a: Ex.: 

jjkum a ~tsi, a _t/a: — clouds come it rams. | k-im "khwi, ||ga _t/a ka, ! gaume e the sun is hot, 

rain falls, summer it is. a_t/a la ~mi ~||gu you have spilled my water. |kam | ke ts'^ama ! nu, _t/a: 

|u break a fowl's egg, pour it in (to the basin). CI. (Do.) cha, to dip in water. 

fa, V. to come or go towards, s. /a. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: korixas tsa ko !xonneja, xabe t/i ||kai tsao o 

Ixonneja, t/a a ~t/u ! gosi at Korixas (he) has stayed, but here has come to stay, come to build 

a house. Nil. (LI.) tch^. Ex.: ha dzau gu goba ~! gauru, ta ti t/a ha, ta ha !ka:, ti t/a ha t/usi — 
his wife took a Makoba' s knobkerry and went to him, and he ran, coming to his sleeping place. NIII. 
(D.B.) Ex.: t/a ~u --- go away. 

'a, t/a, V. to steal. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ka ~u ||nai a t/u |ko:, " ka t/a~a, ~|nwi o t/a: kwa" — he goes 
to tell at home, " he stole, (L) fetched what was stolen" . Nil. (LI.) tchdi. Ex.: ma zau t/a i t/i ka 

e a my wife stole your thing which is here, ha t/a t/i e ti gu her stolen thing we take. 

t/a-kau, person who steals, t/a ~fkwe stolen dog. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kQ dema ki t/'?a a Bushman 

child stole. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: xaba ko t/a he has stolen. 

'S, t/a, V. to boil, s. t/ennir), t/inxu. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a/a t/a, t/a/a |ku water boils, water 

kills. (Pa.) tscha. 

'§, t/a:, V. to be ill, n. illness, s. t/ao, t/a:ti. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ku tsa naro, ! go ka ka t/a: — 

I there sleeps the Naron, coughing is the illness. 3U o t/a, ! gi ~t/e o t/a people are ill, fever is 

I when they are ill. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nau kwe ko t/a in winter (we) are ill. |kwi!kaiba t/o-k"au 

' kwe e, kweba ko t/a, |kweikaiba ko _hal |p:re a !kwi!kaiba is a medicine man, a person is ill, 

|kwi!kaiba comes to cure him. t/a: re ko ko I am ill. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: na ^o t/a I am ill. 

a, V. to forbid. CI. (Do.) cha. 

a, V. part, unfinished action. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: n t/a /i I am coming, ha t/a kuta ~|ki ga ||kwa 

they are hidden in the grass. 

'ja, n. form of tsa, thing. SI. (LI.) tcha. Ex.: ha se |kwe:i Ikwi, ha ! koase r)-r), tiksn ( ti e: g) |kwe:i 

k"o, 1:, r) di: t/wer| e r) di: hi, au !khou:, t/a a ri s'^o dofa a-a ha a: !khou: — he should do thus, 
he (should) watch me, how I acted, what I did to the things which I treated with honey, the thing to 

which I seemed to have given of the honey, ha kuitan |k"e:, " t/a ra xa a:, a ||kwafri ! kaukan |ki: g 

|na: a: ?" he said, " wherefore (for what thing) hast thou beating broken my head ?" NI. (D.B.) Ex. 

k"wa |a, a ko t/a ku "tsi look round, whether anything is coming, a ~|ka m a t/a do not eat 

this thing. ||a ~t/a flower time, spring. 

^'' , n. knife, arrowpoint. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a: Ikwi feather on arrowpoint. 


) n. a certain waterplant. Nil. (LI.) tch^. Ex.: ta Am ||gu Am ka e t/a and eats water food which 

is (called) ... . 




t/a, tpa:, n. prickly cucumber. NI. (D.B. ) t/a. Nil. (Dk.) t^a: . 

tJSj, n. buchu, scented herbs used lor toilet or ceremonial purposes, Lepidum ruderale, L. , Ocimum 

feticulosum, Burch. s. sa, tsa. [Na. sab.] QI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a/a, peliostomem leucorhizum, E. Meyer, 
tj*aba, Bouchea pinnatafida, Schauer. pi. t/a/i. j 

t/a, n. eland, s. sa: . Slle. (And.) 

t/a, n. water, s. t/a/a. CII. (Schi.) tscha. Cllb. (Wil.) t§S. 

t/a:, t/ako, n. belly, stomach, s. t/e, t/i. GUI. (D.B.) 

t/a, light blue, pale yellow, bright green, s. t/at/ara. CII. (D.B.) (Schi.) tscha. | 

t/a, pron. I. CII. (Pa.) tscha. j 

t/a, pron. sing, you, your, short form of sat/a. CI. (Do.) cha. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: du/ ! aroma t/a ko ! xwe i 
why did you run away ? tira ga t/a |kwa m I want to see your child. I 


^S^> pron. they, them, short form of it/ebi. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i:ta neepi piepi, komipii, su seme t/a | 

caught two baboons, small ones, to eat them, hakwa t/a seme nina they go out among the food. I 

_ _ i 

t/a, num. two, s. sa, tsa, t/ara. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! gau t/a o asi — both hands, sa, ga t/a fkau — | 

they two went on. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi debe t/a — my children two. kameta debe wa t/a, ngandu ta I 

li/ovi Kameta' s children are two, Ngandu and Li/ovi. j 

_t/a:a, t/a:ta, v. to tattoo. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ~|kwi _t/a:a, goba gu |ko|ko a t/a:ta — Bushmen d 
not tattoo, and Mbunda took an adze and tattooed (made little incisions). 

t/aa, V. to enter, go in, s. t/a, /a. CI. (Do.) cha<a. 

t/aa, n. sleeping skin, mattress. CI. (Do.) chaa. 

t/ae, V. to put in. CI. (Do.) chae. 

t/ahai, n. enemies. CI. (Do.) cha hai. 

t/aha n||gai, v. to push sticks into a fire. CI. (Do.) chaha n|jgai. 

t/ahi njebe, v. to frown. CI. (Do.) chahi nyebe. 

t/Ai, n. fingers, s. dzai, t/au. Nil. (LI.) tchSi, tshai. 

t/ai, poor. CII. (Schi.) tschai. 

t/aii, t/ai, n. eye, sing. & dual; for pi. s. t/akai . CI. (Do.) chaii, chai, Ex.: koha |kamnje t/aii ha 

e the horse has two eyes, t/ai |hajo eyebrows, t/ai ||gu | gu open the eyes wide, t/ai ona 

blind, t/ai tsom tears. NI. (D.B.) t/ai kause cut between the eyes, a sign of puberty. 

Ex.: 3U ge se o t/ai kause, a t/anne ~|gi people cut him between the eyes and dance the . . . . danc 

t/ai khai !khuri, n. seed. CI. (Do.) chai khai Ikhuri. 

t/ait/ai, v. to chatter. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: tgo^'isa t/i kau t/ait/ai the yellow bird it is which chat- 

t/ai |]gaeka gauhe, v. to restrain oneself. CI. (Do.) chai ||gaeka gauhe. 

t/ai llgaeka njwaho, v. to pretend. CI. (Do.) chai ||gaeka nywaho. 

t/a ka, by means of. CI. (Do.) cha ka. 

t/aka, n. plant with a potato -like root. SV. (D.B.) Nil. (LI.) tchaka, the name of a small plant with 
long roots which have a strong smell, from which snakes are said to fly. 

t/a kaa, n. battle axe. CI. (Db.) cha kaa. 

t/akai, n. pi. eyes, for sing. s. t/aii, t/ai, CI. (Do.) cha kai. Ex.: t/akai ikhon — to close the e] 



t/a ke, i;. to nurse. CI. (Do.) cha ke. 

t/a ke sena, v. to forget. CI. (Do.) cha ke sena. 

t/akesi, m. mealie. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: |k"waie: t/akesi the child eats the mealie. 

t/a khai khon, n. a fly. CI. (Do.) cha khai khon. 

t/a khanathi , n . spy . CI . ( Do . ) cha khanathi . 

t/a khna, v. to create. CI. (Do.) cha khna. 

t/ako, t/a:ko, v. to do gently, softly, slowly, often used as adv. Nil. (LI.) tshdLko, tchdko, tchako. 
Ex.: |kAm |nee, ||ga ti |ge, ta |kua Ja, ta ti ||khuri |Aha^||kum, ta ti t/ako, tJ*ako ~|kAin --- one day 
the rain is coming, it is not falling, it is only placing a black cloud, and is dealing gently, gent- 
ly with the sun. ta gu gomi |ne |nee, ta ||kunna, ta sau, ta ti t/ig'^'a k"o, t/ako fhau t/irj'^a k"o — 
and (he) took up the ox head alone, and carried it (slung on a stick), and rose up and cried about 
the (broken) pot, slowly walked crying about the pot. 

t/a:ko, n. bird, prob. guineafowl, s. t/ate. CI. (D.B.) 

_t/ako, n. stick. CIII. (D.B.) taketavi ta o _t/ako — play fight with sticks. 

t/a kwa, V. to bend. CI. (Do.) cha kwa. . 

t/a:kwita, v. to order. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: budakwe a _dzana ^lako ki ta ta kenene t/a:kwita — Budakwe 
has brought the sheep which you formerly ordered. 

t/ale, V. to lie on one side. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea t/ale Gpwoin he lies on one side to sleep. 

t/am, V. to stoop, as approaching game. CI. (Do.) cham. 

ij&me, num. short form of it/ame^ one. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: akweti t/ame one woman, tsefije t/ameja — 

one day. 

t/ajnga, n. mierkat. QI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/amgaba, male mierkat. t/amgad.^i mierkats. 

t/Sr), V. to be fat, plump, s. t/au, t/i. Nil. (LI.) tshan, tchan. 

t/aJr), n. to be filled with food. Nil. (LI.) tchan, tsh|fi. 

t/ana, v. to search. CI. (Eb. ) chana. 

t/ana, n. fruit, s. /ana. 

t/a:ne, n. dung. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ja ka ||kau ka gume t/a:ne he is throwing away ox dung, 

t/anne, t/anni, v. to dance, s. t/xanne. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 5U ku t/anni _|gu ~ka, mihi si tsi ~/u, ~|ka 

t/anne people danced last night, I was asleep, did not dance, mihi hi:/e ~ku ss, ha ko t/anne 

t/xai — I saw Hi:/e, when I danced the dance. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: xairaba ||noa/ kwe ||e1 a, ku t/anni, 
ku fna:, kvre/a ko ||ne: an old man at the stone stands, dances, stamps, the woman sings. 

t/ant/a, v. to dry. Nil. (LI.) tchantch^. Ex.: na ti ~||kuwa, o d'?a ti t/ant/a — I hung (it) up, for the 
fire to dry. 

t/a:o, V. to be tired. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a:o wa makwa/a tired is Makwa/a. t/a:o na I am tired. 

t/a:o ba o mama tired is the lady. 

t/ao, V. to insult. CI. (Do.) tshao. 

t/api, V. to go out, walk. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: haka t/api |ki'?i akwitibe are going out walking this way 

the women. 

t/apit/i, n. ear. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a t/apit/i jako an ear it is. t/apit/ipi sa --- his ears. 

t/ara, dual ending of n. used also as two, both, s. tsa, t/a. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | kwim | hiiba ~i:, |kwim 
~! gau damaba ~i; , t/ara ko _ha:f one was a white man, one was a Berg Damara, both came. 


t/ara, n. bird, s. tsaba, tsama. CII. (D.B. ) pi. tj"ared3i, t/arana. Ex.: t/arara-dis yal/a — bird's nesi 
t/ara |kwa:ba a little bird. (Schi.) tschara. 

t/ara, n. thomtree, s. t/aro. CI. (Do.) chara. 

t/ara hi, conj . and, plus. CII. (Schi.) tscha ra hi. 

t/arana, v. to plug. CI. (Do.) charana. 

t/arihe, damp, s. t/'?i:. CI. (Do.) charihe. 

t/aro, n. wait-a-bit thorntree, s. t/ara. CI. (Do.) charo. 

t/aroo, V. to plead with. CI. (Do.) charoo. 

t/aroo, n. mirth. CI. (Do.) charoo. 

t/a/a, ~t/ana/a, v. to make music, play an instrument. CII. (D.B.) Ex.:hai t/a/a, sa ko k"wi it is 

making music, that is chirping (a cricket), do; I/a ko ~t/ana/a is playing the ' ramki' (a musical 

instrument) . 

t/a/a, n. water, sometimes t/a/, t/as, s. t/a, to pour, t/aa, water. QI. (D.B.) Ex.: /era _are t/a/a, 

_!kau_!kau/ |kwa, a _ha k"a: both went to the water with a waterroot and drank, /i t/a/ kwe fka 

— It fell into the water, kein ko fk"wana _haf, a ko _hal fga: t/os kwe t/a:s kwe — then an ele-i 
phan-t comes, and comes to fall into a hole at the water. 

t/a/e, V. to cook in water, boil, s. t/a/a, water. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: I|haa ja t/a/e /i||kwi that man ia 

cooking a cock, e ka t/a/e e kofi he is boiling (water) for coffee. 

t/a:te, n. guineafowl, s. t/a:ko. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: haipi sa t/a:te feathers of the guineafowl. 

t/a:ti, V. to be hurt, s. t/a:. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: misai a~kha mo |etsa na, t/a:ti amo, ha teke amo pisdi 
upukwa tina Misai has gone to his hut, he is hurt, he is pierced by a thorn in his foot. 

t/ati, pron. thou, s. t/a. CII. (Pa.) tschati. 

t/at/a, V. to strike flint on steel, try, taste. Nil. (LI.) tchatcha. 

t/at/ara, n. walking-stick insect, Phymateus morbillosos. Nil. (LI.) tchSchdra. 

t/at/ara, blue, s. t/a. CII. (Schi.) tschStschara. 

t/atte, V. to find. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwi si t/atte manoko, si _dza:na when they find the game, thej 

will come back. ,_ 

~t/au, V. to fly, s. tsa u. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i||gu u, ea ga t/au the partridge, it flies. 

t/au:, V. to heal. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwaku ja ||kunni ja ba ||nwa, misis a ba t/au: ka — |kwaku's eyes 
were affected. Missis healed them. ■; 

t/au, V. to milk. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: gwedsi t/au milk the cows. 

t/au, V. to dig. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 5U naroa se ku t/au, ku "gu k"annisa — the Naron people have gone to 

dig, to take ants. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | nwe/a a t/au ||gaikwesa ko !note a digging-stick for digging 

woman carries. ! gorro/a ko t/au, a ! nabbeba ko fka ! gorro/ kwe a pit (we) dug, and the giraffe , 

fell into the pit. I 

t/au:, V. to thatch. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: anni~u o ~ku gu:, o t/au: t/u Anni~u picks grass, thatches the' 

hut. i 

~t/au, V. to be fat, s. t/ar]. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ||kei:a a fkumba fu, ta Igi/afna:, na ~t/au — all oj 

us eat locusts and dance the .... dance and are fat. i 


t/au, n. ash. CII. (Schi.) tschau. 

t/au, n. pit, spring, well, s. v. t/au, to dig, n. t/e:, well. CII. (D.B.) t/auba, pit. CII. Clla. (Pa. 



fau, n. hand, finger. QI. (Schi.) techau, finger, ace. tschauba. tschou, hand, pi. tschou-dschi . 

tschau Igoa, little finger, tschau | gui tschi |ure^ thumb . (D.B. ) Ex.: t/au | gwi tin, thumb, t/au 

ykwonnate, fingers, or fingernails, /owa ka turn, t/aum kvfa xo a turn eat with a spoon, with the 

hand hold and eat. tj*au3ij hands. 

fau, n. quail, pi. t/au-t/au. Nil. (Wil.) tsau, tSau-tsau. 

fauaba, t/auba, n. tail, s. tsau. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: warriba |ku:i ko m/i t/auaba ? — has the lizard 
not a tail ? t/auba ~ka the tail is lacking. t/auo, tails. 

faxa, n. a certain fruit, prob. a melon. Nil. (LI.) tcha:fei. Ex.: zau ti gu t/axa tsema, ta ti fxarre 

t/axa tsema, ta ti m t/axa tsema fkhija l|gu the woman took the little fruit, and made a hole in 

the little fruit full of juice. 

fe, V. to work. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i-jnu t/e ka gu ka ! kau the medicine man works with people who 

are ill. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: Ikwadgi "t/e, Inidgi ko Ixetdgi ||k'?a: --- the children work, these wash 
clothes, xu ra t/e tama — that I do not work, kaua ra ka t/e: — to-morrow I will work. 

fe, V. to look, s. t/ii. Slle. (And.) t/e. Ex.: t/e, e ! ea look^ here is a thief. 

fe, V. to lead, pull, s. t/ee. CI. (Do.) che. , •. 

fe, n. liver, s. t/i. CI. (Do.) che. 

fe, n. day, usually tee. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ha t/e |ne a ha |ktim toa on that one day he finished cut- 

fe, dem. this, here, s. t/i, tsi. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ||gauwa ~!ka si t/i a, a ka t/e e, e |kwa ||a — 
llgauwa' s servant is that, and what this is we do not know. 

fe, true. QI. (Schi.) tsche. (D.B.) Ex.: t/e: xu i i a true thing that is. 

'e:, n. younger brother, s. tst. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i ws/s mi t/e: they (are) all my younger brothers. 

mi t/e: wa ! nwa gandu my younger brother is only Gandu. 

'e:, n. well, s. t/au. SV. (D.B.) 

e abe, no, not. CI. (Do.) che abe. 

e:a/a, n. plant, Helidirysum damarense. CII. (D.B.) 

ebe:, n. waterhole. Qlb. (Wil.) tsebg. 

ee, t;. to pull through, hang up, make tobacco, s. t/e, to pull. CI. (Do.) chee. 

ee, n. ear, s. t/et/e. CI. (Do.) chee. 

ee, n. spittle. CI. (Do.) chee. 

ee kakha, conj . also. CI. (Do.) chee kakha. 

e:ka, t/eke, v. to bear, lay, put down, put in. [Swa. chukua.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/e:ka ola, seta 

it/ame t/eke ta bear a child, one month (ago) it was born, akwe ko t/eke ta, akwe a ko boku — 

when it was born, then it was ill. a t/ia:a tseti, a ta t/e:ka pick up the stick and lay it down. 

misi amo hadza, kotuate bada nini kutu, t/okwa mantsa pale, kotuwa bada bina, i t/eka sal, kotuwa 
kl'^uma ja pipi dies a Bushman, is buried in a grave;, dug is a hole, buried in a grave, put him in, 

i bury, fill in and cry. |okuju ako t/eke te ko ita put an elbow on them. 

^ekesas, n. jackal. Slid. (Arb.) chekesas. 

"t|ekat/anne, n. little finger. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kenena hadzabe mu:a t/ekat/anne — in old days the Bush- 
1 men cut off the little finger. 

/ekuvu, n. drum. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _||go ki fnaAm t/ekuvu a man plays the drum. 

mat/ema, v. to flavour, Q. (Do. ) chemachema. 
^9n, V. to hide. CI. (Do.) chen. 



tjen, V. to play. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: dzosi o t/en the woman is playing. 

t/enaa, n. crocodile. CI. (Do.) chenaa. ! 

t/ena/i, n. pipe. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ena/i dau light the pipe. j 

t/enee, v. to patch. CI. (Do.) chenee. ' 

t/enne, tJervxM, v. to bake^ roast, s. t/a. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |e:/a _kafru, kein tama/ ko _haf, |ni/ ko i 

t/enne, t/enne m ko ko ~ka, ne kafru/ ko the fire is burning, when no more there is, there will 

bake, he does not bake while it is burning, t/enxu e | nwia sa |kwa: it is roasted together with 


tjeo, n. rod, stick. CI. (Do.) cheo. 

t/era, dual ending to n. also used as both, s tjar&, /era. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: xam, |kwad3i-di ~kuru/a _haf 

xaba ko |ni kwe ~si, t/era ~||kai |kwan|ku kwe this, the young ones' wagon, comes, that one there 

goes, both meet at Olifantskloof . ||gai ! kurru, ||k"au ! kurru, ! kurru~tj"era |kAm left knee, right 

knee, two knees. | 

t/erekho, n. stick, s. t/eo. CI. (Do.) 

t/erri, v. to put out, go out (fire), s. t/iri. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tu/a ke |e:/a t/erri, e e ma, tu/a tu, 
na I e/a re t/erri rain puts the fire out, they say, rain falls, and the fire goes out. 

t/esi, a little, s. tsema. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi ku ~|ka ||kwa, duisteri ~tsi ! num a, ka a t/esi ||kwS — 
I did not work, the (iermans came here, then I worked a little. 

t/e:tai, striped, checked. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: menda t/e:tai — striped stuff. j 

t/et/a:, v. to suck. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha~kha pi ati na si /a "khame ka tsinana, se kwa t/et/a: — the^ 
go to fetch sugarcane to suck. 1 

t/et/e, i;. to give ear to, hear, s. t/ee. CII. (Do.) cheche. j 


t/et/e, V. to lay down, put, down, s. t/e:ka. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: e ta t/it/i, e ta t/et/e ke — (you) pi<i 

it up, lay it down, a t/et/e ta tolla ko ||aba put down the stick among the stones. ! 

t/et/ereho, v. to spit, s. t/ee, spittle.. CI. (Do.) chechereho. 

t/i:, t/'^i:, v. to bite, s. tsi:. SI. (B. ) tshi, tsh'i. Ex.: ha tete-ta er; t/i: fk"ofk"ok9n-r— his thiglj 
flesh is bitten to pieces, ha xoaksn |ne jkAm !au:i, hag |ne t/'^i: !khwi: ha — their mother brings i 
an egg, she bites breaking it. Slle. (And.) t/i. I 

~t/i, ~t/i, V. to drink, s. t/ir). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: "tia ku ~t/i kusi, ~|ka au mi alone (he) drank mi.{, 

did not give to me. (Pa.) tschi. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma gu ~||gu, m ~t/i I take water, I drink. j 

t/i, V. to entice, coax, s. t/ii, to call. CI. (Do.) chi, tshi. | 


t/r, V. to cry, low, weep, sing, thunder, s. t/ii, t/ir). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: dzau ! kauwa ~|e kok"a:, ka t/i 

ka tso the woman settled on the ground, and cried, and got up. ahi re k"ai, dama ! goma, a re o | 

~t/i you are crying, little boy, you are weeping. ! ga: t/t ku tara the rain thunders and | 

lightens, tsama ma re o ~tsau, a t/i the little bird flies, sings, gume ~tso, a t/i — the ox j 

gets up, lows. 

t/i, V. to go, run, aim, let fly. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: jan tan gwani teani t/i --- you must all go. n t/i | 

0uer)si I go to sleep. Nil. (LI.) tchi ||ha, to take aim at. Ex.: |nani ti t/i ||ha ! ku the |nai 

took aim at the Bushman. NIII. (D.B.) t/i ||a, to let fly. Ex.: ! kove ||ke_a ||nau, ko t/i ||a ||xa |au -J 
!kove carries a bow, and lets fly killing the buck. ! ku | ne ||kei ||nau, songu ||nau, ti |ua ||nau t/ynii 

ti ko/a, ti t/i ||a, ti txatxa a Bushman holds tlie bow, the arrow's bow, pulls the bowstring, let 

go, lets fly, and shoots. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwekwe |kia unu, iko t/i when (it) sees a person, thij 

runs, t/i ami so kl'^eka kau they run on the plain. j 

~t/i, to come, form of tsi, tea. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: donki o "tsa te ~|ka: ~t/i two donkeys have not cc . 

!o: ! gwi tsike ka ku ~t/i --- into this trap it (buck) comes. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ts'^a t/a ri t/i 
I ge two men have come. 


t/i:, tj*i:a, v. to catch, take, pick up, fetch. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: r)0 sarjgana tamatsu, samakapi, kota t/i: 

tamatsu I found small hives, three, then took a small hive, elati opi^ t/i :a: tsokobi workers 

they, are fetching wood, t/ikina enapi t/iia ota samaki jo sama a basket of grass to catch fish in to 

eat. a t/iia tseti pick up the stick. 

t/i:, tpi:, v. to be wet, damp. NI. (D B. ) Ex.: k"a re t/i:, •! ga ro ! ruun ---^ the earth is wet, rain has 
fallen. Nil. (V.) ts'i. (Dk.) tpi:. Ex.: na t/^i: --- I am wet. (LI.) tchi, damp. 

t/i, V. to be fat, s. t/ar|. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: guwe re t/i: --- the sheep is fat. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a t/i, 
a ||ka||ka (he) is fat, is big. 

t/i, pron. I, me, my, s. t/ira. CI. (Do.) chi. Ex.: t/i kwereha I am hungry, t/i t/waho my broth- 
er, t/i I gwa my child. 

t/i, pron. you, sing. dat. & ace. s. sat/a. (HI. (Schi.) tschi, ace. (D.B.) Ex.: ti |kwi ra ko ma t/i — 
I have only given to you. 

t/i, conj . CI. (Do.) chi, so that. CII. (Schi.) tschi, and. 

tpi, n. back of hut. SI. (LI.) tch'i. Ex.: i se-g |ne |ku |ko: te ||khwai : au-g ||neir| |na tpi — we 
will lay down the quiver at the hut's head's back (behind where people lay their heads). 

t/i, prep, in, inside. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: sekuni a ||nalle bupi, ke kolui t/i — Sekuni has taken out the 
meal which was inside the wagon. bu:ki e ke t/i boksi the book is inside the box. 

t/i, n. liver, s. t/e, t/ir|, /ir). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i ~!kau, m ! kwe the liver aches, I have overeat- 
en. Nil. (V.) tSi. 

t/i, n. thing, s. t/a, tea. NI (D.B.) Ex.: xam ko m, gu ~t/i ka o m the lion eats, catches a thing 

and eats, mihi ku se t/i I have seen something, dama ! go ~t/i the boy's things. Nil. (Wil.) 

tSi. (LI.), tchi. Ex.: ~|hu t/i |kua e, ta ! nwerre t/i e a — the white man's thing it is not, for a 
thing of the country it is (wild flower). d3U tsema ti nabbe mi, ti ! ku, ti gu mi kwe t/i, ta ti |u 

t/u the small person saluted me, ran, relieved me of the thing (parcel), and entered the house. 

NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i ! gai, a t/i ! kaan the thing is red, and the thing is white (that is red and 

that IS white) /ova ki t/i ||ka||ka, maxa o t/i ""ma /ova is the big one, Maxa is the little one. ma 

m t/i fkhi I eat many things. 

t/i, dem. this, here, s. t/e, tsi. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: n fhAm ku m |ese t/i the locust eats this grass. 

re ka ~u, ko t/i, ka tsi I went away and came back here. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku "fkhi t/i ! neri 

Bushmen are many in this country. 

t/i, n. hole. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gu t/i, t/i a ! n3a /i, ! no ~|u ! ko dig a hole, a hole to throw them in, 

throw in the ants. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ksCu ke ~u ke wa t/i: the snake goes away into its hole. 

t/i, n. arrow, bone or iron arrowhead, s. tsi. NI. (Pa.) tschi. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i kuwa kiki ri tha~u --- the 
arrow rolled off and fell. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/i kungu --- arrow's point (iron). CII. (D.B.) Ex.: 
t/i-di, arrow, t/i ! gau, male arrow with iron head. 

t/i, n. brother, form of tsi. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: anno ba o t/i Annio's father's brother. 

t/i:a, s. t/i:, to catch. 

t/iatosa, n. split in tail of arrow. CIII. (D.B.) 

t/ie, n. ear, s. t/i, to hear. Clb. (Pa.) tschie. 

t/ihurigu, n. axe blade. NIII. (D.B.) 

t/ii, V. to look. SIII. (D.B.) Fjc. : t/ii ko: so --- look there. 

t/ii, V. to be sick, ill. CI. (Do.) chii. 

t/ii, V. to call, s. t/io. CI. (Do.) chii. 

t/ikai, V. to smoke. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ha^a ||k"abe pipi /i, t/ikai /i ka ||kau|na --- the man brings the 
pipe here, smokes here with tobacco. 



tj*i:ki, dem. there, s. t/i. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: tsa a obi, tsa kl'^assite aijako t/i:ki, na hsma sa aijako 
come have we, come to mother, to talk with mother there, in the tent of mother. 

t/ikine, t/ikina, v. to work, make. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hana a t/ikine zaikoni, t/ikina a boku — there h! 

worked m the south, worked in the home, etsakwe ta sandawebi tjikina enapi a basket of the Sanda 

we is made of grass. 

t/ikombe, v. to spear, hunt with a spear. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: utsaijako hako, unuwa t/it/ikombe — the 

hippo this, men are hunting it with spears, utumea, ko tjukua tako t/ikombe a the spear, it is 

held to spear with. 

t/ikovi, n. small calabash. NIII. (D.B.) 

t/ikuu, V. to give. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dazar ti ||kakahoba manoko, tjikuu kwako kwe atjije — Dazar divic 
ed the meat, gave each a bit. 

t/ikwa, dem. this, one. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/ikwa akwiti jako, ka it/e jak"amba — one was the female, 
the other the male. 

t/ilorigo, n. hammock for carrying people, 'mashila'. NIII. (D.B.) Fjc. : ki ~||uma t/ilorjgo (they) car-l 

ried the hammock. 

t/im, n. locust. CI. (Do.) chim. 

Gsim, n. spoon. CI. (Do.) chim. 

t/i:ma, v. to carry. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a t/i:ma a _|na — carry on the head, ma we, tj*i:ma a ||ke — 
I say, carry on the shoulder. 

I t/imatj*ima, v. to add to, smear. CI. (Do.) chimachima. 

I t/im ! au, n. testicle. Nil. (Wil.) tSim !au. 

t/ir), V. to cry, weep, thunder, bleat, s. t/i. Nil. (Wil.) tgiri. tSina. (LI.) tchiri. Ex.: ha dabba ~||ka 

ti t/ir| his child is dead, he cries. ||ga ti t/ig'^a | gu the rain thundered in the night, ka tj 

t/ir) ka tara it thundered and lightened. NIII. (Ex.: ! au t/ir) goats bleat. ! ku a ~t/u, hi 

~|na si ga _gu a, a t/ig ta _!kwe ~u a person sleeps, they come to take him, he cries out and 

wakes up. 

t/ir), V. to drink, s. t/i, t/i. Nil. (V.) tsn. (LI.) tchin. Ex.: na ti t/ig ||gu, ta m tai ti e, ti t/ir|- 

l|gu I was drinking water, and my mother was here, was drinking water. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma t/ir) f 

~gu I drink water. 

t/ir|, n. thing, used with num. s. t/i. CII. (Schi.) tsching. Ex.: t/ir) |e one. t/ig |a two. t/i! 

!au or ! gau ? — three, t/ir) ||kai — four, t/ir) |e gaba ! gou — six. t/ir) |a gaba ! gau — seven. 
t/ir) !au gaba ! gou — eight. 

t/ig, n. liver, s. t/i. Nil. (LI.) tchiri. Ex.: ha tai txa ha t/ir) kwe t/ana, txa !kar)'?a ha t/ir), ta ha 
||ke his mother hit his liver with a .... fruit, hit wounding his liver, and he died. 

t/ina, n. funeral. CI. (Do.) china. 

t/indole, n. a plant used for tattooing by the Mbunda. NIII. (D.B.) 

t/ind5ako, n. a silvery spider, s. pind3ako. CIII. (D.B.) 

t/ig— ha, v. to shoot, s. t/i, to go, aim, t/ig ||ha. NI. (Pa.) tsching-hd. 

t/igkelikeli, n. hair ornament ( ? old medal or coin). NIII. (D.B.) 

t/igku, n. Kafir piano. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _gova | na ma t/iqku Mbunda is playing the Kafir piano. 

t/igkwa, really, truly, s. t/i-||e:. NI. (Pa.) tschinkwa. 

t/ig-!a, n. cloak, kaross, s. t/i-! a, t/i^ikwi. NI. (Pa. ) tsching-3a. 

t/ig ||ha:, v. to throw away, s. t/ig-ha, t/i ||na. Nil. (LI.) tchin ||h5;. 


t/ig-fa, small (?). Nil. (Pa.) tsching-2a. 

ijio, V. to beckon, n. a call, s. t/ii. CI. (Do.) chio. 

t/io, n. sickness, s. t/ii. CI. (Do.) chio. 

t/ioo, V. to wipe. CI. (Eb.) chioo. 

b/i:pa:, n. bee. Cllb. (Wil.) tsipa. 

b/ipi, n. bracelet. Nil. (Wil.) tSipi. 

;b/ira, pron. I, s. t/i. CI. (Do.) chira. 

[i/iri, V. to cover with ashes, s. t/erri. CII. (D. B. ) Ex.: koa i ko xu~u: i ko t/iri, fnum/a^ |e:/ ti^ 
/a ko t/iri when it (fire) is left, it is covered, ashes, the fire's, cover it. 

:/iri, n. poison. SIIc. (D. B. ) , 

'tjie&j^ t/isi, here, s. t/i. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: "t/isa fkhisa | go-ra --- here are many baboons. | go~ra 
j _ko~ra t/isi baboons are lacking here. 

I.t/isandu, n. story. NIII. (D.B.) 

Jisi, n. a small bush with pods. SV. (D.B.) 

/isi, n. buttocks. CII. (D.B.) 

/i:ta, V. to catch, seize, marry, fetch, take, s. t/i:, t/i:a. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso t/icta seseme, 

so mudirga tambi when catches a lion, then vultures gather, asakali atu t/i:ta lalako the red 

cat also seizes a lamb, hadzabe, e kweso t/i:ta hadzako, iso ha~khata Bushmen, when one marries a 

woman, then they go off. a~kham elatebi wooko, a te t/iita manako, a te dza:na — went the boys to 

the muddy spot, and fetched the game, and came back, a mo t/i:ta han!a pakai, a mo pukurta he 

took a big stone, he put it on top. 

/itse:ma, a little, s. kateetma. Nil. (Wil.) t^itsema. 

/it/i, V. to pick up, s. t/i:ta. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e ta t/it/i --- (you) pick it up. 

/it/i, n. cricket, 'singertji'. NI. (D.B.) 

/itji, n. a charm of wood worn by small boys. NI. (D.B.) 

/it/isi, V. to burn off. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ea daa t/it/iei _ho:, a hi ~! ni that fire burns off the 

grass, that it sprouts. 

fi'^'u, V. to turn round. Sllb. (r4h. ) tSi'U. 

fi zo:ar), n, lung. Nil. (Wil.) tsi zoan. 

fi-!a, t/i-^a:, n. kaross, cloak, s. t/ir|-! a, t/i~!kwi. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gu t/i-!a, re ku ||kanma --- take 

the kaross, put it on. t/i-fa: ~tsa 3U \||kamine two karosses people wear. d30 ka ||kamma t/i-fa ma 

tsema a woman wears a little kaross. 

b/i: !gani. m. plant, Tragia duoica, Lond. , of which the berries are eaten. CII. (D.B.) 

l!gwa:sij n. sandals for running, made with the point of the sole turned downwards to catch in the sand, 
s. ! gwa~kei. NI. (D. B. ) 

'i~!kwi, n. cloak, kaross, s. t/i-! a, t/ir)-!a. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: l|kau||kau t/i~!kwi --- to wear a kaross. 

1 ||e:, true, s. t/igkwa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/a ||kau t/i ||e: --- that is not trufe. 

i ||na:, v. to throw away, s. t/ir) l|ha, t/ig-ha. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ahi t/i ||na you are throwing away. 

^''r):, V. to cry, s. t/ir). Nil. (Dk. ) t/^r]:. 


t/n, n. nose, s. t/'?u, tsn. NIII. (D.B. ) 

t/o, V. to sit, /orm o/ Jo. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||e ee t/o — go, eat, sit. 

tJ6, V. to milk, n. milk. Slle. (And.) 

t/o, V. to grind. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: | goo, ka se 3U e doro, ka t/o beads (eggshell), these people 

pierced and ground. 


t/o, V. to swell, be swollen, s. t/oei, t/o:a. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gu fhoni re o t/o the man's elbow is j 

swollen. Nil. (LI.) tcho. { 

t/o, V. to decay, s. t/oro. CI I. (D.B.) Ex.: _tge/a a t^a: xum/!£)kwe, a xer~ri, a !nu/a ku~ru, a ! nu/ | 

ko _ha a ||k"um, |lk"uma _to~a, a xa kwoi ~t/o, a ~ka — the poison grub goes into the ground, be- 1 

comes a cocoon, makes a house, into the house goes and sleeps, finishes sleeping, and there decays, j 

and is no more. i 

t/o:, V. to mark, tattoo, smear, s. t/o k"au. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku ki t/o: mi, dzema ||kai||kai !kuki 

t/o: people marked me, a big girl people mark. ! ku ki t/o: !ko-de, t/o: a !o:, a ||ha, a !ku: 

people tattoo a girl, tattoo back, arm, leg. ! kil ki t/o: a |kum hi, ki t/o:, ! gfiCu wa ||ha ki t/o: 

people mark, cut them, mark them, with a tree's juice smear them. 

t/o, V. to be timid, blunt, s. d30. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kuku ri t/o: a the knife is blunt. Nil. (LI.) 

tchd, tcho. Ex.: e desir) |kui t/o, ta !ni: — our women are not timid, but brave, t/i doa xaxa, Ikuai 
xa.xa, ta t/o (this) thing is sharp, is not sharp, but blunt. 

t/o, V. to bewitch, s. t/o-k"au. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||arruba ||kwoi ! nu/ kwe ||ai/a kuru, t/o-k"aume e, ko 

t/o, ko kwena t/o, ko ~!nu: the sparrow in a house its nest builds, a wizard it is, it bewitches 

1 the people bewitches and magics. 

t/o, V. to have plenty (?). CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe ||nau, a ko re t/o, a f^oe people are satisfied 

II and have plenty and get fat. 

1 t/o, interrog. what ? NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/o ma |a ? --- what shall I give ? 

t/o:, n. perspiration, s. /o: Nil. (LI.) tchS. 

t/o, n. person. CI. (Do.) cho, pi. chware. 

t/o, n. yellow-wood tree. CI. (Do.) cho. 

t/o, good, goodness. CI. (Do.) cho. I 

t/o, n. skin. CI. (Do.) cho. , 

t/o:, n. sinew, string (musical). NI. (D.B.) pi. t/osi. Ex.: t/o:, ha fkani the sinew , it is wound ij 

on. mihi ku se ! nau e tsike, t/osi o ! nani — I have seen this (musical) bow, the strings are three. 1 

t/o, n. hartebeest, s. so, d30. NI. & Nil. (Sh.) tsho. 

t/o, n. hand, s. t/au, t/ou. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||gai t/o --- female hand, left hand. ||k"aut/o --- male 
hand, right hand, t/ot/era both hands, t/o, five (a hand). 

t/o, n. lungs, chest, s. tso:si, soa. NI. (D.B.) pi. t/osi. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi t/o a — my chest it 
is. ai. (Schi.) tscho. an. (D.B.) pi. t/ope. 

t/o, n. medicine, s. t/o-kau, t/o-k"au. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: /aum ke ko f:ke:/a haJnaha, |h(in kwe /i a, t/o 
ma, a k"a, a k"we, naro kwe t/o uwa tama — in winter there is illness, the master comes, gives 
medicine, (they) drink and recover, the Naron have no medicine. Nil. (Wil.) t§5. 

t/'?o, n. village, home, t/'?o~!ni, hut, s. t/u. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ki ! kama _goba t/'^'o, ma ki |r) !ku 

t/'^o I left the Mbunda village, I returned to the Bushman village, ahi tpo ~!ni ka m thy hut 

it is. ja ! ko a 10, ! ku |nwi t/u a tj'^o some go to the wood, other Bushmen sit at home. 

t/o, a term of relationship, variously used. CII. (D.B. 'i t/o, maternal uncle. t/6ba, grandfather, grand- 
son, sister's husband, w. sp. t/6na, people, relations, t/00, sister's children, m. sp. t/osa, grand- 
mother, granddaughter, t/oseba, grandson, t/osesa, granddaughter, t/o/ii, wife's sister, t/6 |kwa, 


husband's brother, or brother's child. 

t/ofS, V. to ask. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: sija r) ||na g ka t/ofa ||kei|ka --- come .... go, I ask girl. 

tjoa^ V. to come out. CI. (Do.) choa. 

t/oa d3U, n. a Bushman's hut, s. t/o, person. Q. (Do.) choa ju. 

t/o aha, wet . CI. (Do.) cho aha 

t/o aho, V. to cause to move. CI. (Do.) cho aho. 

t/olafksn, v. to descend, disappear (?). SI. (LI.) ttchj^k^n. Ex.: he ||kha:? ta.x'.%, i:, ||kai:t8n ||a: 
||xau:, i:, he l|kha:f t/ofaSkgn, i: and the lion went away, ascending the hill, and the lion des- 
cended (the hill upon the other side) (? disappeared). 

t/o ane, n. pericardium. CI. (Do.) cho ane. 

t/o:ba, V. to blow. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: pu/o ka t/o:ba jS Pu/o is blowing the fire. 

b/obaa, n. garden. CI. (Do.) chobaa. 

b/obehe tsaa, n. warm water. CI. (Do.) chobehe tsaA. 

t/o hi dat/a, t/oii dat/a, n. wild hemp, dagga. CI. (Do.) cho hi dacha, choii dacha. 

b/oho, t/oo, soon, quickly, just now. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i katba t/oho /i we returned soon, na a:na 

t/oo a I will just now eat. 

t/ohokau, n. whip, SV. (D.B.) Ex.: golna a ta kabba | ne t/ohokau — the Tswana is carrying the whip. 

t/oi kakho, v. to become zealous. CI. (Do.) choi kckho. . ■ ■ 

i/oka, s. t/okwa, to carry. 

/o ka dseme, v. to be vexed. CI. (Do.) cho ka jeme. 
i/o kahe, n. abcess, boil. CI. (Do.) cho kahe. 

/o kakho, v. to sell. CI. (Do.) cho kakho. 

/o-kau, n. bag for medicine, s. t/o, t/o-k"au. CI. (Do.) cho kau. 

i/o khaa, v. to outspan. CI. (Do.) cho khaa. 

>/oko, n. Kafir corn, millet. CI. (Do.) choko. 

/okwa, t/oka, v. to carry, [Swa. chukua.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: elatipi /a atibi, t/okwa mamako — boys bring 

water, carry game, mutako t/okwa te !ur|gu!ur)gu sticks the strangers are carrying. H'^'ana ko t/okwa 

hadzaipi arrows the Bushmen carry, t/oka a tita carrying it you are. 

/okwesa, s. to follow spoor. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapina i/o /aha tsefui, ita hn fe, ita t/okweea, ita 
|kise atama so hama early the sun ends the night, they rise, follow the spoor, see the blood there. 

/o-k"au, n. medicine man, doctor, sorcerer, s. t/o, t o|kau NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||gau ma !git/o-k"au a 
||ko: --- a boy's cut, (between eyebrows), a medicine man tattoos it. ! ku ws/s/e ahn ~|kwi t/o-k"au, 

! ka ||na||na a wa t/o-k"au all Bushmen are not sorcerers, old Bushmen are sorcerers. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

|kwim t/alreba |nu-k"aumee, t/o-k"auine e — one bird is a wizard, a doctor, kwi! kaiba t/o-k"au kwe e:, 

kweba ko t/S, |kwi!kaiba ko _haf |ore a |kwi!kaiba is a medicine man, a man is ill, |kwi!kaiba 

comes to cure him. 

'/ole, n. tobacco, s. t/oro, /ore. NI. (Pa.) tschole. 

/olen, V. to make (fire). NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dso t/olen _daa people make fire. 

/oil, n. leaf. CII. (Schi.) tscholi . 


'Ill I 


t/oli, n. spring, ' Saugbrunnen' , s. t/ore. Clla. (Pa.) tscholi. , 

t/olm:, i;. to harden (?), SI. (LI.) ttoh%mm. Ex.: ha |k"e: !khwa:, !khwa: se tAin:se ka'u:, o ||k"oena:, l\ 
||k"oen, ti e:, !khwa: |ku i: tjolm: ©"'Ikhwa: tai:l gau: sa:, a:, Ikwacgsn ha: |ku i: e ! gwe: — he ! 
spoke to the rain, that the rain should fall gently, because of the sight which he saw, that the raii 
truly hardened (?), as the rain was verily hail. ; 

t/om, V. to feel, hear, s. t/ompe. Q. (Do.) chom. Ex.: t/om he, to understand, t/om kahko to be j 

heard, understood. | 

t/olm, n. Pleiades, s. t/xum, NI. (D.B. ) j 

t/oma, n. magic, spirit, prob. Huwe, s. tjo, to bewitch. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/xai t/oma, t/xanni t/oma ---, 
magic dance, or dance to Huwe (the dance held when boys are initiated). CII. (D.B.) t/oima, magic. 

t/oma, n. iron, metal. [Swa. chuma.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ekekelata t/oma y'^'anako make an iron arrow- ! 

head, hadzako ta ||ia kwe, akwitiko, ||ka||kaesa ihija, sit/e tl'^oa, iko it/e t/oma, amamako sa iko ■ 

t/oma, atitsiko tl'^oako a Bushman dies, a woman, divide they there, to one clothes, to another { 

metal (brass rings on neck), to her mother the metal, to her sister the clothes. j 

t/o, go goodness. CI. (Do.) cho mamo. j 

t/omba, n. fetish stick. NIII. (D.B.) 

t/ompe, deaf, s. t/om, to hear. CI. (Do.) chompe. 

t/on, V. to shake, wrestle. CI. (Do.) chon. 

Ill j t/on:, V. to draw in. SI. (LI.) ttchSnn. Ex.: tsa diksn a:,, a-g |ne ||nau:, r) |ka:lol |ki |e: o a 

'™" ' "llkwallkwan:, aksn |ne t/on:t/on: a-g" InS:, a: ? he: ti k"war| a ka a t/on: ||k"i: ! ho g |k"a|k"4 — 

why IS it that thou dost thus, when I stroke putting in (my hands) to thy (the tortoises) neckfoldsij 
thou dost draw in thy head ? the thing seems, thou dost wish drawing in to hold fast my hands. 

11 t/ona, n. man's apron, loincloth. NI. (D.B.) 

t/onaa, n. mucus, s. t/onee. CI. (Eb. ) chonaa. 

t/onaha, v. to be out of joint, broken. CI. (Do.) chonaha. 

t/onama, probably. CI. (Do.) chonama. 

t/one, V. to distribute. CI. (Cto.) chone. 

t/one, n. wizard, s. t/o, t/o-k"au . CI. (Do.) chone. 

t/onee, v. to blow the nose. CI. (Do.) chonee. 

t/onja, V. to be surprised. CI. (Do.) chonya. 

t/o njwaho, wait a bit. CI. (Do.) cho nywaho. 

t/onoja, slanting, crooked. CI. (Do.) chononya. 

t/o:lo, V. to press down. SI. (LI.) ttchoo. Ex.: he ||kha:l kukui, har] fi: ha ka ha !k'?oa t/o:fo kwokw^ 
! kwi |na: and the lion thought it would tread thoroughly pressing down the man's head. 

t/co, V. to roast. CI. (Do.) choo. 

t/oo, n. defiance, charms. CI. (Do. ) choo. 

t/oo, n. heart. CI. (Do.) choo. 

t/oo, n. leather. CI. (Do.) choo. 

t/ora, V. to rescue, release (as captured cattle). CI. (Do.) chora. 

t/ora, V. to put on, NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3u: ku ||gerri t/u, |]k"au t/u, gu !ko:ka !kesi, t/ora ||e:si ka ||aT;.| 





ka people make a hut, work the hut, fetch and plant sticks, put on grass to thatch. 

Jolra^ V. to throw away (water). SI. (LI.) tchdra. 

Joraba, t/ora/a, n. pod, skin, shell. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||gwebe kwe ko k"o, \e:J kwe fku a k"o, a t/oraba 

~au xu a tortoise a person eats, in the fire roasts it, eats it, the shell throws away. Ik'^abbi/a 

kurua, a fkn, a _tum, a t/cra/a a k-'wet/aj" kwe --- the egg is chipped, roasted, eaten, the shell is 
filled with water. 

Jorahe^ v. to deliver. CI. (Do.) chorahe. 

/otraxo, n. saddlebag. Cllb. (Wil.) tsSrSxo. 

fore, V. to suck, s. t/oli. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: fa:ba xtun/ kwe toxo a t/ore a reed in the ground put 

and suck. (Pa.) tschore, ' Saugbrunnen' . , • ; .. 

foro^ V. to decay, rot, corrupt, n. rottenness, pus. CI. (Do.) choro. 

foro, n. skin, blanket, kaross. CI. (Eb.) choro. 

fore, t/ore/a, n. tobacco, s. t/ole, /ore. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/oro kein/ ||koxo^ si |kwa, |kwa:, ~|kwa:, 

a |nu ta ~i, a /i ! noxo e the tobacco when it comes out is just so big, so big, so big, little 

houses make, put them on. ko:ba ko /wi:i, a ||xaue, a ga ||ama a |k30, t/ore/a — the skin is taken 
off and stretched to buy smokes with tobacco. 

/oro/i, n. pi. dancing rattles, tied to ankles for dancing. NI. (D.B.) 

fo8, n. hole. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kein ko fkoana _hal a ko _ha fga: t/os kwe t/a:s kwe — then elephants 
come and fall into the hole at the water. 

fct/a, n. name of a big waterhole called Naunas by the Tswana. CII. (D.B.) 

'o/a^ n. magic, s. tJ*o, t/o-k"au. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kamt/era t/o-k"aut/era t/o/a kuru two doctors 

work magic. . . , 

fosij badly, with difficulty. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ha dama ha t/osi ||orra ||akka Ini tsau ! ko~u — when the 

' child with difficulty is born, then the woman is ill. 


fo tsiaa, v. to be unkind to. CI. (Do.) cho tsiaa. 

'ot/oe, slowly. CI. (Do.) chochoe. 

'ot/u, V. to amaze. CI. (Do.) chochu. 

'ou, V. to buy. CI. (Do.) chou. 

'ou, V. to doctor, t/ouee, to be doctored, s.t/o, t/o-k"au. CI. (Do.) chou, chouee. 

'ou |kwa, n. hillock. CI. (Do.-) chou |kwa. 

i'owa, n. elephant. CI. (Do.) chowa. Ex.: t/owa |kwa a young elephant, t/owa tsau elephant's 

I trunk. , 

o:wa, n. dry season. May to December. CIII. (D.B.) 

owe, n. man, s. t/o. CI. (Do.) chowe. 

u, t/u, V. to blow, s. tsu, d3i3. SI. (LI.) tchu, ttchu. Ex.: ha |ku se-g |ne t/u tai | I --- he will 

blowing go (be blown away), ha | ne !hi:r)ja, au ! khwe ||kwalr) |ne t/u te:r) he draws near, while the 

wind blowing lies (becomes still). SIV. (D.B.) t/'^u:, unusual form of ts'?u: . Ex.: t/'?u:se he tj"?u: 

— the wind blows. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea ga ~t/u: that is blowing (the nose), pu/o ka t/u: m 

Pu/o is blowing it (fire). NI. (D.B.) gu t/a --- to blow. Nil. (LI.) tchu. Ex.: ha ti t/u a, ma ti 

t/a ha --- she blows at thee, thou biowest at her. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | eba re ko ~t/a to strike a 

match (blow the fire). 

^) V- to sit, sit down, lie, put down, stay, s. t/o. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: misis ja t/u Missis sits down. 

/i||kwi a t/u ~|ki --- the cook sits there, kapurte Gpoinja Opoin |ki, wa t/u ki ~/um — little goats 


are asleep, they are lying in the shade, na ka "t/u: ba:ki ka ||kuin I am putting the jacket on th. 

ground, ea t/u |ki ke kanje — he stays at Kanye. SVI. ( D. B. ) Ex.: n t/u, na kan t/u ki — I sit, 
am sitting here. NI. (D.B. ) Ex.: mihi ku ~t/u, dama ! goma tsema ku t/u: — I sit dovm, the little ! 

boy sits down. ! guwa ra ka t/a, tj*u |ne water was spilt, lies there, t/u |ko ka: hi t/u in aj 

village they did not live (sit). Nil. (Wil.) tgu. to sleep. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _! galu a ||Am, dso ki tj 

^S'^^f _||9° "^/u 't/a: the hive swarms, the bees dance, at night they lie asleep, kutei _|na a ka ' 

t/u the Kutsi (river) there lies. ~3U ki t/u g people stay here. 

"t/u, V. to cry, howl, s. tjr, t/ir|. Nil. (LI.) tt'chQ^ tcha. Ex.: ^kne ti "t/Q, fkwe ti ||gu: --- the | 
dog howls, the dog barks, u ~t/u, to cry. j 

t/u, V. to acquire, take. CI. (Do.) chu. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tumbate ko tala t/u tobacco I have tak 



tpvi, V. to pass, roll. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||gu _||kwa||kwa, ti t/?u u water flows, rolls away. _gova| 

ta t/'^u, ta u a i t/'?u the Mbunda are passing, going to their hut. i 

~t/u, V. to get up, s. tsa ~u. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: m 't/u I get up. i 

t/u, V. to relieve oneself, move the bowels, n. dung, excrement. CI. (Do.) chu, dung, chuu, dried cow I 
dung used as fuel. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kwa ra i: ko, tira ko t/u, kein/ ei/a t/u wa te !koxo, |es ] 

!o:kwe |k"e: a dau child (I) was, I relieved myself, while mother the excrement took away, into 

the fire I fell, burnt myself. (Schi.) tschu, dung. Cllb. (Wil.) tsu, dung. 

t/u, n. thing, usually tsa, pi. t/wer), s. below. SI. (LI.) tchu. Ex.: ha kiii, " t/u ka: e, a hS he, he 
Ikauinja i : "? he |ai:ti kukditsn |k"e:, " r) k"auki Ikauinja t/u de" — he asked, " what thing is 
that thou hast eaten, that thou art filled with ?" and the woman answering said, " I am not filled i 
with anything. " 

II t/u, tp-a, n. hut, nest, house, home, place, hole, s. t/u, to sit. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |a t/u the fire' 

fl place. NI. (Sei.) techuu. (D.B.) pi. t/ut/u. Ex.: ! go ~t/u ant home, anthill. ~!kou ok"wixam, '. 

" a ~tsi m ~t/u" the hyena said to the lion, " come to my home ". mihi gu t/u a tsike I talf, 

III the hut which is here. (Pa.) tschu, house. Nil. (Wil.) t§u. (LI.) tchu. Ex.: tsaba t/u bird's ne!; 

" ta ti llga ~|hu tanki t/u (he) visits another white man's house. ||hu t/u mole hole, t/usir) --{ 

" huts, t/u tarj'^a upper part of hut. t/u !kag'?asir) sticks supporting hut. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: j 

dama t/usi | ge women build the huts, dama a ||ko a t/'^u the women have stayed at home. ! nave 

i ke |r) a t/'?u — ! nave is sitting at home, t/u ! ni _dama — hut's doorway, a ki ! go mi t/u ! ni — 
(I) have built my hut. t/u ! ni t/a m gaua ~||s the hut I thatch with grass. 

t/u, n. nose, s. t/ui . NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U t/u tsike a person's nose is that. 

t/u:, n. man, t/u:-go:a, servant. Nil. (Wil.) tSu, tSu-goS. 

~t/u, n. uncle, grandfather, greatuncle, s. t/S. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: m tai a ~t/u a~ba, m tai ba a tse — 
my mother's uncle by the father, my mother's father's younger brother. 

"t/u, n. pot, s. t/wa. SIII. (D.B.) 

t/u, perhaps. CI. (Do.) chu. 

t/u, num. five, s. t/au, hand. Nil. (LI.) tchu. Ex.: t/u ~jkhi ti u: five go (as many as five go). 

t/u, bad, decayed. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: gome | nee _t/u, ta. gome ~! nwi ! kai one cow is bad, but the big 

cow is good. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/u xud3i a ! nu kwe _haS bad tnings far off are happening. |xwa:n 

kwean e, a ko kwe ~||k" Am, t/u wa i an angry man it is, he beats a man, bad it is. ! kwa t/u — 

decayed meat. 

t/u, black. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/u ! ku --- a black person, t/uva !k(i --- black people. 

t/uana, n. elephant. Clb. (Pa.) tschuana. 

t/u'?e, V. to ask, s. t/ofa Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: nja ka t/u*??, " gjiei ! "^anuma ?" --- I ... ask, "how so ?" 

t/Qi, t;. to be short. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha kwe la |a:, ha kwe la t/ui that one is tall, that one i 


t/ui, nose, s. t/u, ~ts'?u, t/wi. CI. (Do.) chui. Clb. (Pa.) tschui. 


fukwa, V. to dig. cm. (D.B. ) Ex.: ||ekwa jamoabi tina, t/ukwa ana hata — the .... plant is in the 
ground, we dig it out. 

/ule, t/uli, n. tobacco, snuff, s. t/ole, /ole, /ore. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ku a |u paggwe, ta |u t/ule, 
ta I Q lugga the Bushmen smoke dagga, and smoke tobacco, and smoke 

Jum, V. to rub on. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a gu ! oa^ ka ! ni a fgo:, ka ~||ki, ka t/um ||kaba — take a little ... 
poison, then mix a little, then pound, then rub (it) on the arrowhead. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: _tg§/j^ 

kweba ko xum/ kwe t/au, a |koxo^ a t/um the poison grubs a man from the ground digs, puts in, 

rubs on (the arrowhead). 

Jum, V. to wash. (Schi.) tschum. 

t/um, n. lip. CII. (D.B.) dual t/umsera, pi. t/um/i. 

/uma, n. millipede (? little magic). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: nama ok"wi, t/uma ! xo ~t/i t/i e --- the Nama 
said, the millipede God's thing is. 

/uma, n. niece, nephew, s. t/u. NIII. (D.B.) pi. t/ume. Ex.: mi t/uma my elder brother's son. 

kajela fxe mi t/uma Kajela's daughter (is) my niece. 

/uni, n. elbow. CI. (Do.) chuni. 

l/uno, V. to go round a thing. CI. (Do.) chuno. 


/unt/un, V. to shut the eyes, s. t/ut/uruka. SI. (LI.) tchunil-tchunil. Ex.: sitsn tar) si t/unt/un !khe 

1 — we felt as if we stood shutting our eyes. 

t/upe, n. buttocks. CIII. (D.B.) 

furl, n. year, s. kuri. CIII. (D.B.) 

furu, V. to make room. CI. (Do.) churu. 

/u'^ru, V. to vanish. SI. (LI.) tchii-ru. Ex.: u: e: !k*?e, u ko:fof se kwarj ||nau:, u: |ku:ka, u kwSr) |ku 

||koa:k8n |ku:k8n t/u'^ru sir) ye who are people, ye shall do this when ye die, ye shall altogether 

dying vanish away. 

furu, n. tortoise. Clb. (Pa.) tschuru. 

fuel, n. sleeping place, s. t/u, to lie. Nil. (LI.) tchu-ssi. 

fusir], s. t/u, hut. 

Tut/u, very hot. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||an a t/i 0pwi, t/ut/u --- the sun is warm, very hot. Nil. (Wil.) 
t§iItSu, ill. 

'u:t/uruka, v. to draw up the eyes, s. t/unt/un. SI. (LI.) ttchntchiiruka. Ex.: ha ! kwe ||a: ! kwi i:, o 
!kwitsn t/u:t/uruka ha tsajfd,i:tji he looked back at the man, while the man drew up his eyes. 

'ut/u-t/i_|kemma, n. hawk. CII. (D.B.) 

fu-lko, n. village, s. t/u, hut. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: t/u-|ko ka: hi t/u in villages they did not stay. 

dama t/u-|ko |khi the Kafirs' villages were many. 

("ulnwa, V. to lie, tell lies. n. a lie. QI. (Schi ) tschu! noa --- a lie, a bad tale. (D.B.) Ex.: 
t/u!nwa/a xu leave off telling lies. t/u!nwat/ ko he has lied, t/usi lies. 

Am, V. to follow, stalk, steal up to. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nwi ma |gi, ke kwS ~t/i, kwS m t/a, ~t/Am, |ne 
txa — the new moon has comej let us seek something, seek a food thing, stalk and shoot. CII. (D.B.) 
Ex.: I garo/a _daufa kweba ko ~m, t/Am tama ; ! kabbu uwa _haf ko nama ko t/Am /i a ! nwa /i — ostrich 
spoor a man sees, does not follow ; a gun it was with which the Nama followed it, shot it. 

wa, V. to stick in, s. t/we. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ka t/wa ! kwisir] ka ! anni — then stuck the feathers in 
his head. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a t/wa ! ni a ||ke: --- stick in the belt and carry. 

wa, V. to go out, break. CI. (Do.) chwa. 


t/wa, n. pot, s. t/u. C. SIII. (D.B. ) I 

t/wa, n. person, s. t/owe. CI. (Do.) chwa. t 

t/waa, V. to take the foot off anything. CI. (Do.) chwaa. ( 

t/waho, n. carbuncle. CI. (Do.) chwaho. 

t/wa khaa, goodhearted. CI. (Do.) chwa khaa. 

t/wakho, V. to put away, undress. CI. (Do.>^ chwakho. 

t/wala, n. sun, day, heat, thirst. SIIc. (D.B.) 

t/ware, n. pi. people, s. t/o, person. CI. (Do.) Ex.: chware. Ex.: t/ware njaha, openly, in sight of 
people, t/ware ||gau||gau to oppose people. 

t/ware |kati, v. to itch. CI. (Do.) chware |kati. ! 

t/wat/waip, v. to load. SI. (LI.) tchyatchyd[.iji . Ex.: itan doa^ se i ||e ! hou ka ti e, ta: hi e: ta 0hoVji 
t/wat/wain we must go there to that part of the locusts, for it is the one whose trees are loacll. 

t/we, V. to sift. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi t/we /ela, d30 /ela — I sift wax, bees' wax. 

t/we, n. mouth, hole, s. tu. SV. (D.B.) 

t/wer), n. pi. things, game, s. tf\x, tsa. SI. (LI.) tchuen. Ex.: ha k"oa |ne ! aIiI ||koa t/wer) e: |kai:n;j 

au ha !ka:xu it seems to have put on things which shone to its breast, i ka— g | ne !ka:gan kau 

|kau: t/wen ! nwa, au i-g | ne !ka:gsn kau ! hvm ya:, ta t/werj e:, ht |k"wai:ja, hi |ke ka fkAir: Qpwa 

tai:f sa we early cross the things' spoor, when we go to hunt, for things which are numerous ai 

wont to come first. 

t/we-sir), v. to doctor (?), s. t/xai. SI. (LI.) tshui^-ssift. 

t/wi, V. to pluck, pull out, s. tswa. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tu/a tu, |ni kwoi |ka:, !nu:/ kwe, |ga:d3i ko ti, 

a ko ! gerri (if) rain falls, in here we come, into the hut, grass we pull out and thatch. |uanl 

t/wi, a ko doro/a ||ama feathers pluck and a tin box buy. 

t/wi, n. nose, s. tpu, ie'^u. CI. (Do.) chwi. Ex.: t/wi kholo, nostrils. 

t/xai, n. eye, s. tsaxau. Clb. (Pa.) tschxai. 

t/xai, V. to flare up, smoke, s. t/xeri. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |a ta t/xai the fire is smoking. 

t/xai, t/xe, v. to dance a ceremonial dance, often used with t/anne. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi hi:/e ku ss iha 

ko t/anne t/xai I saw Hi:/e, he danced the dance, t/xai ! go bull dance, used at boys' initj- 

tion ceremonies. _|nu k"au ku kuru t/isi ko a ku ! kau, ko t/i _! ori a ko t/xe, si-gai t/xe, ka a k) 

_! gori, a t/xai ! ne ja the medicine man does this to one who is sick, this rubs and dances, we i 

dance while he rubs, dance the .... dance. Nil. (LI.) tckfe, stand and make gestures, perform a do i 
toring ceremony. Ex. : sa ti ~kwi, ta d3U tanki ti t/xe, ta ti t/we-sig, ta d3U tanki ti |kua t/xe, a 

d3U tanki ti ge'^e we are ill, and other people stand and make gestures^ they doctor (?), and 

other people do not stand and make gestures, and other people sing, ha ba ~/uwa k"a, ta ti t/ir), | 

ti t/xe, ha ba ti t/ir), ta "sau his father lay on the ground and cried, | xwe performed a doctojng 

ceremony, his father cried and rose up. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: i dame ki t/xai, ki t/xai ka ! ko^e ie 

women danced, danced for the girls, t/au a ! kaba, ||go a t/xe women clap, men dance. | gu |nee a' •■ 

t/xe: — one night they danced. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~d30 _|nAm ka, d30 ku _|nAm ~t/xai ka, 3U t/xannj 
~t/xai, d306i ku ~ge: ka 3U t/xanne ~t/xai a woman steps, a woman steps the dance, a man stain. 

the dance, the women sing, and the men stamp dancing. j 


~t/xe:ka, v. to play a musical bow. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: _!nau ku ||kaika ~ru ~t/xe:ka — the bow hold fas 

and play. 

~t/xsri, V. to flame, s. t/xai, to flare up. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ka kau _da, ko _da ko o t/xsri — make 
fire, and the fire flames. 

t/xi, V. to clap hands, s. t/xai, to dance. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 30si ge t/xanni, 30si ge t/xi women a? 

dancing, women are clapping. | 



fxo, t/xoro, V. to skin, pull off. NI. NIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: hi t/xo _!ka |no --- they pull off the skm. 

CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kaud3i ko tJ*xoro, _hal, ko/ ku dau, a ko turn the leaves pull off, come in, pound 

them and swallow them. 

fyri, V. to stop, leave off. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~kei/i ku dau, ! nu ka i ko ! garro, a ko /i t/yri — much 
(we) make fire, far it burns, then it stops. 

a, V. to hear, listen, s. tui, turn. SI. (B. ) ttii. Ex.: ha-q |ne te;rite:r| ti (ne ||ne:ja ke, g k"auki |ne 

tu she lying directed me, I did not listen. (LI.) ttu. Ex.: i K"auki ta Ikoroksn ||we:, i:, o itan 

ta: ||ka ti e:, ts'^a a:ka ha se |ku ||nau:, o i: ki sa: fi:, ti e:, i k"auki jkorokan ||we:ija, hag 

|ku-g |ne se tu we do not rustle much, for we feel that it is a thing which would do this, even 

if we thought we had not rustled much, it would hear. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: si xa ~tu fge~ru 0pwa, ha 

~k"a: we heard a lamb, it bleated. r| tu r) !nwe:r)tu I hear (with) my ear. |aw4, harj |ne ~tu ha 

xe:r)ki the child, it listens to its mother, r) xr) tua: I have heard. Sllb. (Mh.) tu"*". Slid. 

(Wu.) ti. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n kia tu — I did not hear. | ne kia kai tu: ho, ija kn ka _|kAn — (if) 
you do not listen, we will beat you. 

tu, V. to look, seek. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ~tu, wa !kalle |ki /e gume look, there the oxen come trott- 
ing. Nil. (LI.) tu, tu. Ex.: ha ba ~u, ta k"aro |xwe, ha ti ~tu |xwe his father went out and 

sought for ! xwe, he looked for |xwe. na ti tu me t/i I sought for my thing (pipe). NIII. (D.B.) 

Ex.: _! nai ki turn a ! ''"o, ki tu !ku, o _gu the lion hunts in the wood, seeks a man, catches him. 

i:, V. to breathe, pant, sigh, go out (fire), also used as off, s. tutu. [Na. tuwu, to whisper.^ SI. 
(B. ) ttn, ttu. Ex.: 1 tu: — we breathe, n |ku-g | ne !u:xe:, tatattan au | i-ta ||k"o:e, hir) |ne dau 
ko tatattsn, au hir) ||k"i ||k"i !au:n ta r) ! nwa ||ka: ||ka:tu, hir) |ku-g |ne ~tu: au r) !u:xe: ||a: — I run- 
ning dropped the fire's hot embers, they fell as I went, while they stood fast fixed between my toes, 

they went out (becoming ashes) as I ran along. (LI.) ttu, tu. Ex.: ~tu i ho ha |i to sigh, ha | ne 

"antau te:nja ~hi, he tikan e:, i ta anitau tu ! ho, ~i: — it (the game) soon lies down for us, 
therefore we soon leave off panting, har) kui fkup, au 0ho Opwa, harj ! kan tu: ha^ hag xuruxuru ||koe te 

au |a|S he set fire to the little piece of wood, he holding put it out, he rubbing put (the burnt 

powder) into the cuts. ! gitan se ! nwerri ~|kum ti ! kau a:, ! gitsn !ku: ! hag'^a !hou: a: — the sor 

carers will roll off the stone with which they have shut up the locusts. | itan |ku tu:wa the fire 

has died down. 

i, V. to quench, s. thu. Slid. (Wu.) tti 

:, tu, V. to lie, lie down. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! xai a tu: ||ki ka ||kum the dog is lying there on the 

ground, na ga tu I lie down. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: ta ©pwoin, ta ! kobbe tu: sleep, lie down. 

V. to ache. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: UgaTula fa:ba ko /wabba, o kwe fqo o tu, kwem ko /wabba ne — the spirit 
wind whistles if a person's forehead aches, for the person it whistles. 

V. to rain, fall, pour, n. rain. [Na. tu.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tu/a ko tu, ! gwi/a fkai tama rain 

falls, it (plant) comes out. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tu it/a, tu tsn atebi pour that, pour in the water. 

ati ku tu water falls down. CI. (Do.) Ex.: tu marathodi a drop of rain. Cla. (Pa.) tu. CII. 

(D.B.) tu, tu/a, tuj". Ex.: tu ! narro |ud3i — rain's hair, clouds, tuj !o:kwe ! nume tania /a — in 

the rain we do not trap, si tu/a tu, i ^xe: when rain falls, it is cold. (Schi.) tu, rain, cloud. 

(P^.) tu.-CIIa. (Pa.) 

n. head, s. tju. CTI. (Sei.) 

; n. mouth, hole, opening. SI. (B. ) ttu, emph. ttiiken, pi. ttdttu, tuwaken. Ex.: !ka!k^rnikan fkakka 

!nau 0wa, " n kar) sag ! gwa: |ki: a tu " the moon says to the little hare, " I will beat cleaving 

thy mouth" . tu-ka |num: moustache, g tukan |ku-g | ne ||ko:wa my mouth was dry. hi-ta ku: " 

tuwakan |hoa:ka — all their mouths are black, tutu e !ku: — two mouths. ! kau-tu, belly. ||kha-tu 

arm hole. (LI.) ttu. Ex.: ~to ||kwafg ||na ~! kou, ~to tu red haematite is in the mountain, the 

red haematite mine. ! gaue tukan the dawn's mouth, early in the morning. (Lich). tuh. SII. (D.B.) 

pi. tugan. Ex.: g |e g tu I put into my mouth, tugan ! ''u two mouths. ~tu: ! eno ||g door 

into hut. Slla. (Mg. ) tu. Ex.: a ||gaT. kjeg ku: | geiki |na tu wolf ... say, put it be with (my) 

mouth. Sllb. (Mh.) tu's Ihyn, mouth's beard, moustache. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: n tu my mouth. Slle. 

(And). Ex.: a tu, a thu thy mouth. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a tu thy mouth, ||nee tu hut door. 

SIV. (D.B.) tu, thu, s. fku: (tu may be fkhomani). Ex.: n tu ke e my mouth is this. 

tu, n. man, pron. who. SI. found in pi. only as males, not persons. (E. ) tuken. Ex.: si e: tukan 

si-ta t/a we who are men, our thing. to:i gwa:i, to:i-ta tukan male ostrich, male ostriches. 

(LI.) ttu-ken, emph. ttukaken. Ex.: hi se ||a ||k"oen, ti e: tukan |e: ta: hi they will go to look 

at the place in which the men are. tukakan ||kwa?g k"o:la se |hig the men must come out. SII. (D.B) 




tu, ~tu, pi. tukan, tQnjan, turjsn. Ex.: r) ~tu e ~l|g a — that mein xs at the hut. tunjan ["^u tw^ 

men. tukan 0pwoinki — little boys. Ikake, hg |ko:l, tukan ||na ke, hg |ko:l — women, they dance, 

those men,, they dance. ~tu e se kia ? who comes there ? SIIL. (Mh. ) tii, who. SIV. (D.B. ) as pi. 

only, tuke, tuicu, tutus, tutuse, men, boys. Ex.: | gski a ! koeke, tuke na jkoo f'^'ui — women are 

clapping, men are dancing. ~tuke ki e ! xo ka jka men are pulling the bowstring, tuku fkaiti 

men shall come, de ti f^u, dwas |kam, tutuse ||k"ani one man, two, many men. ! wara te fu ha tutu' 

fnaka one girl among all the boys. SV. tu, pi. tuku, tutu. Ex.: tu /e u kwa wa sekome one m 

is coming from Sekome. tuku kafal /i |kafku kafal all the men and all the women. SVI. (D.B.) tu 

man, person, pi. tutu. Ex.: n kai tu sa tanate I hear the person speaking, two ! num two men! 

tutu ||arriku many people. tu jjgai woman. ' 

tu, tur), n. skin, s. t'ym. SI. (B. ) ttS, emph. ttun, ttuwah. Ex.: ||kha:r| k"wa:k"wa: /o: au ha tu, hi-t|' 

tagtari the lion sits moaning about his skin, its great pain, ha tur) e: tAm ftwa tar)*^!: his j 

skin is a little sore, ha tuwaq taieja, ha er)er)jar) |ku e: a — his skin is gone, his flesh it is. ' 

(LI.) ttSn. Ex.: hi |ne Ikhaua toi tug they boil the ostrich skin. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) ! howa tu | 

I dress the skin. NIII. (D.B.) tu, bark of tree. 

f^u, n. warthog, s. ku. Cllb. (Bal. ) t'u. 

tua, V. to let go, lose hold of. SI. (LI.) ttua. Ex.: r) ||kwafr) sir) se |ki seja, o !kau:wa xa Ikvfa: xu: ' 

tua ka: ha I should have brought him (rainbull), if the thong had not broken losing hold of him; 

for me. ' 

tua, V. not to have, lack, tuS, not to be. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwi e ha tua ||'!*hi this person has no 

clothes, n xeinki tua a, n xeinki ba |a: my mother is no more, my mother is dead. I 

tu:a, V. to ask, s. tutu:. Sllb. (Mh. ) tua. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: na |uwa ko, n ka tu:a |ka:bes --- I do no| 
know, I will ask jkabes. 

tua, V. to lie curled up. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: t^So di se tua the dog lies curled up. 

tua, f. to wait. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a | r) a tua sit and wait. i 

tu*?a, V. to go. Nil. (Dk.) tu'?a "^u:. (LI.) tua. 1 


tua, yesterday. CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) Ex.: tua ra ko ! ku yesterday I went. 

tuba, n. apron, prob. a skin. CI. (Do. ) 

tubbu, V. to wind. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha |ki ! nui, ha tubbu ! nui — she holds the thread, she winds the, 
thread. i 

tubitsoane, n. girl. [Ba.] Slid. (Arb.) I 

tu:e, tuebe, n. ostrich, s. to:i. Sllb. (Mh. ) tilf. Slid. (Arb.) tuebe. 

tu:i, V. to listen, hear, s. tu, turn. SI. (B.) ttdi, tui. Ex.: a k"auki tu i r)-r) — thou dost not lis 

en to me. r) fkakka ha, hag k"auki tu:i g-g I speak to him, he does not hear me. (LI.) ttiii. Exi 

a kag /o ka, ! kauken e:, hi tui, ta hi ka ju: g, au ka: |ke:t9n hi — thou dost seem to think thes 

children listen, but they are wont to stare at me, when I send them. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha tu:i sU\ 

listens. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: g tu:i I hear. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n tu:i ||ka |n --- I hear the childri 

turi, V. to leave, go away from, s. u:i. SI. (LI.) ttai, tiii. Ex.: hag jne !ku:xe xu: tu:i Ikwitan 
it (ostrich) does run away, leaving the eggs. 

tui, warm. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. t\Ii. 

tuksn pi. of tu, man, or emph. of tu, mouth. 

tAiken di, angry actions, prob. men's actions. SI. (B. ) ttukeni dl, emph. ttuk^n.dfken. Ex.: !kwi a: 
!kwa:lxa, hag a: | gsbbitan| gebbitsn ha a: di: tukan di — a man who is angry, he is stupid, he doe 
angry actions, tukan dikan k"oaa: ha ts'^a^eitsn |kainja a — angry actions are what his eyes are 
yellow from. ' 

tuko, really, now, just, prob. an obsolete v. tu, with the conj . ko. SI. (B. ) ttdktCO. Ex.: ha tuko f^S 
|ku:k9n, ta: ha ||kwag jne ||ka ta |i --- he really felt dead, for he lay burning in the fire. (LI.) j 



ttiSkS. Ex.: swe:nja ti e a:, r) se ||a |k;"e:ja ||neir)-ta !k''e a:, ti e:, ||kha:l tuko dofa tsir'^'fi: a — 
sit down here, I will go to tell the house folk about it, that the lion has just bitten thee, r) tuko 
se-g |ne ||xAm di'^S d I now will also fight thee. 

ukur), many. Sllb. (Mh. ) tukun. 

uku_tu, V. to go down, set, s. tu. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: a kakwa i/o ko tuku-tu — there the sun sets, ko 
tuku_tu a ssta is going down the moon. 

um:, V. to hear, listen, understand, s. tu, tu:i. SI. (B. ) ttumm, ttumS-a ttuifi-i. Ex.: r) k"auki turn: 
akkan ! kwa a: a ha-ka wertan g, r) k •• auk i turn: !a: — I do not hear well this child, his answering me, 
I do not understand. |ne fkakka ke: ar-a-ka kum:, g sir) tumr'^a hi — tell me thy story, that I may be 
hearing it. !gaue-|r:r) |ne ||ar| |weitsn|weita 'te:n, ha ! kauke ©waksn fkakka ha, har) tumr'^a ta: — 
Day's Heart goes angrily to lie down, his younger sister-in-law speaks to him, he listening lies, hi 
se-g |ne !kei!kei, hi sir) tum:'?i, ti e: |a:-g |nu ! naugko di ||na — they will stand, that they may 
be listening whether the fight still goes on there. 

um, poss. tym, v. to cover, bury, close. SI. (B. ) ttumm, ttumm (sharp u.)Ex.: r) r)'?a: |ku-g |ne turn ta, 
n'^a: |ku-g |ne turn ||ko:e: !ho:a |ko:a au !au e: tS serritan — I am covered lying (in the ground), I 
am covered placing the belly inside ground which is wet. ha se ~ho: wai ! kwa e: |ki tu, ha se ts'i*i:— g 
||naru |ki tare hi, ha se l|a: turn te: hi, ha se turn ||kau: te ! au i — he will pick up a springbok leg 
which has skin on it, he will biting carry it away, he will go and bury it, he will covering (it) lay 
earth on it. (LI.) ttumffi, tui&n. Ex.: hi se turn: |i they will cover over the fire. Ohokakan e:, i 

1 |kum !kur) ||kho hi, he i-g | ne turn ~l|kau te Ik'^au au Qhoksn — bushes are what we stopping ( a hole) 

' place underneath, and we close (it) laying earth upon the bushes. 

um, V. to eat vegetable food, to swallow. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nwe ~tsi, _tum, a /u e tsa:e yesterday 

(he) came, ate, lay down and slept. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kannise a ko |ko, a ko tau, a ko turn — nuts 

(I) gather, and stamp and eat. |ga:na ko ||kae, a ko ||kani/era turn, /owa ka turn — roots we gnaw, and 
groundnuts swallow, eat with a spoon. 

am, t;. to hunt. Nil. (LI.) ttumm. Ex.: e ti tum, e ti ~u, ti k"aru ||ka — (when) we hunt, we go out, 
we seek game. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! nai ki tum a ["^o the lion hunts in the wood. 

am, f'um, tumma, v. to be near, NI. (D.B.) Ex.: e:he:, ja ! gu: !xa:, ka tum yes, the water is far, 

not near. Nil. (Wil.) turn. (LI.) tt'umm, tumma. Ex.: ha ti k"aru |huni/e, ta fxS, |kiia f^um — he 

sought for the mouse, and (it) was far, not near, jkhoro ti tumma ||gu the .... plant is near the 

water. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kukurika ~||gu ~ma, a tum a kwando the Kukurika is a little river, is 

near the Kwando. 

'um, n. skin, s. f^ym. SVI. (D.B.) 

m, tuma, interrog. where ? CIll. (D.B.) Ex.: unu ma tum ikaje ? where is the man ? tuma ija unu ? 

where is the man going ? 

imbate, n. tobacco. CIII. (D.B) Ex.: oneja tumbate nice is tobacco, tumbate a lufwai tobacco 

to smoke. 

imtumma, sharp, applied to the bill of a bird. SI. (LI.) ttumm-ttumma. 

mu, interrog. when ? CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tumu o /aija dza ? when will he come ? ■ 

i:r|, tug, v. to go into or out of, s. tu, mouth. SI. (B.^, ttuh_, ttun. Ex.: ha tur) ku:i kaukau sir] ||a: 
||neiri ||kaie --- he went quite into the house. (LI.) ttun, ttun. Ex.: i-g |ne tu:r) |e: ||nein tu --- we 
go into the house door. ! kwi |ai:tija:-g | ne tu:r) |hig ||a, ha se kwerre |ui — the woman goes out 
that she may unloosen the net. ~|ku ||kvrarra ha^ |ku tu:r) |hir| sa:, hag |ku ~!kaug sir) ~sa — the pro- 
teles mother came out, she came to sit in front (of the door). 

ii)> n. s. tu, skin. t . . : 

i:na, v. to change teeth, as little children. SII. (D.B.) 

ir)'a, V. to become, turn into. Nil. (LI.) tun-a. Ex.: ha gu ha ! kao, ta ||xur)'!'a ha ! kao kwe k"a, ta ha 

!kao turj'^a |ou she took hold of her husband and put her husband down on the ground, and her hus- 

bemd became a buck. 

irjsn, s. ~tu, man. 


tu:ni:ja, v. to be tired. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: r| tu:ni: ja --- I am tired. ! 


tu:pa^ n. whip, 'sjambok'. Nil. (Wil.) tupa. j 

tuppsm, V. to pull out, fall off. SI. (LI.) ttuppfm. Ex.: ! k'^wa-ka-tu haf |ku-g |ne l|ker) ha, he !k"wa- , 

ka— tu |ku— g |ne tuppsm |hiij ! gwara a Bad-smelling-mouth stabbed her, and Bad-smelling-mouth pull-[ 

ed out the assegai from her. hag |ni: ! nwag ta:, au ! nwag tuppam |ha au toi he sees the arrow ly 

ing, where the arrow has fallen off from the ostrich. 

tupu; ta, to rub soft (skins). CIII. (D.B.) 

tura:, v. to desire. Nil. (V.) tur^. 

turro, n. moon, unusual form of !koro. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: turro Iji, turro |e: the moon rises, the moo 


turru, V. to loosen, pluck, strip, fall off, come off, dive. SI. (B. ) tturru. Ex.: ha ||ka:||ka: turru |ki| 

llgerri, ||gsrrija se turru ||koe sir) !kwa he wetting loosens the feathers, that the feathers may 

loosened remain in the water. (Li.) tturru, ttu-rru. Ex.: hir] |ne turru |kAm |ke:, hir) |ne ||kau ||ko 

they pluck taking grass, they place it on the fire. ! gaula ts'orokaksn | ne turru ! kur| ||a:, he |k 

l|e:i, hir] turru the old feathers come away falling down, they of themselves come off. hir) |ne 

turru: toi-ta ! gau^a — they strip off the ostrich feathers, koro-twitan haf kui kunnir)ju !k'?u"i, ha 
kui turru ~u eir) ||xe: !nun:tu the .... bird dropped down, it dived into a little 'Bushman rice' 



turru, n. sheep, pi. turrug. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: turru ||ka wa ke — a sheep bone it is. turrurj ||ka||ka --- 
sheep skeletons. 

Ill turu, n. cap. SV. (D.B.) Nil. (Pa.) tAru. 

f^urugukan, n. lizard. SI. (LI.) tt'urugukan. Ex.: !gu:kan ||go |hir) ||k"hwit3n ||XAm i:ja, f^uruguksn 

I||xAm i:ja the puffadder takes off his skin, the snake also does so, the lizard also does so. 

ll|| tu:/a, n. s. tu, to rain. 

I "tu/i, n. garden. [Afr. tuin.] SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: malka |ke tu/i the tobacco grows in the garden. 

" tutu:, t;. to ask, question. SI. (B. ) tutu. Ex.: ha o:aksn tutu: ha, " aksn |ne ||koa "the: |kar ?" — 

her father asked her, " what hast thou done ?" har) |ne tutu ha 0on~ds, " ts'^a de ba ~a: ?" she 

asked her sons, " what is it ?" (LI.) ttuttu, tato. Ex.: ! ke kuitaksn tu:tu: ha, " ha xa te: u ? — 
the other people questioned him, " how is it ?" 

tutu, s. tu, mouth. 

tutu, n. breath, s. tu: , to breathe. SI. (LI.) ttuttu, emph. ttuttu'g^n. Ex.: !khwa: tutu haf ka |ki ! he 

ti, au ha |ne |k"ua |hir| the Rain's breath was wont to shut in the place, when he came out to se; 

food, ha tutu:gsn e:, ha |ne ||khoe ho sa hi his breath is that through which he passing comes. 

tutu, s. tu, man. 

tutubbu, V. to splutter (?) SI. (LI.) ttuttubbu. Ex.: |i hal |ku-g |ne tutubbu, !khwa: ||kwalr) e: |hig « 
|i, au hir) tatti e:, !khwa: |waitan ha the fire spluttered (?), water came out of the fire, be- 
cause the rain was angry with her. 

tutum*^!, V. to feel. SI. (B. ) ttuttumm-i. Ex.: r) |ku !ka:kan tutum*?! r) sir) |ku !kou ||gaue ||nair) [kwaCil: 

^^ ^ lii°^^ ^ going along feel, that I may smell seeking the house scent with my nose, r) |ku !u:3j: 

tutum''r i: I running felt for it (the ground with my feet). 

tutun, n. Helix, a shell living in water. SI. (B. ) tutunn. (LI.) pi. ttuttumf-nSn. 

tu~tunnur)'?a, v. to be wet. SI. (LI.) ttuttufinun-& . Ex.: r)-ka ||neinjar) hal |ku-g |ne ~!k'?ui, au hir) tail, 
hi |ku-g |ne ||ka: kui tu~tunnur)'?a --- my house fell down, for they'(the houses) felt that they " were i 
thorougly wet. j 

tu^turritan, v. to trill, make a noise by agitating the tongue, done in hunting. SI. (LI.) tu-turritenj 
Ex.: har) hal |ku-g |ne !khe: sa:, au sagan |e:ta: !nwa:, har) haf |ku-g |ne tu'turritan ha --- he car; 
up, while the eland was in the reeds, he trilled to it. 



iu:wa^ s. tu:^ to breathe. 

;uwi, n. shoulder. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. 

■jaU, v. to cover. NIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: ma tyli tsaba _daa ! ni I cover the bird with ashes. 

jAm: , V. to anoint, rub. SI. (Ll.t ttamm. Ex.: hi | ne !kSu: ||hara, hi |ne tAm: hi |na: they pound ... 

they anoint their heads. Nil. (Li.) tamm, to rub a lire stick. 

>Am, n. melon. SVI. (C. B. ) 

■jMsherre, n. flour. [Na. tsam-bereb.] SI. (LI.) ttamb^rrS. Ex.: har| ha:P |kalmmainja tAmberre, he |hu d 
ha a hs he was carrying flour which the white man had given him. 

iAimno^, V. to become green. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: 0bo: sir) tAmmol the bushes will become green. 

/''Ainmuwa, v. to be in leaf. SI. (B. ) tt'ammywa. Ex.: i ||a: ||gaua sig ! ki ~|ke: kar) !khe, ha-ka !kafn, ta: 
ha a: t'^'Ammuwa we go to sit in the thorntree yonder standing, its shade, for it is in full leaf. 

i/Amse, a little, gently, s. tAm-0pwa. SI. (LI.) ttaSsse, ttumssS. Ex.: si tu:i, ti e:, whai: k"auki 

tAmse Ikwalna we heard that a springbok bleated not a little, ha |ku tAmse ~kwa ! xwonni i: 

he gently stepped backward turning round. 

,Mi-0pwa, slowly, gently, a little, s. tAnise. SI. (B.) taifiGua. Ex.: koro k"auki tAm-0wa !u:xs:ja — the 

jackal not gently ran. ||kaxai | ha k"auki tAm-<?wa Ikhweinja sister's husband was not a little 

' angry. (LI. ) ttamGpuS.. Ex.: ha ||kwag sir) kolar)kolag ui, hag tAm-Qpwa tai^ it (ostrich) had been 

j getting up. It walked slowly. 


)-wa, V. to be deprived of, feel the want of, lack. SI. (B. ) ttoa. Ex.: ha twa ! gei e: !khe: he is de- 

j prived of the sheep which stand, au ||o:inja | ne |ne:ja, hi se-g | ne ! hAm twS: |i --- when the sun has 
j gone down they will first feel the want of a fire. SIV. (D.B.) twa'?a, to lack. Ex.: kalahari ki twfi'^a 

tkoS, ki twa'^a eimersi, ki twa'?a skotele, ki twa'^a berersi, ki twa'?a ! ohe --- the Kalahari lacks pots, 

lacks buckets, lacks dishes, lacks mugs, lacks plates. 

(Wa, V. to tie up, s. dwa. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n |ho ||kwai sif^a, r) twa ga tane, r) ||anu --- I pick the seeds 
(into) the kaross, I tie (it) up to carry, I return home. 


wa, V. to come, go. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |au dzosa twa ! nwi i tsisi ha ~u call the girls to come and take 

their things and go. Nil. (LI.) tua, to go. 

twa, V. to finish, s. toa. Nil. (LI.) tua . Ex.: l|ka ~twa ---to finish washing, "fku "twa--- to finish 

|twa, n. skin, s. tu. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ^wa Ike so twa the child sits on a skin. 

'wa, n. roan antelope. Cllb. (Bal.) t'wa. 

a:, n. tinder, touchwood. Nil. (Dk.) 

wai:, twaja, v. to louse. SI. (B. ) tw^, twaya. Ex.: i se ||a: twaT.: i |ka:gan | nar) — let us go and 

louse each others' heads, r] kar] ka, r) se ||na hi u, u se jja: twaja ke I wish that I may be with ye, 

that ye may louse me. 

Ta:i i^ twai:i, v. to be comfortable, well, better, used as adv. well, comfortably, nicely, s. twaita, 
twaitan. SI. (B. ) tifai-i, t9ai-i. Ex.: ha egegga twari*^!, au hak"auki | ne ta:eta:e ti kau [kyrri*?! — 
his flesh is comfortable, as he does not walking writhe with pain, ha |i: k"auki twaii*?!, ta ha |i: 

|ku ta |i his heart was comfortable, for his heart was hot. ha fko: twari'^i, hig e: ha ~fko: |hir) 

u:i . nwa au ha e^en he sprang aside nicely, that is he got out of the way of the arrow with his 

body. (LI.) ttwai i. Ex.: r) !kau:gsn kar) ||kwalg |ka:se twaiii — my body is a little better. 

raita, twaitan, sweet, sweetly, well, pleasant, s. twaii'?!. SI. (B. ) ttwd,ita. Ex.: ha dola ta twaita 

.kwa: — he had felt the water pleasant. (LI.) ttwditen. Ex.: |ka:gan ka |ku ||nau: to:i, hir) |ku 

kwerre to:i o ! gum twaitsn the women acted thus to the ostrich, they only praised the ostrich f 

calling finely, tsa ka ! gum: twairta xa e ? is it a thing that calls sweetly ? twaitakan, sweet 


wak, twakka, n. tobacco. [Ned. tabak.] SI. (Lich. ) Ex.: ake twakka --- give tobacco. 


twanna, v. to tread SI. (LI.) ttwInnS.. Ex.: ! nwir)-|lruitsn ha: ka ||nau: ||k:"e: a: ha di~||kha:f a:, ha: 

tai:^ twanna |kukan !nwir)- |kuitan used to do this at the time when he became a lion, he walkec 

treading upon hair. 

twano^ n. handkerchief. SIII. (D.B. ) 

t'!'wa:ra, v. to lean over. SI. (LI.) tt'uara. Ex.: ! ku ko:ksn ha^ |ne t'!'-wa:ra ||a:, he !ku ko: ha|ne 
~ta:tt8n ! k'^'iii one began to lean over, and the other one fell down. 

twa:lra, n. caput penis. SI. (B. ) ttwara. 

f^yrairit], n. fringe worn in front by women, (apron) SI. (B. ) tt'Oarin. 

twas, part, used before num. s. dwas . SIV. (D.B.) ||k"oote: e, twas |kam a dog it is, are two. 

twatwa, n. pi. strings, s. twatwai:n. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: twatwa "Ikeidgi — strings of apron. 

twatwai:n, n. pi. threads, s. twatwa. SI. (LI.) ttwattwain . Ex.: hir] |ne ||ker)||ker) !khou: ||kho whai 
!nu!nun:tu, i: , he hi |ki|ki |e: twatwai:n-ta ! kaukan^ e: !k'?e-ta tuka se ||hir)||hir) |au ||kau: ||kho 

whai !nu!nun:tu au hi !nwa!nw^ they pierce through the springbok ears, and they put in little 

threads which ■T^he men are to tie, fastening the springbok ears to their feet. 

twe, V. to remove one's residence. CI. (Do.) 

twe, n. ostrich, s. toi^ tjwe. Slla. (Mg. ) 

twee, V. to spread out, as roots. CI. (Do.) 

||| tweho, V. to be pure, s. twa:i'?i. CI. (Do.) 

twenje, fine, pretty, s. twa:i'?i'. CI. (Do.) twenye. 


twerre, tworreja, v. to roll up, fold up, s. toro. SI. (LI.) ttuerrS, tuerre, ttu6rreya. Ex.: |ui |k€ 
■ /o'^ ha se doa-g |ne sui:r), a se dola-g |ne twerre |e te ha, au a: fkumma ha au ha |k"a|k»»a, ha se 

do^a— g I ne ||koakan |e tirj ||ko: the net yonder it must sit, thou must rolling up lay it in, whe 

j' thou hast bound it up by its strings, that it may remain lying in the sack. ! kwi |ai ti |ne |kwakk 

jl ha a hi, har) |ne twsrre hi, ha |ne |e te hi au ~||ho:, he ha |ne ~|kAm ||a ! ku ko: — the wife rubs 

making them soft for him, he folds them (bags) up, he puts them into (his own) bag, he goes to the 
1 other man. hir) |ku tworreja ! nwir) they roil up the kaross. 

twi:, V. to be wounded, n. wound, scar, hole. SI. (B. ) twi, ttwi, pi. ttwittwi, t^itui. Ex.: ||o:ir)ja- 

|ne ||ken r)-r), hs e: rj ga: |ne twi: i: the sun does pierce me, therefore I am wounded. ||koen-ju 

ha, ha kar) twi:~ja look at him, he is wounded, r) ! ku-g |ne dauko !u:xe au | i-ta twitwi: I g 

ing ran upon the fire's wounds. (LI.) ttwi, tuityiten. Ex.: toi se twi ||nur| ! k'^ur) the ostrich 

will be wounded behind, r) |k"am:.ha er)er)-ka twi: ts'^'oroken ! khwaitsn I feel the place of the 

body's old wound, hag ka ha: sig ||koa:ksn |ka'?mmainja twi: o ha tu he shall always bear a scar 

on his mouth, a san Hkoen |e: au ! nwig-ta twi: thou shalt look through the kaross hole, twitwi: 

|ku swegsweg ha |k"a|k"a^au hag ||ken ||xe: wounds were upon his hands as he dug out the Bushmen 

rice. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i0pwo kia t/u e twi: the fly sits on the wound. 

twi, n. chasm. CI. (Do.) 

~twi, twija, n. basket. Nil. (LI.) ttui, tui, ttuiya. Ex.: ta ti |u Am:, ta ti ||kwonna "twi — (they 
put in the food and carry the basket, g a ti ||ke |nwa: tffija I carried the cat in a basket. 

twi khwan joo, v. to be side by side. CI. (Do.) twi khwan yoo. 

twi kwa, impersonal pron. it. CI. (Do.) 

tworreja, s. twerre. 

txa, txa:, v. to shoot, strike, throw, s. txau. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U tsi ka txa: "^9® ^ person lets 

fly and shoots the stork. |nosi ka ! kwaka, ka karu | go, ! nam ! gau ka txa ko _ha ka, ka kuru — th 
eggshell break to make beads, a stone with the hand strike and break (it), and work. Nil. (Dk.) Ex 
na ti txa ! ! kawa --- I shoot the gemsbok. (LI.) txa. Ex.: ! ku ti ! ka, ta ! kvi ti txa ha --- the Busl 

man ran away and a Bushman shot him. ha gu ! num, ti tja ha ! kao, ta | ge txa ha ! kao |ne she toi 

a stone and came to her husband, and threw it at her husband's head. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: !o ! ku a txi 


||kha Bushmen shoot game. 

cai:, V. to void, s. ■txei.ISI. (LI.) ttiat. Ex.: |kaggsn kukiiitan |k"e:, ha ka ha se |e: fxoa |uru, he 
fxoa k\ik\Iitsn |k"e:, ha ka ha se txai: |hir| |kaggi --- the Mantis said, he would enter the elephan.t's 
rectum, and the elephant said, she would void out the Mantis. 

3ani, V. to dance, s. t/xani. Nil. (Ck.) Ex.: -'3u: we:/esn ti txani all the people dance. 

i&M, V. to shoot, s. txa, txi:. SI. (LI.) ttxau. Ex.: har) |ku-g | ne kalkaulakon |ai:ti, hag |ku-g |ne 
kiii txau, k"abbu te ! gwara au |ai:ti !ka:xu --- he aimed at (his) wife, he shot, hitting the (head)of 
the arrow on (his) wife's breast. 

:e:, n. bullfrog, African. Nil. (LI.) ttxe. 

:e, n. small white everlasting flower. Nil. (LI.) tx^. 

:ei, V. to excrete, s. tjxei , txai:. Slla. (Ek.) 

:erri, txetxe:ta, v. to tear. SI. (LI.) ttxerri, ttx^ttf^ta. Ex.: ti tar), !khwa: ! kan txerri ho ha tu 

the thing seemed as if the rain were tearing off her skin, he se kwar) |ku !kan: txetxe:ta 

they shall grasping tear (it) to pieces. 

;i:, V. to shoot (?), s. txa, txau. SI. (LI.) ttxi. Ex.: !khwa: koilol ! kal'ka^rrakan'^iL si, ! xwag ha 
1 k"auki fkau:wa, si ta fkakksn, har) txi: si-ka fkakkan, o har) ||xarin txi: ||ke:||ke:, ti e:, !kwi-|a da: 

I hs the rain will thunder at us, as if it did not want us to speak, it shoots (?) at our speech, 

for it always shoots (?) as a girl does. 

la:, V. to be hungry. SIII. (D.B. ) 

aa, V. to hit. cm. (D.B.) 

la:, n. name of a buck of whose skin shoes are made. CIII. (D.B.) 

lako, V. to cut, tattoo, n. tattoo mark, s. tl'^ako. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: txlako hepe abe tattooed are 

these, txlakopi, unu ma a txlako tattoo marks, a man tattoos them. 

leme, n. man, boy, male. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kuruku txleme a, kokisako akwiti ako Kuruku is a boy, 

Kodisako is a girl, txlemebi takapi men were dancing, hako ukako txlemebe t/iko that is the 

male hand (right hand.) 

ilikwa, V. to go away, s. kl'^ikwa, ikl'^ikwa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: txlikwa ona a mama — I am going away 
from the lady. 

3, n. brother-in-law, husband's brother, s. txii. SIV. (D.B.) 

u (voiceless), v. to shoot, s. txa, txau, txi:. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: n txu ^khe: — I shoot duiker. 

3, txur), txu, n. term of relationship with different meanings. Nil. (LI.) txu, ttxu, txu, txuri. Ex.. 

mi ~txQ my paternal grandmother, m txu ||ga: my maternal grandfather, me txu || gamma my 

grandson, said by mother's father, m txur) ||ga my maternal uncle, m txur) ||gamma my nephew, 

sister's son. ha txur) Ugamma, zau ||kho his brother-in-law, wife's brother. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: m 

txu my maternal grandfather or grandmother, my husband's brother, my father's brother, m txu ||ga 

— my father's elder brother, m pa txu ||gamasir) my father- s half-sister, m txu my aunt, my 


:i, n. bowels. SVI. (D.B.) 

t'atxurukan |lkho:e, v. to slip down, as a shawl from a chair. SI. (LI.) f^uf^uruken ||kh6e. 

iu, juicy. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: 0pwe ||kaise ||kha, e 'ka txuu the meat is nicely cookeu, it is juicy. 

tiTOfm, V. to make a loop (?). SI. (LI.) ttxugmm. Ex.. |ku-g-!nwir) hat |ku-g |ne taf-ital-ija ti kau 
!kAn k\Si txwotm au ! ntfi the lynx kept on walking and holding, mtiking a loop (?) in the bowstring. 

^T"^, n. skin, hide, s. tu. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: gome /i f^ym an ox hide. 




This vowel is not often found as initial sound. Where that does occur there is a probability' 
of a preceding click or consonant having been lost. It usually follows the consonant or click. It forn] 
part of the dipthongs au and ou, also ua, ue, ui, but in these cases it often glides into w. ' 

In his work " An Outline of the Phonetics of the Language of the^jhu:: Bushmen of the North- 
West Kalahari" on p. 133 Doke calls u the " Back Qose Vowel" and writes of it: " This vowel is somewll: 
lower than Cardinal Vowel No. R in tongue-position. It is a pure vowel and occurs both short and long.i 
From it he distinguishes u, which he calls the " Back Close-half-close Vowel". Of this he writes: " Tl 
is a vowel intermediate in tongue position and acoustic effect between u and o. It occurs both short i;: 
long, and on account of the very indefinite nature of Ch^- pronunciation it is liable to be mistaken :,( 
either u or o. " I 

In " An Outline of ^khomani Bushman Phonetics" on p. 64 Doke writes: " The u phoneme: This r') 

be described as the back close vowel phoneme, and is variously heard as u (back close) or as O (back ! 

half-close). Tliis vowel occurs short. When long two phonemes are found, viz. uu, ou., diphthongs." i 


u, ~u, V. to go away, leave, arise, often used as away, off, up, out, forth. SI. (B) Ex.: ha se ! hau ; 

ha ta:g u, au ha |kukan-ka !kauka ! kurruka he will afterwards walk away, when his little feath(js 

are dried, r) |ku u hs ti, r] | ku |ki u ||a: |xworre I arose from this place, I arising went takii 

with me the cold, he e: sar) |ne ||xa: hi u s'^e this it is which shall again come out (moon) (LI 

ii, n. Ex.: toitGn |ku-g |ne !ku:xe u ||a: the ostriches run away. |ki |hir) u ha take it off 

(coat), r) ka, ! khwa a, ha se u, ha se hoho !kwa:l, ha se ||khou ~|kuitan I desire that this chi ' 

may arise, that he may pick up 'asbos', that he may make a shelter, ha |ku— g— ! nwir), ha |ke dola |ki| 

a, ha r| (5a ta: ha, au har) ~n ~||kau ui wa:i that lynx must be the one yonder whom I noticed, as le 

g| jumped out on the springbok. ! khwe k"auki ta: si ~u au ! kaua the wind does not feel as if it wll 

11 leave the east. SII. ( D. B. ) to pass. Ex.: sire ka sesir) milirs, ha se u kan a sir has worked w;h 

*"' the mealies, he will pass by here. Slla. (Mg. ) u:, to get (? take away). Ex.: a koJ*0 u: ||kei|ka -- : 

J, jackal gets girl. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'U, to go. SIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: tear) u go away, n sarj u /a r) jk"a-! 

Ill I will fetch (? lift up) water to drink. SIV. (D.B.) ~u, to lift up, away, go out, take away. Ex.:] 

ml misis a ~u kasi — old Missis lifted up the box. a tsen ~u, a ka ||ko n_!o:, ||kam'?i _0bwa:a — th{ 

go out, take the axe, cut bushes. ! norike ke ~u txobaku ! nOrike took away Txobaku. SV. (D.B.) '. 

he u /a they go away, basala xarite tu ~u Qpwalu the Masarwa women are going past to the | 

bushes. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi ~u — I go. i ! ka: ba ko ~u ? — did you men go ? mi | i ka ~! gu, |k.;5 

II' a ~u e I poured out water, then the man took it away, baa re ~u ke, ke kora ke the master ^s 

i[| gone away, is not there. 3U ku m "30, se ~u, ka se "30 ka ho wi people eat honey, look up and ie 

! honey and get it. Nil. (V.) u, to take, u, to go. Ex.: ~||gja: ti fam, gaxn ga na ti ~u: the cl id 

rains, therefore I go (away). (Wil.) u, to go. (LI.) u, u, u. Ex.: ^ne "fnebbi tanki ! ka "u: t! 

other woodpigeon flew away, ngoba ti o~k"we ! nanni ti ~u the Makoba told ! nanni to go, and !njn 

went. t6a "~u begone. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsau ~u stand up. Jove o ~u winter goes. |kAm ajU 

~||gu a ~u the sun takes the water, it rises, ma u a muinda I go to the spirit, ma ! xwe ~u, 'a 

_!ka ~u I drive (them) away, they run away. CII. (Schi.) u, to seize, take. (D.B.) ~u: to liftp 

put in kaross. Ex. : keinj* kweba /e a, ||nakwe |kwan "~u: then a person takes it, and puts the chd 

into his kaross. 

u, V. to burn. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi |kei|kei, |u:wa da:a ! kuku da kau ko u me — I was sick, (they) |t 
the knife in the fire and burnt me. j 

u, pron. you, ye, sometimes used as they. SI. ( B. ) emph. u— u, liken. Ex.: u ba | ne fenna you do no 

know, r) sag |ki ||e a: au | ha, a sar) |ne ||k"oen ha, u-ka ku:, uksn r) [jkan^de — I shall take thee j 
the wife, thou shaft see her, you all (shall), you my brothers, har) |ku:kan daudau: lAhi^ta: u — e 

lay pretending to be dead in front of you. u bokangu your fathers. (LI.) u, emph. u— ii, uken. Ej: 

hir) fkakka Ikaukan, " u kola k"auki se ||a ||gwitsn ||kau: ||na||na" — they say to the children, " yej 
must not go to play above there" i;. |ne fkAm: 0pwa ~u, o u ||kwatr) ||khoa |kalmmainja ke ha:— ka ku:, 

kar) se |kaa u ! nwa wait ye a little, as ye iseem to have carried away from me all the food, I wH 

trace your spoor, r) a |kweitan ||ke:n u-u J am the one who always digs you out (speaking to rooj)' 

ukan k'^u-g |ne ||k'oen, au ! gwalxuksn |ne a: |kai:nja ? — do ye not look, while the sky is greeni 
(Lich.) u-u. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: u |na, u ! kigki ||a — you shall go to-morrow, u-ka |k'ungsn — youj 

hands, a kia:, u kiwa thou sleepest, you sleep. Slla. (Mg. ) u, uku. Ex.: uku tsolo, uswe:i — 

you hear, you sit. Sllb. (Mh. ) 'U. Ex.: u xa |kx'?oa ? will you go hunting ? u:s !'?u:8ti yo 

two men. SIIc. (D.B.) u. Slid. (Wu.) Ex.: ha tar) u he loves you. u fhoaiku your children. 

eku yourselves. SIV. (D.B.) you & they, s. du. Ex.: u sis |kam ku ~i you two will go. tu li 

|hubu ti, u na saa ti johannisbor k"fiLui the men will be tired, they come from Johannisburg at I 

dusk. SV. (D.B.) you & they. Ex.: u |ke: a t/u you come and sit down, u tutu /i a |ne yoi 



people will see. u ku ||k"e you are three, u ku ||num |kwi they two are coming. SVI. (D.B. ) 

they. Ex.: u sa they go. u-u a: they eat. u sa jka, si sa fku they danced, we clapped 

hands. SVIa. (Kr. ) nom. \}, obj . u. Ex.: r) ||k'?oan dui ts'^yn |ge: y fgaggsn I have heard the things 

you talk, ha tarj u he loves you. 

, n. bone. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. n. 

'., n. spirit, s. hue:. Nil. (Wil.) u. 

, hot. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. ti. • 

:, proud. CII. (Schi.) u. 

, num. two, s. !ka:. Slid. (Wu.) Ex.: u ta the second. ||k"ei u two times. 

, like^ as if. SI. (B. ) Ex.: ha xu ! kiii : ta u ha 0axai his face was white like his daughter's, i-g 

|ne ~|ka:l, u i e |e:ja !khwa: we became wet, as if we had been in the water. !gwa:^xu xa te u "i" 

— how is the sky ? (LI.) u. Ex.: ha |na:r) |ku ||na, u ! kwi his head is there, like a person, ha 

kwor) ||koa, ha ka ha ||khou |hoakan, u ha k"au |ku |ka:Hi swer| ~||a — it (cloud) seems to intend to 
become black, as if it had not newly gone along. 

i, V. to become like, s. u, like. SI. (LI.) ua. Ex.: ti | ne |kwe ua ka: the place became like this 

for me. 

iSi, then, to emphasise question. Nil. (V.) Ex.: dsu:se— ua kore-ua ? where then are the people ? (Wil) 

ika uka, to-morrow, s. uka. Cla. (Pa.) u^ka uka. 

ke, also, SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n se l|xe |a, ababa sefwa, n xoa uake sefwa — I came back, my father lived, 
my mother also lived, 

ima, n. veins. NIII. (D.B.) 

(ima, n. thread wound round feathers on arrows to keep them in place. NIII. (D.B.) 

la^ V. to hit. CI. (Do. ) 

»e, V. to take away, s. u, to go away. CII. (Schi.) 

etsai, n. hippopotamus, s. wetsai. CIII. (D.B.) Foe.: ikhamo lek^ja ha ubetsai — he goes to spear the 

ii, pron. we, s. obe. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ubii hana ota zakanit/ipi — we are middle-aged men. 

zamme, n. hyena, s. odzamme. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: hululu iko tl'?otl'?okos a udzamme ena tina --- for the 
hare was made a fire by the hyena in the grass, udzammeko the she-hyena. 

, n. red wild cat. CI. (Do.) 

sti, being alone, ' AUeinheit' . Sllb. (Mh. ) 'ueeti. 


^xu, all, s. oaxa. CII. (Schi.) 

^ukwani, n. thigh, s. upukwa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mi tl'^a ufukwani --- bone of thigh. 

^i', V. to bring, have. CII. (Schi.) 

, V. to take oneself off, s. u, to go. CI. (Do.) 

> V. to lift, arise, go out, used as up, out, away, s. u, to go. SI. (B. ) ui, ui. Ex. :^!ku: korgan |ne 
durru u:i ha-ga ti Qwa --- the other slowly lifts his little piece. !k^wa: Ugai^an ||e, hir) ui hir) 
soe:r) akksn --- the hartebeest shoulder of itself, it arose, it sat down nicely, har) ta:eta:e u:i --- 
he walks away. (LI.) \ii. Ex.: ha ||kwafr) sir) kolar)kofar) ui --- it had been getting up. !kwa: ui --- 
breaks off. !kwa: oa broke off. 

. n. lynx. Nil. (Zuk. ) 



ujaOj n. footprint. CI. (Do.) uyao. 

uje, n. leopard. Cllb. (Bal.) uye. 

ujo, V. to have breakfast. CI. (Do.) uyo. 

uka, to-morrow. CI. (Do.) 

uka, yesterday. CI. (Pa.) uka. 

ukako, male, right. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: ukwape i, hako ukako, txlemebi t/iko hands they are, that is tl 

right, the man's (hand). 

uka/e, n. mountain. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. ukaeche. , 

uka thar), v. to awaken. CI. (Do.) uka than. 

uksn, s. \i, you. 

ukangu, n. fathers, parents, pi. of oa, s. oksngu. SI. (B. ) likengu. Ex.: i uksngu our fathers. (L 

Tiken-ggu. Ex.: ! khwe 0pwa ||kwalri t/u:i, au ! khwe 0pwaksn tatti e:, ha ukangu ||kwalr) s'^'o ~oa t/u:i : 
the young wind blew, for the young wind felt that its fathers seemed formerly to have blown. I 

ukho, n. burden. CI. (Do.) 

uknko, num. four, prob. another two, s. u. Slid. (Wu.) 

u;ku^ V. to marry, s. k"u. SIV. (D.B.) 

i|||! ~uku, V. to set. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ke ka ||ka ~uku — the sun is setting. 

*"*" ukua, ukdwa, v. to want, lack, not to be. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ukua matl'^oa jandaje — wants clothes tbj 
,, youngster, ukuwa atibi there is no water, hamana ukuwa txlagate here are no rhinoceroses. 

il ; 

lllH ukwa, ukwako, n. hand, finger, arm, foreleg. CIII. (D.B.) pi. ukwapi, ukwape ukwabit/i. Ex.: ukwa itjle 

one hand, ukwa nakwete the left little finger, ukwako upper arm. ukwapi i lower arn 

and hand, ukwako pakapaako be||k"autiko big forefoot of the elephant is this, ukwapi foreJlt, 


!|tl uk"wi, y. to talk, s. ok"wi. Nil. (LI.) uywi. Ex.: ! nanni tai tauk"wi-!ku Inanni's mother talks 

,|ll Bushman. i 

I um:, ~Am, v. to close Nil. (LI.) uSfe, ^mk. Ex.: fke um: t/ui ~tsi to shut, (pulling down) the wiriw 

(house mouth). l|khuobba "abq to unclose, open. i 

um:^ Am:, v. to eat, n. food, s. m. NI. (D.N.) Ex.: ha um: |ni: — he eats bulbs. Nil. (Wil.) um, tc 
eat. (LI.) umm, uiBS. Ex.: goru ti um: dzodzoa — the lizard eats the fly. ta ti |u Am:, ta ti ||kT 
~twi (they) put in the food, and carry the baskets. 

u:m, n. throat, s. dom, dum. SV. (D.B.) 

um, n. leopard. Nil. (Zuk.) j 

ume, n. mushroom, " button" . Nil. (Dk. ) "^i^e. 

umkwe, n. porcupine. Cla. (Pa.) umkwe. 

umsi, n. food, s. msi, um:. NI - (D.B.) j 

ur) am, n. wrist. Cllb. (Wil.) uii &m. \ 

unduwi, n. a small kind of wild cat. CIII. (D.B.) 

ungui, n. Kalahari tree dormouse. Nil. (Sh.) 'ungui. 

unu, n. grey wild cat, Felis ocreata. Cllb. (Bal.) 

unu, n. person, man. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso koko unu, iso xlaka niggi when a person is ill, theij 

cuts the doctor, unu aese ati nina a man sleeps at the water, unu bonepi four men. teketaji 

unubi piebi fight four men. unuwa, brothers, men. { 



0, n. dawn, daybreak, s. uka. CI. (Do.) 

6r&, (?wora), out, away, s. arra. Nil. (LI.) y8ra. Ex.: t/a udra — to throw out (water), tam u6ra — 
to throw away (many things). 

pa kela, early. CI. (Do.) 

pukwa, n. leg, hind leg, foot, footprint. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: upukwa it/ame, ukwa it/ame one foot, 

one hand, petlaija awanika ma, upukwape tikisiunipe — white is his beak, legs are red. |kita na 
upukwape — I saw the footprints. 

pu:wa, V. to live, dwell. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tl'?utl'?e tina makwa/a upu:wa — in the mud hut MakwaJ*a was 

rre, v. to untie. Nil. (LI.) uf^e . 

as, ~uai, ~u/i, v. to be big, tall, old. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: f^e ki e, se ||An ~us that person's hut is 

big. ||kabe a ~usi — ||kabe is big. ! garrisi te "usi --- the boy is tall. 0po/a te "u/i the jackal 

is big. xaixa ti ~uji the greybeard is old. 

'/i, n. a little kind of fly or bee which makes sweet food and lives in the ground. Nil. (LI.) u-shi . 

tere, v. to be in. SVl. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kha utere ! ana water is in the pot. 

bointoin, n. klipspringer. Nil. (Sh.) 'uto:ntoin. 

tso, n. hartebeest. Nl. (Pa.) utso. 

t/aro, n. a 'mokabe' bush. CI. (Do.) ucharo. 

bumea, utumeko, n. spear, sometimes tumeko. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! ungue ma ||kauwa, tekeja raanina utumeko 

the Masai killed him, stuck into the body a spear, t/ukwata akwe utumeko, logowa akwe tumeko 

(he) is carrying also a spear, shield and spear. 

X, V. to take a thing, s. u. CI. (Cb.) 

"uba, n. snail. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tu/a ko tu, u~uba ko ~!kwa xum/ kwe rain falls, the snail comes 

out of the ground. 

Ta, V. to walk, go, be, s. u, to go out. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: mihi uwa gobabi, |ka: uwa vindhuk — I was at 
' Gobabis, have not been in V»indhoek. dau ~uwa sa d3U |ko: Dau is going to his home. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: 

ta ti uwa k"akwe ha "Ikesirj and (he) walked along the ground with his feet, ta ha debbi, ha /e, 

ta uwa, ta uwa, ta tea and he returned, he came, and went along, and went along, and went along, 

; and slept. |xwe ti uwa n'^am tsema, ta ti ~/u, ta ti ~fkwi, ta | gu Ini, ta ha |kua uwa n'^am tsema, ta 

e jxwe I xwe became a little ostrich and lay down and whistled, and night fell, and he was not a 

little ostrich and was |xwe. 

ra, ~uwa_haJ, v. to have. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: namani gwesa ~uwa_hal ko |k"au the Nama have cows and 

milk. Ijnana [xisa uwa — horns the .... has. _walrriba ko /i koko, _wafrriba uwa ko hal — a lizard 
they seek, having a lizard (they) come. 

ra, n. wisdom. CI. (Do. ) 

rao, V. to be wise. CI. (Do.) 


^e, n. leopard. CI. (Do. ) 

fe^ n. a certain spirit, s. huwe. Nil. (LI.) uwe. Ex.: ^Iwe ti taba Am t/isir) Uwe made food things 

(game) . 

■:le, uxliaku, n. egg. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: uxlebe sa i/a aunte kwebe nako — its eggs are like these pots. 
uxliaku sa kener)gu — egg of ostrich. 

iutswa, n. fly. Nil. (LI.) uzutsuS. 

khwe:, n. black (horse). Sllb. (Mh.) 'u!hw5. 


« I 


\ifk"&, n. diggingstick' s stone without the stick, s. ! num. Nil. (Li.) u^a. 

Ihe voiced iabiai fricative is not a Bushman sound. It only occurs in languages exposed to ' 
Bantu influence, and is generally found in second syllables interchanging with b, as daba, dava, child. 
As an initial sound it appears in a few borrowed words. 

—vaVj, —vuVj, V. to perhaps do, used in questions . s. ba, interrog. SVIa. (Kr. ) avan , u— vufl. Ex.: a var| ll 

I guin ! ni durj ea ? wilt thou perhaps sleep here this evening ? u vur) | guin ! ni dug ea ? do 

you perhaps sleep here this evening ? a var) ||ou fan ! koa ti e 1 gum ? aost thou not perhaps know 

water in the nieghbourhood ? 

— ve, pi. ending to fern. n. s. —be, also used as pron. they, them. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: /amunape akwetive ; 

Isanzu women, a mogive bi a~khame |kii na bi Mogi and her people are going out in this direc 



-vi, pi. ending to mas. n. s. -bi, also used as they, them. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/et/e vi jamua vi ti ---■ 
they put them down on the ground. 

vilariga, n. cartridges. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ahi _||nau, a gu vilagga, a lu: | na thy pistol, takd 

cartridges, put them in there. 

vindele, n. white man. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma ki ||ke l|ku, ki u vindele fxafxasi — I carried a 
"' loaa, went with the white man far. 

vu, n. oribi. Cllb. (Bal.) 

-vur|, s. -var). 

v^i, n. goat. [Ba.] Nil. (Dk.) 

Tliis sound is pronounced as the English w. In many cases it is distinctly a semi-vowel, inte; 
changing with a short o or u, as in ||kau||en oa:si and wa:si, all. It is more often found in endings thj 
as an initial sound. i 



wa, V. to be. Nil. (Ll.) Ex.: na wa ~!ku I am a Bushman, ni ba wa ~!ku, ta ni ba r| a ||ke my j 

father was a Bushman, but my father is dead, ma wa a d3U e ? who art tliou ? ja wa a d3usiq ? -; 

who are ye ? In these two examples wa may stand for the interrogative ba. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: | nobu t| 


250 i 

wa mihi — |nobu's aunt ani I. ija !ku wa ||gend3U — her name is ||gend3u. ||kai ja wa kwa x), na ! nwe 

ja wa kwa r^, na _koma ja wa kwa g to-day it is there, and to-morrow it will be there, and next 

day it will be there. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: akweti wa piepi the women are two. 

wa, V. part, denoting unfinished action. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: | gabbe wa t/u the Bakalahari are sitting. 

kolui a ! hante lihutitu wa /a ! na kie kanje the wagon that came from Lihutitu is going away to 

Kanye. ha wa |k"abbe kutele — he is bringing the dish. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma wa swa"i ||ei a ||gau — 
I pick grass with the hand. 

— wa, ending to v., prob. really —a. denoting an applied form, a state, or the past. Sometimes it stands 
for the pron. ha. SI. (LI.) Ex.: he kie he-g |ne se ||xaiu:wa mamma a: q — they thought they would 
rob mother of me. he k"auki !khwi:ja |ke, he: |ku fgou:wa they did not call her name, they con- 
tinued silent, ha 9kan:de | ne tuturwa — his brothers questioned him. ha-g | ne |ku ||nau:, ha: ||k"oen 

ti e:, i: k"auki |ku:wa ha a: hS:, ha-g | ne |ku |kaa i ! nwa o ha: !ko:wa ha: he would do this if 

he saw that we had not left food for him, he would trace our spoor, if he had missed food. The ending 
is sometimes added to the n., though affecting the v. Ex.: !khau:wa | ku-g | ne k"we:i!kwa:, au 

!khau:wa tatti ||ko&al||kolal ! kwaitan-tuwa: ||ko:wa the bees drink water, when the bees feel that 

the .... flowers have become dry. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: hawa r] |ar| |kurriki, hawa ||k"aukier) he is long 

dead, he is buried. Slla. (Mg. ) suffix for emphasis. Ex.: kjan xu:wa they stop. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 

a |ko:wa I am thirsty. 

wa, pass. part, following n. , s. ma, sa. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: matu wa bawa mziakwe — Matu's father Mziakwe. 

wa, pron. they. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: lakai e ©pwani, wa e ||na ke kolui, wa /a ka ! kohu ke misie — a woman 

and children, they are there by the wagon, they are selling to Missis, wa ka ||nai ku:ma they are 

singing and clapping, kapurte Gpoinja Opoin |ki, wa t/u ki ~/um little goats are asleep, they are 

lying in the shade. 

n&, pron. thee. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: na si |na ~u wa I will get thee. 

m, wa^, n. frog. Nil. (LI.) wa, w^. 

1, n. child. CIII. (D.B.) pi. waapi, w'^api. Ex.: ono waa sa kitandu — I (am) a child of Kitandu. 

manarjgwa edze ako, waa ako maturu, waa ako gomorro Manaijgwe is (my) wife, (my) child is Maturu 

(boy), (my) child is Gomorro (girl), wa^api boruku nipii children of Boruku these. 

Vahe n |adi, n. cow. SI lb. (Mh. ) uahe n-|adi. 

fai, wai^, whaif, wei?, i;. to take, lift, poke out, hoist off, whisk out. SI. (B. ) wwhai, wwhei. Ex.: 
|k"akan |ku ||kau: /o !kwa:, har) |ku whai |hir) !kwa:, au har) whai |hir) ! kuisi er)er) — the hand was 
over the child, she whisked out the child, as she whisked out the .... roots. ||ho:e |ku a: whei ~|ha: 

!gaue— li: 0wa the black crow was one who poked out (of the ground) the Day's Heart's child. (LI.) 

wai, wwai, wei, wwhai. Ex.: ha ha? |ne arruko wai !khwa: Gpwa, wai |hir) ha au |i — she quickly took 
out the water child, took it off the fire, hir) |ne wail |e: a: au |i, a: se ||ka, hirj |ne waiS |hir) a: 

they lift the meat onto the fire to roast, they lift the meat off. [kakkaksn | ne j^kaka ha, "toi 

di xa ^ a ?".hakan sag weil ho ha au ||ka the Mantis says, " art thou an ostrich ?" he hoists him 

off with a stick. 

ai, whai, n. springbok, sing. & pi. SI. ( B. ) wai, wa:f, what*, emph. waiten, whaiten, pass, wai-ta. Ex.: 
waitsn ||nau, wai |ku:k9n, waitsn ||6a:ksn |ku:kan ta:S — the springbok does this, the springbok dies, 
the springbok indeed dying goes away, i sag |amma ||k"e: ||ka:o au wai:-ta eg we shall drink to- 
gether the yolk with the springbok flesh, g ||kwag ka !ka:o-g |ni wai-ta ~!kwa:g3n I smelling per- 
ceive springbok bones, a-g | ne se ||k"oen ti e whai: |kw6: |ka:, whaitan ! hauwa r: — thou mayest see 
that the springbok are so, that the springbok are in troops together. (LI.) what, wai, Ex.: ! k'^e |ku-g 

jne !ka: whai:, au whaiitan |ne ||a ko:?ig, whai-ta gwai the people await the springbok while the 

springbok go lean, the male springbok (Lich. ) 5^i. 

aina, waine, all. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: olanakwe a~khamo kslatina, tsakatse waina me — the children go to 

the riverbed, all play, t/ia mi so kl'^ekakau, kilope, jak" ambapi, waine-t/a they ran on the plain, 

cows, bulls, all. na enapi |kita na a tsetipi waine-t/i — I see grass and trees everywhere. 

ako, this is, it is. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tsaho wako sa biso a tail this is of wildebeest. 

Tana, all, s. waina, wa:si, oa:si. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U ~wana ka ku tsa _da:la ti all people sleep by 

a fire. 

fanda, n. thread. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ma wa ||e"i, _daa ki o |kxe, ke tua wanda, ta ke Hel ke ! geia — 


I have been sewing, the firewood tore it, have pulled the thread, sewed, mended it. 

wapagazi, n. porter. [Swa."] CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: welapina dzape i unubi, wapagazibi — to-morrow will com 
the men, porters. 

warra, v. to uncover (fire), whisk out, snatch out. SI. (LI.) ww^rra. Ex.: hig | ne warra |i, au egjar) 

|ne ||ka: they uncover the fire, when the meat is cooked, hag |ka: ~so:, ~|ku: 0pwa se ||ka, he ha 

jne ~u ||a:, har| |ne warra |hir)ja, har) |ne !khu!khuija — he sat waiting for the little proteles to 
roast, and he arose and went (towards it), he whisked it out, he shook off the ashes. 

_wafrriba^ n. lizard, s. _wafru. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: _wafrriba ko /i koko, _walrriba uwa ko _ha a liz- 
ard they seek, having a lizard come, wafrrim | '^au lizard's blood. 

jnairu, n. lizard, s. _walrriba. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: Ikwijka gu _wafru, ko ~tsi |kwi|ka caught a lizard 

and came. 

wa:si, all s. oa:si, waina, ~wana. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |ku wa:8i m ka ~m: — all ants I eat. 

wata, V. to rub. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: wata na o itsabe — I rub with fat. 

watatu, num. three. [Swa.] CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: e tsaja watatu pe there are three of them. 

watorokwa, n. cartridge case used as pipe. CII. (D.B.) 

wattsnwatta, v. to rattle, make a noise as if loose. SI. (B. ) wdttenwatta. Ex.: |6i ||kwar) |ne darraksn 

||nu:r)ta ha tse:r)xu, ha ||k"o:e:, |uir| ||kwag | ne k " wa wattsnwatta" the net does shake lying behind 

his back, his back, the net does make a noise as if it were loose. 

|||| _wa:tu, n. boat, canoe. [Mb.] NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: _wa:tu ki ke ~!nabe, ~||gu ~! nabe _wa:tu — the boat _ 

^l||' turns over, water turns the boat over. fl 

mill wal~wailten, i^. to sparkle. SI. (LI.) wawaiten. Ex.: ||hara ||kwafr) wal^waiftan^ he tikgn e:, i |na ka ■ 
'" !k"arra:kan, i: .... sparkles, tlTerefore our heads shimmer on account of it. ^ 

wa^wa^kksn, v. to dispute loudly. SI. (B. ) wwawwdkken. Ex.: si |ne !ku: wafwalkkan ||na — we two dis- 
mll puted loudly there. 


waxa, all, unusual form of we:, s. wana, wa:si. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ti hoba ko waxa kuru my husband 

ll made all (clothes). 

! wa-fnd, n. dagga, Indian hemp. Nil. (Ll.) Ex.: goba ti |a sir| kwe gomi ||goo | ne e sa wa-^n4 — the 

Makoba give them one bull and Indian hemp, m ba, n a |kua ||ki wa-fnd, ta ti Ijke my father, I do 

not smoke Indian hemp, for (I) should die. 

we, \we:, v. to come. Nil. (Dk.) w^:. (Ll.) we: ww6» Ex.: ha ok"wi ha zau, ta kwe, " we", ta ha zau !ka) 

he spoke to his wife and said, " come" , but his wife ran away, ha fkrum ~sir) ha, ta kwe, "|xwe •■ 

we" his father-in-law saw him and said, "|xwe come" . | 


we, V. to break through, startle game. CI. (Do. ) I 

we, voc. o, s. bs, je. SI. (B.) Ex.: har) ^^kakkan kweitsnkweita !kwa:, " IkwS: we, |kAm oa !ha~u: au g 

ts'^xau" he said whispering to the child, " o child, take away the thong from my eye" . (Ll.) j 

wwe. Ex.: " /o-|oa we, a oaksn e r|-r)" --- " o thy father am I" SV. (D.B.) Ex.: makudze we, 

!xaq ke ||xau|na, n /i t/unni --- o WakudSe, give me tobacco, that I may smoke. Nil. (Ll.) Ex.: tamme 
we ~m: o Teimme eat. |geja ~me, Igeja ~mS, we come to me, o come to me. 1 

-we, ending to v. replacing pron. it, them. SI. (Ll.) -we. Ex.: ! khwetsn |ne so:, ti e:, |kaggsn sir) 
|k" e:ja ke: hi, ti e: !khwe haf sig so:we, au ha: Ixwonni — the wind is in the place which the 

Mantis told me about, that the wind would be in it, when he returned, he-g r) |ku xu:we, i: then 

left them, on account of it. 

we:, n. pity, s. we: tan. 

we, n. meatl used by the Makoba in making arrows. Nil. (Ll.) we. 

we, good (?). Nil. (Ll.) w^, w6. Ex.: /a e Am we, ta dsa, esa (nujne ||a --- is good (?) food, and 

nice, very nice, na ti t/ig me !kao, ta me ! kao e ||goo we I cry for my husband, for my husband i 



was a good (?) man. 

we-, all, may take ending of n. s. we:/e_8n. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: t/arana ko fu, wen t/arana — birds eat 
(them), all birds, we kwe | gi tama — not all men dance, kubas |kam |kwa ||k"ADi, we/ara ko k"wr — 
Kubas bore two children, both lived, wem kurim kwe fuxwoine kei the whole year is much food. 

nee, v. to answer, weeba, to be answered, s. wetetan, weo. CI. (Do.) 

iTe:etan, we:tsn, v. to answer, s. wee, weo. SI. (B. ) wwStfn. Ex.: ! kwa |ne |kwe: da har) weitsn g — the 
child thus answers me. (LI.) wwe-et^n. Ex.: he ti hit) e:, i k"auki ta weietsn i:, o i !kwai: — there- 
fore we are not accustomed to answer, if we are alone. 

ifeho, V. to break in pieces, s. we, to break through. CI. (Do.) 

Tsi^, s. wai, to take. 

Teka, interrog. why ? CI. (Do.) 

relapina, early, in the morning, in the east. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: welapina i/o /aha teefui early the 

sun ends the night, welapina bita onebi _dza in the morning (yesterday) we came, hamana ono 

nobae: na welapina there I lived in the east, welapina pi taka (this) morning they danced. 

reo, n. an answer, s. wee, weretsn. CI. (Do.) 

re:/e_sn, ws/s/s, all, s. we- waxa, waina. Nil. (Dk. ) wet/een. NIII. (D.B.) ws/e/e. Ex.: lut/asi we/s/s 
ti t/u ~|ni — the Luchasi all sit here, ha tasir) we/s/e t/xai — her sisters all dance, e we/e/e 
!o!ku we all are Bushmen. 

ertsn, v. to pity, n. we:, pity. SI. (LI.) wSten, w5. Ex.: ha | har| |ne fkakan, "we:", au harj we:t3n ha 
-- his wife said, " pity", for she pitied him. 

ew^*?!, V. to stagger. SI. (B. ) wwewwd-i. Ex.: ! koir) sig ||koa ha Ixoaksnlxoakan*?!, ta ha ||kwa^r) sir) 

wew^*?!, au ha kwobbo ||na the old man was as if he reeled about, for he staggered, while he rubbed 

his eyes there. 

hail, s. wsi, to take. 

tiai, s. wai, springbok. 

L, wi~wi, V. to whisk round, turn frightened away. SI. (B.) wwl. Ex.: ha: | ne ||k"oen ti e:, si |ku |ne 

! kei s'?a ||neir), har) |ku |ne wi ! khe he saw that we reached the house, he whisked round. (LI.) 

wwiwwi. Ex.: wai-ta ~ku |ku-g | ne ||ko:lol kui wi~wi — all the springbok were startled turning 
frightened away. 

Ti, V. to help, s. wie. Nil. (LI. ) wwi, to help in taking hold of a thing, or by giving a starving per- 
son food. 

i-, pron. us, s. i. SI. (LI.) wwi. Ex.: |ne fkAm:-6pwa wi, i se |ne ||k"oen — wait for us, that we may 

L, n. tendril. CI. (Do.) 

e, n. helper, s. ~wi. Sllb. (Mh. ) uie. 

thita, V. to throw, pronounced in a whisper. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: mua:ko akweti wi:hita — a stick the 
people throw. 

i, n. bodyguard. CI. (Do.) 

ka, to-morrow, s. uka. CI. (Do.) wika. 

ka, after noon. CI. (Ete.) Ex.: wika koo to start after noon. 

rjki, n. beans, ai. (D.B.) 

o: , exclamation of calling, s. ~we. Nil. (Dk.) w6:. 


wook'o, n. swamp. CIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: a~khame wooko a te t/ita manako a te dza:na 
swamp to fetch the game and came back. 

- they went to the 

jno^rre, v. to take out of the ashes. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: fuxwoine kumaj kwe "fka, a ^I gwe, a ko "ler/a ka,; 

a ~!kau, a ~|lgu:, a t^u, a _wofrre, a ~fu vegetable food in the bag put, sling it on, fire wood , 

on the shoulder carry, throw down, light, roast, take out of the ashes, eat. i 

"vmrri, n. west, west wind. SI. (LI.) wwurri, wurri. Ex.: ha haf |ne !kwaif !khe, ha |ne ||k"oen "wurri, . 
he ha |ne kiii^ " "wurri, gwai tag |ke: sa |ke, ha r) |nu se ha tse de a ?" — he stood upright, he I 
looked to the westj he said, " Great Westwind coming there, what am I to eat ?" ha ha? |ku ||Ahija { 

llgwattan a: ||khoa "wurri, "wurrita |kwa:gsn he was dressed in a catskin which resembled the west 

wind, the west wind's clouds (black). CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nidjam ko ! nu a ko wurri J*a fa:, a !xe:/a 
kuru from this land the west wind blows, and cold makes. 






This sound approximates to the German ch. It is made further forward in the mouth before i,an 
e, slightly further back before a, and very far back before o, and u. It is very frequently heard in 
Bushman languages, but more often after clicks, and k, t, s, /, 5, or a couple of these, than as initiat 

In his work, " An (Xitline of the Phonetics of the Language of the Chu: Bushmen of North-West 
Kalahari " on p. 141 Doke writes: "x is the symbol used to indicate the unvoiced velar fricative, i.£. 
the fricative sound made with the back of the tongue raised almost to touch the soft palate" . Bleek, 
Lloyd & Meinhof use the Greek x for this sound. To avoid cost in printing I am using x even in their ve 
sions of words. Bleek ^ Lloyd use the diacritic*^ to indicate a softer pronunciation of the sound. 


part, with different meanings . SI. interrog. and neg. SI. ( B. ) ^a. Ex.: ha ||xa ©wakan tutu ha. 

" a xa ||kwa:ka neir) ?" her younger sister asks her, " dost thou remember the house" ? ! au xa oa | 

do^a e, a: ! kwfi dom |kuruwa ka S: ? can it be earth by which the child's throat has been scraped| 

for me ? (LI.) xa. Ex.: Ik'^eja xa |ku do^a 0pwoin t^ija, he ! k'^e k"auki |ne |k"e:ja ke ? can the, 

people have fallen fast asleep, that the people do not speak to me ? ! ku di xa a: |na: ! kuttau ? -- 
who was it who saw Sirius ? ! k'^e ||kwafr) ka ||nau:, o he xa tar)td,r)'?a, he k"auki !khwi: ja |ke — 
people did this, if they were not ill, they did not call her name, har) ||kwalr) ^en na, ti e: ! kwi-g 
||nau, ha xa ka: ||khwi:ja !gi:xa a:, Igirxakan k"auki di kui k"wa fhannurwa — she that if a man 
does thus, (if) he does not pay a sorcerer, the sorcerer does not do good work. (Lich. ) cha Ex.: a J 
Ikeunja ? — art thou thirsty ? SII. (D.B.) past. Ex. : n xa | na kwerelne:, kwe: xa k."e !kha: — I 

saw many ostriches, the ostriches drank water. ||koi a ko baas xa seja yesterday a master came. 

Sllb. (Mh. ) used in narrative to show one action as a consequence of another. Ex.: koro ha xa ku tuc 
" n ||au sei'^i fe: ! are a a fkx'^aros ! noe, ta hai | "^a, "^t xa fua, 1: xa ||nan !hoe:ti, ha ku 0an ta" ■ 
the jackal said to the ostrich, " my brother, come and take out the sinew of thy leg, as it is long 
and let us plait it and let us bind the lion, as he lies asleep" . SIIc. (D,B.) neg. Ex.: _J'wa xa - 

here is no water, r) xa ||k'?oa I am not cold. SIV. (D.B.) unfinished action. Ex.: txobaku xa SUSU 

tweerivier Txobak is staying at Tweerivier. a xa n ! gwa e k"o thou dost pull the bowstring. 

xa, V. to scratch. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||kau ba xa the thorn will scratch 




to rustle. Nil. (LI. ) il. 

xa, pron. , root of him, her, it, that, they, takes endings of n. CII. ( Schi . ). xam, xami, he, his. xa || 

they, their. (D.B.) Ex.: xaba ko |ni ~!nu: kwe ko ||ei he is living just over there, xam fa /i, 

xaba ga ||nei /i (as) he knows them, he will talk of them, e ko xasa ~||kwi and she contradic 

wsana xa ko xau:e — for all one is tattooed, xan, ||kur)kwena, ko byri ta:a — they, the old peopl 
told us. xat/ara-di3i _koad3i ti ko _!gwe: — both their karosses I carried, xaba ko dsbi, xasa ko^ 


dabi, xakhara ko dabi he returned, she returned, both returned. wed3i xad3i ko "m all of them 

(I) have seen, a ko tira "m xa/ de/a si |ni:/a I saw that bow long ago. xa ~!nu:-dis xum/a tam ka 

that country's earth is like this. 

:a, n. mother, short form, of xeinki, used in terms of relationship . SII. ( D. B. ) Ex.: ^ xa l|kS my 

mother' s brother, uncle. 

xa, ending similar to -ful. SI. (B. ) Ex.: ! kwi a: !kwa:lxa, har) a: | gebbitsnl gsbbitan a man who is 

wrathful, he is stupid. (LI.) Ex.: ha ka ||kho, ha |ne akkanxa se |hiq sa: — it seems as if it will 
come out rightly. 

.a&, dem. here, s. xa, pron. CII. ( D. B. ) Ex.: n| gem kwe ko tu, xaa tu tama among the .... it rains, 

here it rains not. 

^ab, n. moon. Nile. (Leb. ) x'ab. 

;aba, pron. s. xa. * 

:aba, n. kaross. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ka !ko:ma ||ne:, ka gu xaba re te \|kabba ! nwi |ko then the hare 

spoke, and took the kaross and threw it in the moon's face, dzosi ||ka||kamma xabasi women have 

slung on karosses. 

:aba, xaba^xa, but, s. xabe, xataxa. QI. (D.B.) Ex.: /e /i khara Heija ha, xabaxa khara ko |kwa khana a 

they both live together, but both without a child, tire | na fu, xaba ra kei/e fu tama I have 

eaten, but I have not eaten rr.uch. 

;aba/e, n. dish. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: fge na xaba/e milk is in the dish. 

abba, v. to cut round the edge of a thing. Nil. (LI.) xdbba. 

abbe, pron. himself. Nil. (LI.) x^bbe. Ex.: ha xabbe ti "fig t/i he himself thinks of the thing. 

xabbu, n. ostrich eggshell used as drinking vessel. SI. (LI.) i^bbu. Ex.: ha |ne jkAm !khwa:-ka ~xabbu, 
ha |ne jkwen, ha |ne ~|hir| !khwa: ha |ne sa ! ho !khwa:-ka ! kwi tan — he fetched the water vessel, he 
went to dip up, he came from the water, he came to put down the water's eggs. A note to "xabbu says; 

~!kauwi ||kffafr) e, xax^itan ||kwafq ||xAmki e:, t/wer) e: i |kan, i: — an ostrich egg it is, are also 

things which we hold. 

abbu te, v. to hit, strike. SI. (LI.) xdbbu te. Ex.: hag |ku-g | ne kiii dzapp, xabbu te ! kwa au ~||khaf 
|na: he threw, hitting the bone on the lion's head. 

ibe, but, s. xabaxa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: korixas tsa ko ! xonneja, xaba t/i ||kai tsao o Ixonneja, t/a a ~t/u 

! gosi at Korixas (he) has stayed, but here has come to stay, here a house has made. Nil. (Wil.) 

I xSbS, but, also. 

idgi, s. pron. xa. 

te, xawe, although, but, s. xabaxa, xabe. Nil. (V.) x^e, xaw^. 

ii, V. to grind, rub to powder, s. xe:. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a gu /ori, ! kai ! koa, a xSi, a ||a, a ||e, a gu 

da kuwa, a |kabbo you take tobacco, break it, powder it, put it in (the pipe), press down, take a 

fire stick, smoke. 

i, V. to swell, s. xg:. [Na. xsCi.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |kau/a ke k"a /i, k"a t/auba, a ko xal, a |ni kwe 
te a snake bit her, bit the hand, it swelled and thus stood. 

ai, interrog. ending, s. xa. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: gjisixai ? what is it ? tjhuxai ||na na ? — who is 

there ? kjekjexai a xu: ? where are you coming from ? 

pl, fern, ending in terms of relationship. SI. (LI.) Ex.: ||ka, brother, [jkaxai, sister. 0pwor), son, 
Qpwaxai, daughter. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: ||kau, brother, ykaxai, sister, ©"^wa, son, Q'^waxai, daughter. SVIa. 
(Kr. ) llgaxai, sister. 

4, xai:ba, n. kudu, s. xeiba. [Na. xaib.] SVI. (D.B.) xai. Nlla. (Sh.) xai:b. CII. (Schi) xai.(Sh.) 

xi-, n. flour. NI. (Pa.) chai. 



xai, n. darkness. Cla. (Pa.) chai. 


xaia, xaixa, old,, old man. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: xaia xa ki i — old they are. ' ti ||e bs si sxwika, ha e 

xaixa goes to a man who is sick, he is an old man. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |xobbu keiba xaia me e b| 

I xobbu is very old. xaiaba ||noa/ kwe ||eia an old man at the stone stands. 

xaiantse, really. Cla. (Pa.) chaiantse. 

xain ! nao garoba, n. heavenly house. Nllb. (Leb. ) 

xais, n. mountain hare. Nlla. (Sh.) 

xaitsn, v. to deal gently, fall gently. SI. (LI.) Saltan, fa'^ten. Ex.: ~||khaf |ku kamma xaitsn o ha, o 
~||khaJg ta: ||ka ti e:, ~||khaf ||k"oen ti e:, ha k"auki da: ~||khaf a: |a: — the lioness dealt gentlyj 
with her, for the lioness felt that the lioness saw, that she did not make a fight with the lioness. 
ti kaq !xwar), !khwa: a: kaurwa |hir) sa: ||xau:, ta: ha ||kwaSr) xai:t8n — it sounds as if the rain weii 
falling coming from the mountain, for it is falling gently. 

xai:t9n, v. to strike (a match,) s. _xoa. SI. fatten. Ex. : xai:ten ! ho |i — to strike a match. 

xakoi, xakwoi, there, s. xa. CII. (Schi.) xakoi. (D.B.) xakwoi. Ex.: |kAin/a ke i'k&: , a xakwoi !o:, a Ji\ 
xakwoi |k"e: the sun sets, there goes along, and there will set. 

xallate, v. to drive. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /i ka xallate gome ke kanje we have driven the oxen from KanyjJ' 

xam, s. pron. xa. 

CI xam,xamba, n. lion. [Na. xami .] s. kxewn, ho:m. CI. (Bry. ) gham. SVI. (D.B.) xa:m. NI. (Sh.) xam. (D.B.) 

I Ex.: xam t/usi ~!kou ku ~tsi:, xam ~|ka au ~3U o ~! kha — (to) the lion's house the hyena came, thej 

<l« lion did not give the person to eat. Nil. (Dk.) (V.), (Sh.), (Zuk.) xam. (Wil.) xSm. (LI.) xam. Ex.:| 

, e ! nwerre kwe xam ti Jhabbo ha ~!ku (in) our country the lion takes offence about his name (if i| 

III is mentioned). Nllb. (Leb.) x'amba. Cla. (Pa.) cham. CII. (D.B.) xamba. Ex.: xamba ! xo du — the lilt 

lljl catches the eland. Cllb. (Wil.) xam. 

x'^ameiba, «. sky. Nile. (Leb.) x^ameiba. 


IJI xami, V. to grind, s. xal . Nil. (Dk. ) "xami, (V.) x^m^. 

!|| xammi, v. to roll up. [Na. xami.] SI. (B. ) fammi. (LI.) fumffii. Ex.: ! kerri ko:, ha: ||nau: ! kwi-ka ||Ahij 

111 ha: xammi )ki |e: hs o ||koroko another old man does this to the man's apron, he rolls it up, put 

i| ting it into the man's (?) belt. 

x'?ams-khe, n. daughter. Nile. (Leb.) x'ams-khe, 

xamxam, v. to rustle as dry blades of grass. Nil. (LI.) famfam, 

xamxam, n. plant, Solanum rangei, U. Damm. CII. (D.B.) 

xamxama, n. tomato. CII. (D.B.) 


xam |hoab. n. serval cat. Nlla. (Sh.) 

xan, xar], v. part, showing finished action, s. xn. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) xar) ||e:ja ||r), r) xar| se:, g so:er) 

I have gone to the house, I have returned, I sit. ha xan ||e she has gone. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: sa 

||uni xar) ||keo --- their food is finished. 

xana, v. to scrape, rub. [Na. xana, to scratch. 3 SI. (LI.) iaiinei-i. Ex.: xanna*^! 0ho scratched is je 

piece of wood. Nil. (Dk.) xana, (V.) x^n^, to scrape, xana fn^o — to rub off. j 

xana, n. dagga, Indian hemp, s. wa-fnd. [Na. daxab.J Nil. (Dk.) xink. (V.) x^na. (Wil.) xana. (LI.) i& • 
Ex.: ~!ku ti ok "wi xana, ta ngoba ti ok"wi, 'pankwe' ta dama ti o~k"wi 'pankwe' — Bushmen say ...j 
and Makoba say . . . . , and Herero say 

xanee, n. chin, jaw. CI. (Do.) ghanee. 

xarjkje, n. mother, s. xeigki. Slla. (Mg. ) xagce. 


xanna, v. to be, live, s. xarra. SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: r) xn ! oinkin xanna ki i — I have a long time lived 
there. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: rj-g, ha ga xanna — no, it is not so. 

xannugu, xarrugu, v. to visit. SI. (B. ) x^ffugu, x^/ruqu. Ex.: uksn xarrugu ||a: au !koir)-gu ||kha: — 
you went visiting the old people, the lions. (LI.) xdnnugu. Ex.: |kwomniar)'^a |ku maili, ha xannugu 
\\e |kwommar)''a was the first, he went visiting. 

xa:o^ n. hippopotamus. Nil. (Wil.) xSo. 

x'^aobe, n. soul. Nllb. (Leb. ) x'aobe. 

xappsm, to drink with the brush used for supping the contents of ostrich eggs. SI. (B. ) i^ppem. Ex.: 
har) |ku-g |ne |kAin ! aui a: !kwai:, hag |ku-g |ne !''*ai:kan si ||gap||gap !aui, hag |nek"ab~Si: ha, har| 
|ku-g |ne so: ko xappam he took one egg, he knocked cracking the egg, he chipped it, he sat twirl- 
ing the brush, he sat drinking. 

xa:ra, n. mierkat, Suricata zenick. SI. ( B. ) 5d,rra. (LI.) iara, pi. 5Wa, iSira^ggu. Ex.: he ha ! kda te 

||a:, i:, au har) ka: Ikauken xa:ra and he trod firmly, for he intended to beat a mierkat. ha tutu: 

xa:ra, ts'^a a: ~xa:ra |kwe:i |ki: a:, he |ki: ha-ka sa: a: — he asked the mierkats, why had the 

mierkats done this, killed his eland, ha |auwi !ke, xa:ra-gu, au hig |a !khe: he perceived the 

people, the mierkats, as they stood cutting up (the eland). Sllb. (Mh. ) xara. NI. (Sh.) xarab, slend- 
er-tailed mierkat. CII. (Sh.) xara:gi. 

xaJ^ ko, right across. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: a ! naQ a ka ! "^ol xaj^ ko Ijkx'^ou — hare spring right across 
j waterhole. 

xare, v. to crawl. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ~! nwi ke /u |ne k"a, ka xare — the snail lies on the ground and ■ 
j crawls. 

sarra, v. to stay, s. xanna. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: tire llorire xarra [kwi/e, |eba !ku a ga ha^ — I only 
stay here, the other goes out. 

xarra, always, usually, merely, truly. SI. (B. ) idlrra. Ex.: hag a: xarra ! auksn |ki g |na, au g ||k"oen 

llgaue |ki ha ts'^ax^iten he is the one who truly beat to pieces my head, when I seeking looked for 

his eyes. !e xarra ~||kwa:f ! gaoksn toi ! nwa — people usually follow an ostrich's spoor. (LI.) if^rrSj 
i^ra. Ex.: ha k"war) !kwiri, ti e: !kwir) xarra ka |kwgi k"o, !:, hs ! kwig xarra ka k"aur] !kwa:gan e:, 

i: tete he he resembles a dog, that which a dog always does, it always crunches the bones which 

we put down. 

:arri, v. to finish, be finished. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: na |ka a:, na xarri I am eating, I have finished. 

boxotia a /i 0pwi, ea xarri bread is baked, it is finished. 

:arro, v. to dig. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: xarro e ||na, e sa ko H'^e: he is digging there, he makes it smooth. 

as, xasa, those, they, s. pron. xa. 

ataxa, also. QI. (D.B.) Ex.: Joro a ko ||ainniid3i fu, tkotkod3i xataxa ko fu — the iguana eats little 
ants, grasshoppers also (it) eats, /ita ka xataxa kuru /oren we also grow tobacco. 

attsn, V. to spit. SI. (LI.) fatten. Ex.: !gole jne ||ar) xattsn |hir) ||k"hwi ||nwag — the tortoise went 
to spit out the quagga' s liver. 

au, V. to seek, examine. SI. (B. ) x^u. Ex.: g-qa | ne ta: f i xau, au ka |ku xau tatta: ! au, ti e:, ga |ku 

86 |ni toi ! nwa I went round seeking, while I sought trying the ground, if I should not perceive 

ostrich spoor, hi sag ! ha^m |ne xau ti |hig ||e they shall first seeking (spoor) go far away. (LI.) 

I tail. Ex.: i |ku-g |ne xau: Uneig ||xa||xa, au i ||gaufe ha ! nwa — we examine the sides of the house, 
when we seek his footprints. 

lu, V. to clean, scrape. SI. (LI.) fau. Ex.: hig | ne xau toi |kwig|kwig they clean the ostrich's 

bowels. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: a gu da wa |no a xau they take fire and scrape the skin. 

iil, V. to hang up. SIV. (D.B.) Ex. : a ta xau ku ||a i 0pwi ki 0po a then hang up the meat on the 



) V. to cut. QI. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kuj-ti |u/a ko ! gum, a ko xau ||xau kwe — the head's hair shave and 
cut with a knife. |kwim ko |kue, numko |kwini |xorreba ko xaue — one (buck) is killed, then one 
tattoomark is cut. . 


xau, interrog. & neg. part. s. xa SI. (B. ) xau. Ex.: a: xau daindainja s'?a: au !k'?wa: |na: ? — art the 
not coming deceiving us about the hartebeest' s head ? (LI.) S:au. Ex.: |i |ke ta ||ka f^wara i, au i x8 
~a: |ku— te— ! gaufa the fire is wont to burn off our skins, if we do not give to | ku- te- ! gau^a. 

xaua*?!, v. to jump. SIIc. (D.B. ) 

xau-dama, n. Bergdamara. [Na.] SVI. (D.B.) Nil. (LI.) x^u-dSma. Ex.: ha ok"wi. xau-dama ok"wi --- he spol 
the Bergdamara language. 

xau:i:t9n, v. to bend round. SI. (B. ) xSuTt§n. 

xauka, n. confluence. Slla. (Ek.) 

xauke, v. to mix. SII. (D.B.) 

xaum/ak"a:, v. to crunch. NI. (D.B.) 

~xaup, exclamation. Nil. (LI.) x^up. Ex.: ta ku-||na/-| gaasir) |k\la ||ke ara, ti ||ke tsema, ta tsau, ta kwej 

" ^he^ ~xaup" and Ku- |na- | gaasir) was not quite dead, was a little dead, and rose up, and said, 

" oho, " 

xaux^U, V. to make a tearing noise. Nil. (LI.) 5auf^U, pronounced in a distinct whisper, not aloud. Ex. 
ts'^a a: ka xauxdLu au i ~hi ha this thing makes a tearing noise when we eat it. 

xau~xaunu, v. to rustle. Nil. (LI.) xauSaunu. 

xa_we, s. _xae. 

fl|| xaxd> V. to be sharp. Nil. (LI.) f.&£&. Ex.: t/i doa xax^ the thing is sharp. 

xa !i:, n. zebra. SVI. (D.B.) 


I' xa llwi, n. hare. SVI. (D.B.) 

xe:, xgi, v. to swell, s. xal. [Na. xal.] SI. (B. ) xg, fei. Ex.: ! kwa |e:ja twitwi:tan, twitwi:kakan sai 
III I xS: water gets into the wounds, the wounds then shall swell. I 

ill I 

xe:, V. to rub, powder, s. xal. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 5U ku ~gu t/a ka ku xe: people pick buchu and powde, 

(it). CII. (D.B.) Ex.: t/S a k"e'i, |ni kwe |o:wa, a xe: UnwaJ" kwe, a koara. /e — buchu smells, likej 
this pound, rub with a stone, put on the skin. ' 

xede, interrog. where ? Sllb. (Mh. ) xede ? i 

xei, n. bastard hartebeest. Cllb. (Wil.) I 

xeiba, xiba, n. kudu bull, xei/a, kudu cow., s. xai. CII. (D.B.) 

xein xeinse, v. to be swollen, sore, s. xe:, xfli. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ||go a xein — his shoulder is so 
n |k"a |na se xeinse — my hand is swollen. j 

xeinr|ki, xe:r)ki, mother, s. xarjkie. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gwa |na ha xeirjki — the child is with its mothei 
r) xe:gki |ke |kwesi my mother's name (is) |kwesi. 

xeka, although, s. _xae. Nil. (LI.) x^ka. Ex.: xeka sa ! gusirj ! nanna kwe:^e ti ! kur| ha — although bot 
their names are the same, we kill him (i.e. one of the two.). i 


xsn, X3r), V. variant of kan, to go. Used as v. part, expressing unfinished action. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: HJ^i 

x©n ! nua !kha |ki:8i — I visit another farm, kje xar) kje ku: gjisixai ? — (he) ... say: what is. 

It ? ■ ! 

x^rre:ja, v. to be fleet. SI. (LI.) x^rreya. Ex.: akan |ku-g ||nau, ti e:, a xsrre:ja, hir) e:, a an:tau j 
"sukan |hir| thou didst this, because thou wert fleet, therefore thou didfet quickly spring away. 1 

xerri:, v. to fasten, close, tie. SI. (B. ) xerri, xdrrixf rriya . Ex.: he ti hir^ e:, |ni: ka |ne |kori7U i; 

I:, au ka^g |ne ||a, xerri: ho !ka:k8n! kafkka-! aui-ka ! kwitan therefore the ichneumon laughed at p 

because I went fastening (the net) to carry off the magic ostrich's eggs, hi |ku xerrixerri: ja ||koe 
sir) hi they closing (the net) sit with them. (LI.) xlrri. Ex.: hag |ne xerri:, |ui au ||ka — hi! 



ties the net onto the stick. 

^•ri:, V. to be white. SI. (B.) xfrri. Ex.: hi tse:xuwa ||koa xarri:, hi |ku-g |ne ||koa !gwaif their 

back seems to be white, they seem to shine. 

?ro:, n. leaves, foliage, s. kerru. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: 0bo kan xerro: the tree's leaves. 

:'ru:kei, v. to rub in. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g xerru:kei sar) a |k"ai:i — I rub in buchu which smells good. 

telai^ V. to crow. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha koko, han xexelai that cock, it crows. 

mna, xharra^ v. to cut, make and incision. SI. (LI.) Carina. Ex.: sitsn |ku xhanna ! ho a:, he e:, 
sitsn |ne ! kAn ! kur] ! ho !go:le i:^ o sitan ka, ha ||ki se ! Ahi sir) !go:le — we make an incision, set 
it down, and then we hold a tortoise (shell) underneath it, because we wish its juice to be upon the 

Tarra, n. spring, fountain, s. xwairraksn. SI. (LI.) fhwdrra. Ex.: ||kaxai |hiq i:, au ! kauken— ka ||neir|, 
Ik'^ai: xhwarra, au har) ka, ha se |ka: !kwa: 0pwa ||xa: — sister went out of the house of illness, 
descended to the spring, for she thought she would kill a water child again, he ti hir| e:, he |kwa:i 
!khwa:-ka xhwarraxhwarra i: , hir| tatti xhwarraxhwarra xa se |hir) — that is why they adorn the 
water' s springs, they wish that the springs may not become dry. 

, n. pain, swelling, s. xe:, xal. SI. (B. ) xi. Ex.: hs xi hig e:, r) ka [ne s'^a tS: ti| i: that pain 

it is, I came to lie down feeling it. 

J.:, V. to be hungry. SHI. (D.B.) Ex.: r) xla: I am hungry. 

i.a, v. to want. ail. (D.B.) Ex.: kweko i/o xlaa ti, a ko pelatita, kweko i/o xlsia ti, missi — if the 
sun wants it, he gets well, if the sun wants it, dies, xlaa ta ati iso dza I want rain to come. 

ika, xlako, xlaku, v. to cut, tattoo. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: kweso boku unu, iso xlako when ill is a 

person, then is cut. tsefijipi bonepi wa mi xlaka a tseabi in four days they finished cutting. 

it/epi ukuwa it/a xlaku the others are not thus cut. 

i.qgaxlar)ga, n. pi. openings between toes. CIII. (D.B. ) 

;kape, n. back, shoulderblades. CIII. (D.B.) 

;kwa, V. to peel QII. (D.B.) 

Lheta, v. to blow the nose. CJII. (D.B.) 

Lqgita, n. bridge of nose. CIII. (D.B.) 

ibana, v. to be shallow. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: lalamu ako, kata a xlubana ati — the edge it is, where is 
shallow the water. 

, V. part., denoting finished action, s. xa, xsn . SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gwa xn | ki ||ke:nja the child 

has fallen down, ha ||khai, ha xn |na: he knows, he has seen (it). 

I', V. to write, s. xoa, xwa: . [Na. xoa.] SI. (B. ) x6ax6a. Ex.: tswa:-ga !e:-ta kukummi he ||kabogu sig 

fkakka hu: hi, he e:, i se x6ax6a hi the Flat-Bushmen's stories which ykhabbo and his people have 

told you, these are what we will write down. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ri Ino x6:a llkai I cannot write. Nil. 

(Li. ) xoa, xoa. 

I, xwa:, V. to scrape (skin), strike a lightj_ s. x6a, xaiitan, [Na. xo^.J Nil. (Dk.) xwa:, to scrape 
skin. (V.) xoa, " Fell abschaben". (Ll."> i6a, to strike a light. 

i Igau, n. plate. Qlb. (Wil.) x<^ |gau. ' 

^, n. mother, s. xarjkie, xeigki. SI. (B. ) Soa, emph. xoaken. pi. xoakfngu. Ex.: ha xoa |nu:tara |ne 

fkakksn her mother the old woman speaks, ha xoaksn f^kakka ha: her mother spoke to her. i 

xoaksngu — our mothers. (LI.) x6a, pi. ^oak^nggu. Ex.: i xoa — our mother, ha !k"wai:tnja ha xoa, 

ti e:, ha xoa k"auki a ha !hwir| egeg e: |k"wai:ja she was angry with her mother, because her 

mother did not give her many .... roots, ha xoakan |ku a: |ki|ki sa ha ha: her mother was the one 

who was bringing her food, wai— ta ! kauka ||xAmki k"wa:, au hi xoakanguwa: k"wa: the springbok kids 

also cry, when their mothers cry. (Lich. ) ch6a. SHI. (D.B.) Ex.: r) xoa u ake sefwa ny mother still 



lives. SVI. (Kr.) xoa. 

xj5a:, yellow. Nil. (Wil.) xdS. 

xobe^ n. frog. CI. (Lto.) ghobe. 

xobi, n. vlei, low land, s. xona. Cla. (Pa.) chobi. 

xoe, xoi, V. to dig for water with the hand, s. xwe. Nil. (V.) xpe. (Ck.) xoi. 

xogan, v. to stick up, plant. SI. (LI.) Sigen. Ex.: har) haf |ne xogsn |e: ha fhafrrihe o ||neiq-ka 0hoks 
he stuck his feather brush up in the house bushes. 

xokn, V. part, denoting past. Slid. (Wu.) chokn. Ex.: ha xokn "xuekn ha — he did beat him. 

xollaxa, V. to tie up. SV. (D.B. ) Ex.: ea xollaxa te pi/i he has tied up the horse. 

xona, n. vlei, low land, s. xobi. NI. (Pa.) ch6na. 

xoni, V. to stamp, pound. Nil. (Dk.) 

xoJnno^wa, v. to treat in some manner. SI. (LI.) Sonn owa. Ex.: ha |enni |ku !kau: Ihiq toa ha tu, he: 
tikan e:, rj ka a a^m: ! got xolnnotwa ke !khwa: "SoTm — his tongue has filled up his mouth, that is 
why I want you just to treat for me the child's throat. 

xoo, V. to catch, seize. CI. (Do.) ghoo. 
xo:o, n. mealie. SIII. (D.B.) 


xoroo, V. to gargle. SI. (LI.) x3og. Ex.: si ko: |ne ka xo:oo o !khwa:, o !khwa: ||khoe s'^o: si tu, si 
o:a ! gauiksn e:, si k"wei hs, o si Ikwei |kwSr) di, sitan di si o:a se ~|ku:kan — if we gargle with 
water, when the water is in our mouth, our father's blood it is which we drink, and if we do this to 
it, we make our fathers die. 

xora:, n. pit, well, s. xhwarra. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: sira ha sesiq, ha sesig !kha:l xora: master is 

ml working, he works at the water pit. 

'I" xoreba, n. zebra. Nllb. (Leb. ) 


i xoro, n. cattle. SI. (B. ) Ex.: xoro, ox. xoro, |ai:tji, cow. xoro ||kwa||kwarra, cows, xoro-ka ! kauksn e 

* !ku; two calves. (LI.) Ex.: |a|a-ka xoro an ox for slaughtering. !khwa:-ka xoro the 

ll water bull. (Lich. ) chore. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: rj | ga ! gou ei ! an xoro I took a stone and threw it 

, at the cattle. 

xoru, n. stone. CII. (Sei.) choru. 

xorun, n. powder. [Na. xurub.J Sllb. (Mh.) 


xo-u, xo:-u:i, v. to leave, throw away. s. ru:, u, ui. SI. (B. ) S6-u, i^ui. Ex.: har) |ne ||khau xo-u 
ts'^wits'^wi: — he flew away leaving (his) things, har) |ku-g | ne !kwa:lr) au n-n, he e:, r) |ne ! hammi 
xo:-u:i haha i: he is angry with me, therefore I fearing left him. # 

xoxoksn^, V. to burn. SI. (Ll.) ioidkfn. Ex.: a kwa:l ka, n k"au ||kwalr) |ku ta: |lcwi: ! k^'au r) eger), he 

Ik'^au ka |kwS, hi xoxoksn dost thou think that I do not feel covered with dust (over) my body, 

and the dust does this, it burns. 

xoxori, n. snail shell, s. hohori, xurri. CII. (Ll.) xox6ri. 

yre:kia, red, brown. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||Ci a xreikia --- the sun is red. 

xrikwa, n. a Griqua. SII. (D.B.) 

xri:tia, v. to hunt. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kwa a xrirtia, han |ki |k"ou--- this man hunts, he has a bow. 

xtsai, r.. eye, s. tsax4,u. Cla. (Pa.) ohtsai. 

xu:, xu, V. to leave, leave off, stop, throw away, let go, come from. [Na. xu.l-SI. (B. ) xu. Ex.: r) kar 



!kui:tan xu a I am returning leave thee, xoa se |ku:kan xu u a mother shall dying leave thee. 

(LI.) ih, xiiwa. Ex.: akan k"auki Icwa akan ||khou "Ikuitan^ au a ~xu oa fkakkanfkakkan — thou wilt 
not make a shelter, while thou dost leave off talking. ! hau |ne !kwa:, xuwa he a: !khwa:-ka xoro — 
the thong broke, letting go for them the water bull. Slla. (Mg. ) x~u, xu:, xu:wa. Ex.: sa ~xu tja xwe 

kjhe '/'ri^'r) ~ka ||r) _a shall stop ... ?, • • ■, ] say there, kjsr) xu:wa — they stop, kjekjexai a xu: ? 

where are you coming from ? Nil. (LI.) xu n, to remove a thing to another place. CII. (Schi.) xu, 

to leave. (D. B. ) Ex.: ||ei/ a xu, a ! ku na debi the house (I) leave, go and come back, t/u ! nwaj" a 

xu — leave off lying, fkumba jwai ta ko xu |oane, a farroan fu — locusts, pull off and throw away 

the legs, and the body eat. ~fnum/a ko ~xu:, a ta/a ~||gu: ashes throw away, and another (fire) 


u:, i;. to want, wish. Slle. (And.) xu. Ex.: xu: | Sf e (I) want to kill it. 

u, n. face, surface, head. [Na. x5b, cheek.] SI. (B. ) xii, emph. iuken. Ex.: har| ~|ke: ti:eta§hja ti |um 

!kwa au ha xu he yonder walking wipes the water from his face, ha |k"o:6wa, ha x-ukan !kuiita 

he IS pale, his face is white. (LI.) fu. Ex.: !kuko: arro:ko |xi: ha xu the other quickly spits in 

his face, rj |k"a-guxu my hand's palm. ! nwa xu sole of foot. l|neir) xu entrance of house. 

SII. (D.B. ) Ex.: _||nwa ~xu — the house floor. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: r) |hobo xu — I paint my face. SIII. 

(D.B. ) xu:, head. SIV. "xu, ~xuu, head. Ex.: ti tani ke ~xu carry on the head. ! wara tane ~khaa 

ke ~xuu the girl is carrying water on her head. 

u, n. thing, goods. [Na. xub.] CI. (Do.) ghu. CII. (D.B.) pi. xuu, xudsi, xu:ne. Ex.: |e: xu a ||xa||xa 

tama another thing (I) do not learn. ||nwem kaufa ti xud3i, kuru a xuu the moon owns these 

things, made the things. Also used in composite words, as fu— xu, food. 

ubbu, V. to break off. SI. (LI.) xubbii. Ex.: hi se-g |ne ||ko xubbu ! kurj ||e they (flowers) will dry- 
ing break off and go away (blown by the wind). 

u-de, interrog. when ? SI. (LI.) 5u-dde. Ex.: !ka!kdrro we, xu-de xa a:, r) eafr) |ni ha: a: ? — o moon 
when shall I get food ? 

ui, n. grinding stone. SII. (D.B.) 

am, n. ground, sand, dust. [Na. xora, to dust.] NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a fkobbi, re o ~!khi, si hi |uJxuin 

(he) is buried, for is dead, they put him in the ground. CII. (Schi.) (D.B.) xumj. Ex.: a ko tj&ja 
xabba/ kwe fga, a ko ||kako xabba/a, a ko !ku: /i xum/ kwe — (he) water into the thing- pours, cleans 

the thing, and rubs it with sand. ! gu/a i, hid5i xum/ kwe t/au ! noxo a fence it is, sticks into 

the ground digging place. Clla. (Pa.) chum, sand. Cla. (Pa.) chum, boundary. Cllb. (Wil.) xum. 

'um, n. arm. NIa. (Leb. : ch. sp. x'um. 

M-fo, n. a certain beetle, flat and hairy. NI. (D.B.) 

tur|~xur), V. to melt. SI. (LI.) iuhxufi. 

iO, without. CII. (Schi.) 

ip, imitation of sound used in the phrase kill xup, to make bang, hit. SI. (LI.) fiipp. Ex.: ha | ne ! kauka 
|nti:, ha |ne kill xup, i: she beat the head, she hit it. 

irim, n. a drunk person. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: a xurim ||kamma, kam khana ko |k6 ti — am like a drunk person, 
when dagga have smoked. 

irri, n. snail, s. xoxori, hohori. Nil. (LI.) xurri, pi. xuiurri. Ex.: xurri, xurri sa, xuxurri "fkhi — 
a snail, two snails, many snails. 

iru, n. gunpowder, s. xorun. INa. xurub.]SI. (B. ) furu. (LI.) xuru. Ex.: bure-ka ~xuru ka |ku-g | ne Ijgwi, 
hir| tau kwukwurri the Boers' powder becomes exhausted, that and the balls. 

iru: n. powderDox. Nil. (Wil.) xdrS. 

irukan, v. to rattle as brass rings on a brass hook. SI. (LI.) iuruken. 

iruxuru, v. to ruo. SI. (LI.) xuruxuru. Ex.: hag |na |a i Ahi te au ! ku ko: !kaxu, hag k\Ii flcup au 9ho 

0pwa, hag ! kan tu: ha,, hag xuruxuru ||koe te au |a(a he cut across the other's chest, he set fire to 

a little piece of wood, he holding put it out, he ruDbed it (the burnt powder) into the cuts. 

:uru~xuru, v. to make a rustling noise (as dry leaves), s. xauxauru. Nil. (LI.) iuruxuru. 





xuini xu ru, n. crane. Sllb. (Mh. ) xu+ru+xu' ru' . 

xuttsn, V. to fall off, shake out. SI. (B. ) xiitten. Ex.: ! kaoka-g |ne korre xuttan Hkoe !khe !khwa: — 
the stones cooling fell off into the water. (LI.) xutten, xhiitten. Ex.: |hu|hu hal | ne kiii, |kaggan 

|xutt8n~||ho, ta: ! khum s*?© |e ! khe ~||ho the baboons said, the Mantis should shake out the bag, 

for the ball seemed to be in the bag. hiq |ne xuttsn ||kau: ! ho ! kauoksn they shake out the stone 

upon (them) . 

x'^uim, old. NIa. (Leb. ) ch. sp. x'uwia. 

xuxu, n. surface, s. xu, face. SI. (LI.) xvi-fu. Ex.: hiri | ne fke: , kui ta !kwi: !kwS xuxu — they pull 
tight the drum' s surface. 

xu-|kwaf, n. look, appearance, s. xu, face. SI. (LI.) xu-|kua. Ex.: hi xu-|kwal ||khoa ti e !kwai; 
their look is the same. 


xAm, xAma, n. cow. [Na. qamas."] SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ts'^au XAina — milk the cow. xAma ||a ! ka, ha k"a, 

the cow goes to the water, she drinks^. NI. (U.B. ) Ex.: xadi tsa ku ~tsi two cows come. xAm 

tsema tsa ku ~tsi---_ two calves come. CII. (D.B.) xAjnjTa. Ex.: xAm/ara |kam/era, xAip/a ~|kwi ko ! nu k 
~te: , xAm/a | e/a ko ~^nu two cows, one cow stands by the house, the other cow lies down. 

xwa:, V. to write, s. xoa. [Na. xoa.J SII. (D.B.) Ex.: misis xwa: Missis writes. li 

xwa:, V. to fall. SI. (LI.) ii^^. Ex.: xwa: ||khoe sir) |i fall into the fire. 

xwa, V. to rub in. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tumba ~ba ki ||kole me |ko, a |kum, a to~a gu _||gova a ||ehg, ki xwa 
||e Tumba' s father marked my forehead, cut, took leaves and grasses, rubbed in grass. 

llE "xwain, v. to sling on, carry on the back (fastened by a strap put over the head and tied on each side 

"" of the neck). SI. (B. ) fwitin. Ex.: ||kaxai ~|ke: Jo, ha se xwain ti !k'?wa: ||k" oe elder sister si 

ting yonder, she shall sling on the hartebeest's back. (LI.) l;hwdin, xwain, xuain. Ex.: ! kwaq xwain 

|ri Ik'^wa: |na: the child slung on the hartebeest's head, ha a: se xwai:n ©hoksn she is the one 

l||t who shall carry wood, ha | ne "xwain ti Ike sa Ghokan au ||neir) he slung on and brought wood to th 

118 house. 

Illl xwaiitsn, before long, soon. SI. (LI.) 5watten, 5:uSiten. Ex.: |hu: tuko ||kwafr) dofa |xa: a, he tiksn e: 

ti tar) ha xwai:tsn |ku:ka a Boer had really shot him, that was why it seemed he should before lo 

die. hi se ! kwatrrita ke !hou: e: r) kag xwai:tan a hi — they will pound for me locusts, which I wi 
soon eat. 

.4 xwarrraksn, xwa: frraki, n. spring, water pit, s. xhwarra. SI. (LI.) xwarraken, ^|rraki. Ex.: !kwi-|a 
1 ha:f oaf |e:ja xwa:rraksn — a girl once fell into a spring, o ha ||a: ||erri:ja o xwa: Irraki, har) 
|ku-g |ne ||koaksn di: ! ga: when she went to wash herself at the spring, she became a frog. 

"xwattsn, V. to break, pluck out (?). SI. (LI.) xuatten. Ex.: q |hir) a: |na: ts'^i, ! k?6a ~||kau: ||kho & 
|i:, r) |ne ^xwattsn, i:, au r) |ku ka, r) 1 k"wai&nja --- I came out of the back of her head, tramplin 
upon her heart, I broke it, because I felt I was angry. 

xwe, xwoi, V. to throw out earth, dig out, s. xoe. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ba^s o~guwa k"o, o xwe a — master 

digs the earth, throws it out. tau a noxoba xwoi ka dig and then throw it out. Nil. (LI.) xye. 

Ex.: e Inwerre e ti xwe ||gu (in) our country we dig out water. 

_xwe, xwoi, good, well. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: kee ! wara tia xwoi — that girl is not good. 

~xwei, n. liquor. Nil. (LI.) iuSi. 

xweitsn, v. to kick. SI. (B. ) xw^iten. Ex.: hag |ne 8u:ksn |e: |i, hag |ne xweitan |ki |i she spran 

into the fire, she kicked off the fire. 

xwhai:ta, xwha:itsn'?i, v. to eat (fat). SI. (LI.) fwhSita, ^hSiten-i. Ex.: Ik-^e sig | ne xwhai:t8n'?t 
!khau:-ka sweg, au hi tatti e:, hi |ku-g |ne ||gaua ! k-^an --- the people did eat the honey's fat, whi 
they felt that they were sitting in the shade, hi se xwhai : ta fxom eg, au hi tatti e:, hi xwhai:tan'? 
sweg e: !kwa: --- they will eating (fat) devour the meat, for they feel that they are eating fat whi 
is cold. 

xwi, V. to jump. SIIc. (D.B.) 


i, V. to be brown, blue. SV. (D.B. ) a ka xwi it is blue. 

i:ke, v. to cough. NI. (D.B.) 

■o:na, n. stick. SIII. (D.B.) 

■up'^'p, V. to crush. SI. (LI.) xwup(p). Ex.: ||neir) ko: , hal |ku ku ! xwap'^p au ti e ~||kou, ha |ku ku 

xwup'^p au ! k'^'e another house broke in the upper part, it came crushing down on the (skulls of the) 

people. ■ 

The alveolar voiced fricative occurs occasionally in Bushman languages as initial sound, or 
fter d. as dz. Its use is more frequent in the Northern and Central Languages than in the Southern ones. 

la, V. to pour, fill, s. /a. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |ki~kei ~uwa, ! gwa ka "tei, ka za ~! gu — |ki kei has gone, 

at night will come and fill in water. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: |xwe ti za k"0 kwe ||gu | xwe was pouring 

veater into his pot. 

a:, V. to pick up, untie. Nil. (Wil.) za. 

a, n. a certain tree with edible fruit. Nil. (LI.) 

af^ num. two, unusual form of sa. Nil. (LI.) za. Ex.: ha dzau: zaf sir] ha — his two wives saw him. 


lahe, n. rib. CI. (Do.) 

'aiko, n. the south. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: se tassa ma:ku zaiko — will buy pots (in) the south, hana a 
t/i:kine zaiko ni there he worked in the south. 

ikanit/ipi, middle-aged people. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ubii hana ota zakanit/ipi we others are middle- 
aged people. 

tq, V. to assent. Nil. (LI.) zKn. Ex.: d3u tanki ~fkhi ti aa'^i, jhwija, ta d3u |ne~e ti zSg, ta kwe, 
r):" many other people hear displeased, but one person assents and says " yes". 

tr)> n. dung. Nil. (Wil.) zSn. 

ar), n. marsh biting fly. Nil. (Dk.) z4r). 

r), n. lizard. Nil. (Wil.) zaii. 

0, n. the front of a house. CI. (Do.) 

!ra, V. to select, s. zaro. CI. (Do.) 

''VO, V. to clean corn, s. zara. CI. (Do. i 

2siq, n. little sister, usually sasir). Nil. (LI.) zd-ssin. Ex.: |kiia e ||go, ta 9 zau-ma, ta kwe, "we 

m ||kwi", ta ha ti saa, ta kwe, " me zasir)" it was not a boy, but was a little girl, and exclaimed 

come my elder sister", and she heard, and exclaimed, " my little sister". 

i) n. woman, wife, s. dzau, "zshau. Nil. (LI.) z^u, pi. zdu-ssiA. dim. zau-ma, little girl. Ex.: zau 
ba I ge gu zau the wife's father came to seize the wife, zau-me ti e sasig, ta ||goo-nia ti e e sii) 



a little girl is our younger sister, and a little boy is our younger brother, zausiq tg®j* I 

old women. I 

_ ^i, I 

za u, n. calf. Nil. (LI.) zau. ' 

za~u, n. a certain grass. Nil. (LI.) zi,\l. i 

zau, n. a certain tree. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ha ! kauwa |e, ta \\it^, !kar) e zau ti ||ir| ha ! gu he fell dovm 

and was pierced, a ... tree (stick) pierced his stomach. 

zau, n. an evil omen. CI. (Do.) 

_ze, V. to fly. SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.: |huu ti ka _ze, _ze,^ze — the Kafir fink flies, flies, flies. 

~ze, ze: , new. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U o | gore ! nwi ma ~ze — people pray to the little new moon. Nil. {Tk.- 
ze: . 

zebbizebbi, n. dragonfly, antlion. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: zebbizebbi ~ku ko the dragonfly flies. 

zedela, v. separate. CI. (Do.) 

zekhaa, v. to uncover. CI. (Do.) 

zera, n. bird. CI. (Do.) Ex.: zera fkam — bird's beak. 

zeremani, n. Germans. CIII. (D.B.) i 

^ ze t/waro, v. to separate, s. zedela. CI. (Do.) ze chwaro . 

,l( zi:, V. to laugh, s. si:. Nil. (Wil.) zt. ' 

zhft, V. to call, s. zor). Nil. (Dk.) zhu. 
zigwadsi, n. brothers. CIII. (D.B.) 

' I 

■1 zirigiri, n. English. CIII. (D.B.) 


zio, n. foolishness, zit/o, fool. CI. tDo.) zicho. 


Il zizize, n. mosquito. CI. (Do.) 

'I zo, n. bee. Nil. (Dk.) (LI.) z6. Ex.: |xwe e zo, ta |uwa "Ikar), ta d3u sir) zo, ta o d&i., ta ku ~u zo -■ 
!| I xwe was a bee and went into a tree, and people saw the bee, and rubbed fire, and smoked out the bei 
t zo ~t/um, zo t/umsir) honey bee, honey bees. 

zotar), n. lung. Nil. (Wil.) zSSfi. 

zokoza, V. to rinse out. CI. (Do.) 

zor), V. to call, zogzor), n. a call, s. dzor). Nil. (LI) zon, zOiizon. Ex.: |xwe sau, ta ti zoq ha ba, it 

zogzog |nu |ne ||a, ta "fka, ta ha ba sa ha |xwe arose and called his father, and the call was Id 

and far, and his father heard him. 

zo:r), n. lip. Nil. (Dk.) 

zore:, n. tobacco, s. /ore. Cllb. (Wil.) z5r5. 

zozosi, n. bands of leather worn below the knee. NI. (D.B.) 

zshau:, n. wife, s. zau, dzau. Nil. (Dk.) £sh^. 

zu:, n. wasp, wild bee, honey of same, s. zo. SI. (LI.) zz\I. Ex.: sa:gsn a: |kaggsn ha: f oa a a: zu:, 

tiksn e:, ha |hoaka, i: the eland is one to whom the Mantis once gave of wasp's honey, this is 

he is black. 

_zu:m, V. to smile. Nil. (Dk.) zv:m. 


zuini, n. string. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ||nau z\imi — bow string. 

6 _ 

ziiru:, n. smoke. Nil. (Wil.) zuru 

"Die voiced prepalatal fricative occurs occasionally in Bushman languages, chiefly in Northern 
jnes. It is always either the initial sound, or follows d, as dg. 

In " An Outline of the Phonetics of the Language of the Ch\J: Bushmen of the North-West Kalahari' 
3n p. 140, Doke compares the 3 ^^ ' ^'^ to the sound heard in the English word treasure. 

5a, V. part. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n 5a ||kolle ||nollo I have collected dung. 

5a:, good, nice, beautiful, s. dga. Nil. (Dk.) 


jaMlika, v. to tear, be torn. SV. (D.B.) Ex.': laa ke baki e kai galllika this man's jacket is torn. 

5am, thin. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: e gafm, ~|ka m is thin, has not eaten. Nil. (Dk.) 3am. (Li.) zsharmn. 

jar), V. to be fat. Nil. (LI.) zshan. Ex.: ha ti 3ar) — it is fat. 


jani, n. chin. SV. (D.B. ) 

kau, n. point. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ||ka: I ka 3au — the stick's point. 


[&m&, n. buUroarer. NI. (D.B.) 

;e, n. stone, s. gu: . SIII. (D.B.) 

;3''au, clear, pure. Nil. (Dk.) 33'?au. 

;i, n. nuts, s. dgi. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: m toa 31 ka ! gum t/i I finish the nuts before winter comes. 

)iq, lying. Nil. (LI.) zhin. Ex.: e-sir) si e kwa girj we (Bushmen) are those who fear lying. 

10, n. bee, honey, also used for sugar, s. zo, zu. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U a gu 30, ka /e ka ~tsi tane hi --- 
people get honey, and come home carrying it. 

30, black, dark, s. d30. NI. (D.B.) "30:. Nil. (LI.) zh6. 

O'-e, n. cave, hole in the ground. SVI. (D.B.) 

l.3Si^ V. to fly away, s. _ze, _3U. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: /iOpwa a _36if --- the fly flies away. 

;o:tke, V. to beat with the fist. SV. (D.B. ) . 

or), V. to blow, s. zor), 3ur). Nil. (LI.) zh6A. Ex.: ha ti 30r) |ou ! khu --- he blew a buck's horn. 

,u:, V. to spring, hop, fly, s. _36il. SI. (LI.) jif, (as French j). Ex.: ha |ku ||nau:, o ha: fAhiinnigja 

ha xoaksngu, ha |ku dia jhir] o gu: she did this, when she had snapped her fingers at her parents, 

she went springing away on one foot and the other. SV. (U.B. ) Ex.: e a 3U:, j'igwa:ni --- they fly, the 
wild doves. 





~3U, n. beetle. SI. (LI.) jll, emph. juk^n. (pronounce the j as in French jouer). Ex.: ~3U ha fkweti : fnj£|[ 

kerre ! khe sa |k"£i-ka ti e the beetle was keeping along this part of the riverbed, he e:, hi hadl 

|ne |ouwi~2uksn sa: then they saw the beetle coming. In Museum, zshil, Ateuchus , and Cetonia. i 

3u:, n. stone, s. 36. SIII. (D. B. ) , 

3U, n. person, people, s. d3U. NI. ( D. B. ) Ex.: 3U o ~tsi a person is laughing. 3usa ~fkhid3i ! ke 

|hAm ||a ko ha many people are living there and come. 3U~|nwa ~|kwa m | gora a Bushman does nc 

eat a baboon. 3U~|nwasi fkhi many Bushmen. 3usa k"ai magicians. Nil. (LI.) zhu, pi. zhu-seifj 

NIII (D. B. ) Ex.: 3U a _!kuma a person is playing. ! 

3uin, V. to come out, s. 3U:, to spring. NI. (D. B. ) Ex.: ma ku ||k"am ! ku, ma ku gu -tsia !n'?ai, he ku 3111! 

I dig out ants, I make a big hole, they come out. j 

3umamku, n. plant, Corchorus aspleni folius , Burch. NI.& CII. (D.B. ) j 

3um~m, V. to be hard, tough. Nil. (LI.) juiM. Ex.: ! nabba |n6asiq 3um"m, the skin of the white rhi- 
noceros is hard. ! num !kar), ta 3um~m, ta "denne a stone is strong, and tough, and hard. 

3ur|, V. to blow, s. 30r). Nil. (LI.) zhun. Ex.: fS. ti 3urj tam ! gwasir) the wind blows down the leavejj 

3U3U, n. hawk. NI. (D.B.) 

3wa3wa, n. flies, s. dzwftdzwa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: !na: ~m /i, ko ~m 3wa3wa — the Mantis eats them, eats 

3wel, V. to fly away, s. _36if. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea tabe a kakadje, si 3we& — he tried to shoot it 
(bird), it flew away. 

^ _3xani, v. to spring, dance, s.,t/xani. Nil. (Dk.) xxani, 

CI --'■^ 



This sign denotes the dental click. Of its formation Doke writes in " An Outline of the Pho- 
netics of the Language of the Chy: Bushmen of North- West Kalahari" on p. 145 • " Tongue- tip pressed a- 

gainst the upper front teeth back of tongue raised to touch velum and sides of tongue raised to 

upper gum- ridge, leaving a small space between top of tongue and centre of palate in which the air be- 
comes rarified on slight depression of centre of tongue" . 

The release of the tongue makes the click. For this click the release is gentle, making almo 
a sucking sound. The click is like the Zulu click written c, and the English sound written ' tut tut'. 

This click may be used before vowels and h^ often with a glottal stop. It is most frequently 
found before k, k", x, g. It is also used with nasals, the click and nasal being pronounced together, I 
but for convenience in writing the click is placed first. In all other sound combinations the click is 
uttered and heard first. 

Meinhof uses the sign | to stand for |k unless followed by the glottal stop, when it denotesi 
I alone. 

Doke in the above mentioned work on the ! ku language uses 1 as |k before vowels and h, as]* 
for |ka:m, sun,;] ha for |kha, to kindle. 1 stands /or the click alone followed by the glottal stop be- 
fore a vowel or h, as t'^u: for ^u:, to be tired, I'^hum for Phum, good. |k" he writes ^kx. |g he wri ,8 
-5-, as in -g-u: for | gu : , night, -j-s'^a for | ga'^a, eye. |n he writes i\, as in r|u: for |nu:, bowl, Q,: for; 
|r):, to sit, rjha for |nha, antbear. j 



In his work on the fkhomani language Doke uses the symbols in the ordinary way. 
Passarge uses the numeral 1 to denote the dental click. 

Lichtenstein also uses the numerall preceded by t' to denote this click. 
Wuras uses the symbol A for this click. 

:, |a, V. to fight, die, be killed, n. fight, harm, curse. SI. (B. ) |a, emph. |aken, pi. |^|aken. Ex • 
ha-g |ne fi:, ti e:, q ||koa da: |a: --- he thinks that I seem to have fought, r] [a: --- I die" i ta 
!haul 1 |ka:g9n, au hig k"auki i|kou ||koa hi |a:, au i fgou s^e !hau^ ||a--- we visit our fellows, whil 
they do not put upon us the fight, if we quietly go visiting. ! kwi -|ke: s^a, ha di |a a: a, ha'|ki 
s'?a |a:-ga twitwitan--- the man coming yonder, he made this fight, he brought fighting wounds. |a:kan 
|ku a:-g |ne ||kau sir) ha --- the fight is th^t which fell upon him. hi ||ko||ko |a|ak8n --- they made 
fights. (B. early) |aa, be dead. (LI.) | a, |^. Ex.: ha ha^ k"auki fi, ti e:, ~||nei||nei se |khara, hari 
llxAfflki k"auki :t:i, ti e:, Ik-^e se |a: ! khe --- she did not think that the houses would break i-n pieces, 
she also did not think that the people would be killed, rj |ku do^a ||ki:, ti dola | ku tag, |a: e, ha sa: 
|ku-g-!nwiri --- I was suspicious, it seemed as if harm (it) were that was coming to the'lynx. 
|ku-g-!nwir)jar| hal |ne ||xAmki kui, "-|a, a ||na||na, a di |kukante a taHtalija ||khoe tirj ||ga:" --- the 
lynx also said, "curse you there, you become an anteater that walks about in the night". SII. (D.B. ) 

Ex.: n xeinki ba |a: my mother is dead, ha |a: tirru |kia Gpwaiki he kills a sheep to have 

meat. Slla. (Dk.) | *?a. (Mg.) |a. Sllb. (Mh.) | 'a, to die. SIIc. (D.B. ) Ex.: i an |a turj --- they are 
all dead. Slle. (An.) \8, to die. |a, to kill. Ex.: e |a: — he is dying. ||ka:xe, n |a: — sister, I 
am dying, xu |a e---I want to kill it. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: han |a:--- he is dead. SIV. (D.B.) |a. E:^. : 

khora |e kie |a Khora is dead. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ea |a it is dead. |a: ku ~||num u they two are 

dead. gla:se ja |a--- the glass is broken SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: e |a:--- he is dead. SVIa. (Kr. ) Ex.: n ||ga 

harj |a my brother is dead. NI. (D.B.) ~|a, play the war game, play fighting. Ex.: 3u | ni re o Ikara, 

~|a |ni people sit opposite each other, sit playing the war game. 

a, IS:, |a, v. to cut, cut up, be cut, s. |i:. SI. (B. ) \&, \t,, \A. Ex.: |kwa:f se ||a: |a to:i — [k_wa 

should go to cut up the ostrich, i o:a ||kwar) k"oa: |a:, ||o:ir) ||kwar) a: |S: i o:a our father has 

been cut, the sun was the one who cut our father. Xj ||kwar) | ku |a ba:ja hi I have finished cutting 

it. (LI.) |a, |i!, 1^1^, |a|a. Ex.: harj |ne |ki |hir) ! gwarra 0pwa, hag |ne |a |Ahi te au ! ku ko: !ka:xu 

— he took out an arrowhead, he cut across the other's chest, mama ||kwag ka, a he a: ! gwarra, o mama: 

ka, he: se |a he a: ts'^a a: hs: |na: ha mama had now given a knife to them, for mama wished that 

they might cut up for themselves the thing which they got. ! k'^e se |ne |a|a | kum !khau:-ka ku: — the 

people will be cutting off all the honey. |a[a-ka xoro an ox for slaughter. SIV. (D.B.) ^a, ~|a 

ho, cut, tattoo. Ex.: a si |wara, a |ga:kei ti ~|a ho thou art a girl, thy granny cuts thee. | kuri 

!ge:xa a kuru, ki kun pa owa ki te "usi the cut on the forehead a sorcerer makes, cuts a boy who 

is big. 

|a, V. to see, find. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) |a |ne: xama I cannot find the cow. Slla. (Mg.) to see. 

., |a:, v., to burn. n. fire. Slle. (And.) |S. Ex.: e |a: --- it burns. SV. (D.B.) \1: , |a, fire. Ex.: 

|a !k'?a: ti a the fire is very far away, ja ||ka ||k"abba |a he is bringing fire, ea t/u: ga |a 

he sits by the fire. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: |a na ijka the fire burns, toa |a make a fire. 

<,' V. to set, fall, stick in, s. | ai . SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: Igein |ks se |a, se fkouke when the sun sets, 

(the wagon) will arrive. |e |a toa it falls down, na ko |a sija Gpwoa I stick in the branches. 

i, V. to eat, n. food, s. a. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: \& |ka: eat grass, ja ga |a kohum he eats beans. 

/ia [a: kwi ga \S, we are hungry for food. 

^} |a, V. to give, s. |abbe. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: ju o |kabbe ka, a | kwa |a 3U5U --^ people are hungry, (she) 

does not give to the people. |a:, na mihi m give that I eat. Nil. (V.) \E. (Dk.) j'?a:'. (LI.) \d, 

|a, 1^. Ex. : ta ha Am tsxSr), ta |a ha zau kwe tsxag |ne and he ate the lizard, and gave to his 

wife the lizard's head, goba ti ~|S ! ku k"0 the Makoba give the Bushmen pots. |xwe zau ~|a ha 

• kao kwe ~||gu |xwe's wife gave her husband water. 

^•> |a:, V. to be long, big, old. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha !ku |a: his neck is long (ostrich). ||ga [a: 

the night is long. Sllb. (Mh. ) | -a, long. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha kwe la |a: --- that man is big. NI. 
(D.B.) Ex.: ! ni |ka tsema, |a: si, "keise |a: — the eland is not small, is big, very i>ig. mihi |a 

— I am the eldest. |no:wa |a: ma a long root. 

h fern, ending, prob. part of |aiti. SI. (B. ) ! k^i | a, girl. Ex.: ||kaxai ~|ke: Jo, ha se xwain ti !k'^wa 
||k"oe, ha a: ! kwi ja !kerri elder sister yonder sitting, she shall carry the hartebeest' s back, 




she who is a big girl. SII. (D.B. ) ||ke |a, girl, pi. ||ke:n |a:gsn. ||koe:n |a:, old woman. Ex.: ||ke 

|a ha !ke so ! '''siu the girl she sits on the ground. ||koe:n |a |ka ! ohe; the old woman she has 

a^digging- stick. Slla. (Mg. ) ||kai | "^a, girl, | '?a'^a, servant girl, s. |ha, |ka .Ex.: ||kai pakjakwa 
he'^e girl .... say, " no." ^a'^a "^n fkaua servant girl I (shall) obtain. 

a, n. blood, s. |ao, |ou. NIa. (Leb. ) m sp. |a. 

a, |a:, n. arm, hand, s. |aa, |k"a. SIV.b. (St.; Ex.: n |a, my arm. SVIa. (Kr. ) |a, hand. 

a:, n. river. SVIa. (Kr. ) [a. 

a:, n. sky. Nil. (V.) |a. (Wil.) |a. |a, cloud, wind. 

a:, n. Delalande's fox, s. |la:. Qlb. (Wil.) |a. 

a wet. CII.(Schi.) 

aa, n. finger, hand, s. |S, |k"a. SI. (Lich.) t'^aa. 

aa^ jaSa, n. mouth, tongue. SIVa. (D.B.) 

aaki, n. crow. SI. (Lich.) t'laaki. | 

a:ba, n. hat. SIVb. (St.) 

abbdrksn, v. to bake. SI. (LI.) |S,bbak§n. Ex.: hi se labbdifkan eg au ! kauokan e: ta ji — they will 
bake the meat on stones which are hot. 

abbe, v. to give, bring, s. |a, to give. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mad3wigki /i ||kai /ipele, misisi Ji ti |abbe 
Mad3wir|ki has no pin. Missis gives it to him. |abbe jnwele /i tu (I) bring a stone to you. 

abbitau, v. to pull. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: gome |abbitau |ki koloi the oxen are pulling the wagon. 

abbu, n. cartridge case, s. !abu. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: a |ke: J*ori |ko jabbu — he smokes tobacco in a car-i 
tridge case. 

abe, how do you do ? SI. (Lich.) t'^abeh. ! 

a-hab, n. Kalahari tree- dormouse. NI. & QI. (Sh. ) 

ai, V. to fall, s. |a. CII. (Schi.) |ai. 

ai:, n. fire, s. |a, |i. CII. (Schi.) |ai. 

ai, n. foot, leg, s. |xai. Nil. (Dk.) :j'?ai, foot. NIII. (D.B.) |ai, leg. 

a~i, ugly. ai. (Schi.) 

ai, n. mother, s. tai. Nil. (Wil.) 

aiki, |aikje, n. woman, female, used also as left, s. |a, |aiti, |gaiki. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: |aiki e ||r) a 

who is that woman ? Slla. (Mg.) ^aice, Paici, 1*^6101. Ex.: ! kai I'aikje — female gemsbok. 

|kx'!*a Paikje — left hand, tjua u: gka paikji listen you speak woman. 

jaifn, V. to breathe in a laboured manner. SI. (LI.) |ain. i 


|ai:ti, |aitji, n. female, woman, wife, s. |a, |a:ti, |aiki. SI. (B. ) |aiti, |aitye, l^ityi, emph., 

jattikfii. Ex.: ! gwaii gwaitsn ^kakka |a:iti — the male hyena talked to the female. |kaue !ai:tje --,' 
female leopard. ! kwi jaitji — woman. |ai:tiksn ^i: ta: au ti e:, ha sar) llk"oen ||gau:e |xAru — thj 
female (hyena) lies thinking of the place where she will look seeking wild dogs. (LI.) |aiti, emph. 
jSitik^n. Ex.: ha |k\i !nau:nko e toi |kafo, hag |har| toi |ai:ti — he is still a youthful male os- 
trich, he marries a female ostrich. |ai:tikan |ne te:n the wife lies down. (Lich.) t'^aiti, wo- 
man, girl. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: k"e: |aiti — female ostrich. : 

|tfi|ait9n, v. to descend, s. |a. SI. (B. ) |di|aitfn. Ex.: koro |ku sutkan t/a: ||nair|, korokan |ku-g |nej 
|ii|aitan kau !u:xe: the jackal sprang out of the house, the jackal did descending run. j 


"^aka, angry. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: ! hamku kja | "^aka — ! hamku is angry. 

f& kho, to put poison on. Sllb. (Mh. ) | 'a kho. 

akwa, |akwi ^ n. gullet. CIII. (D.B. ) Ex.: kweto seme^ manako kutiku k"u han |akwi nina — when (he) 
ate, meat stuck in his gullet. 

'?a:kwe, n. gift, s. |a, |a, to give. Nil. (Dk.) q'?a:kwe. 

am, on, s. I gam, on, jama, top. CII. (Pa.) ^am. 

ama, v. to pass. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: m 0pwon kie |ama, ha |aruwa — my son is passing, he returns. 

ama, n. top, s. jam. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |ama ka JJoanksn |k"au||en !nu: — the top of the hills is Auen 

ama, n. fish. QII. (D.B.) Ex.: seme jako ||k"at/'?oko a |ama — its food (is) frogs and fish. 

amama, n. cobra. NI. (D.B.) 

ame, |ami, n., baboon. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ame a |ne kolui the baboon has seen the wagon, /i ||kaba |ne 

I ami, I ami ka fhabi tju we yesterday saw a baboon, the baboon on a tree sat. 

amma, v. to drink by stirring up Ein egg or honey with a brush and sucking the brush. SI. (B. ) |^mma.Ex.: 
|ha a: ka |kammir) |ki si to:i-ta luitan, u-g |ne arro:ko |amma: — husband is one who carrying 
brings us ostrich eggs, you quickly stir up and drink, u-ka ku:wa se-g | ne |amma|amma |e: tir) | hurru 

you all may stirring and drinking sit in the hole. (LI.) |ammS.. Ex.: ! k'^e se-g | ne |amma ||gaua 

sir], au !khau: ||ki the people shall drink sitting in the shade of honey liquid. 

amma, n. fibre outside root. SI. (LI.) |amma. 

amma, n. a sort of buchu. CII. (D.B.) 

an, n. wife, s. |ha. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: mad5wir|ki |an MadSwinki's wife. 

a:na, v. to marry, s. |hag. SIII. (D.B.) Ex.: n |a:na — I have married. 

anaba, v. to roast. Slle. (An.) 

'''anansi, n. tongue, s. |a:ni, |eni |na:n. Sllb. (Mh. ) | 'a na n-si . 

a:ni, n. tongue, s. |eni, |na:n. SVI. (D.B.) 

anja, v. to stop. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: i ga |anja kog kwe we stopped at Kong. 

anna, |anni, n. food, s. an, ag. SV. (D.B. ^ Ex.: ea ga jhiitsi ||na ga |anna — she is stirring the food. 
|anni i Ji, misis |ke ga a food will come. Missis will eat. 

ao, n. blood, s. |a, |ou. NIa. (Leb.) |sro. w. 


''ape, n. paauw. | "^ape ["^ape, a game played by girls, akin to 'oranges and lemons', said to be of Hotten- 
tot origin. Slla. (Ki.) (Dk.) Ex.: ^ape | ''ape ! kubus kej'e ! kwi paauw, paauw, the egg goes smash 

(words sung in the game). 

ara, n. ravine, kloof. SI. (LI.) pi. larajdra, |dtt§n|dttfn. 

are, a little. Cll. (Schi.) 

are |noa | goa, n. serval cat. (?) CII. (Sh.) 

ari, n. tongue, s. |a:ni, |eni. SIV. (D.B.) 

aPo, n. eyebrow. CII. (D.B.) pi. |afo3i. 

''aror), v. to put aside. Sllb. (Mh. ) | 'aron. 

arri, o. to put to heat. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: hwitib ~u, a ~tsi, a gu ka tanika, arri daa ---Hwitib gets up, 







comes, takes the teapot, puts it to heat at the fire, 
arri^ n. plant, Lycium viscutum, Daral . NI. & CII. (D.B. ) 
arriba^ n. stick, shaft. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |asib |arriba kuru 

asib a stick is cutting. 

'|arro, v. to strike (?) as lightning. SI. (LI.) |^rro. Ex.: ha ka |ku ~|arro i, au i k"auki :j:enna, ha ' 
ka |ku ~|arro i, au Ikhweitan a: |hoaka, ha i k"auki |ni ti sa ha — it (rain) will strike (?) us, 
when we do not know, it will strike us when the place is black, when we do not see it come. 

asa, new. CII. (Schi.) 

asi, V. to put in, s. |a. SIV. (D.B.) 

asi, big, long, tall, s. |a:, |a:. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | unu a ||kwasi, | oribe e |asi — |unu is short, 
joribe is tall. ~! kAn ti |asi the path is long. ! ke tari |asi that person is big. 

a:ti, n. woman, female, s. |a:, |ai:ti, |atti. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: ||k'?u tu |a:ti 
|a:ti a female ostrich. Slle. (An.) |a/-ti, friendly, (?) female. 

a Bushman woman, toe 

atta, |atta:, therefore. SI. (B. ) |^tta, |dtta. Ex.: ha |ku ka, ha ||oak9n |ka ^, |atta ha: |ku-g |ne | 
su:ksnsu:k9n !kui, ha |ku-g |ne laukanlaukan |ki: q |na: — ^it wished that it should quite kill me, j 
therefore it jumped up, it did beating hurt my head. (LI.) |^ttS. Ex.: r) | ne ||a: fkakkan ||na|lna, toi 
a: te:nte:n ti fkakksn ha-ka ||neir|, |atta:, ha k"auki |ne ! kuxe u ||a: — I went to talk there with 
an ostrich, which lying talks at its home, therefore it did not run away. 

atta:, that is so. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: 9pwa:ni ba |kAn |nahAr) ? |atta: 
is so. . ' 

the children are playing ? thai 

atti, n. girl, s. |a, |ai:ti, |a:ti. SI. (LI.) Ex.: i |xAmki _nau, ! khwa |atti 0pwa, i da i ! kauki Gpwjij 
a: we also do this to a little girl, we make our sister-in-law (wife's younger sister) of her. 


au:, ~|au:, v. to talk. SI. (LI.) |au, |au. Ex.: he si ||a: he ||neir), !:■, he si ~|au: ||na||na i:, o 

||k"e:-ka ti Opwa --- and we went home, and we talked there for a little while. |hu | hu ha:f ||kwafr| {|i 

he^o |hu|hu:k8n ka, |hu|hu se |ne ||a |au: hi he the baboon went to them, for the baboon thought 

the baboon would go and talk with them. 

au, V. to refuse. CII. (Schi.) 1 

au, V. to slice, s. |a. SIV. (D.B.) I i 

au:, V. to drive away, go away. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: kapurte a ba "/i, ha |au: the goats come, he drive;! 

them away, wa |au: /i /a they go away. i 

au, V. to bleed, s. |auj*a. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: misis-ti ||kei/ k"ekwe walrriba ko |au — on Missis' book tt 
lizard bleeds. 


au, |aui, |auwi, v. to espy, find, perceive, see. SI. (B. ) |au, |4ui. Ex.: [kaggan I'^hir) au !k"o, ha j 

|au |k"0 txoa 0wa the Mantis came out of the hole, he found the elephant calf, ha | aui fxoa-ka j 

!kwair| ! nwa — he espied the elephant troop's spoor. (LI.) |auwi. Ex.: he fxoa |auwi ha, t: , au j 

!khai |hir| sa: and the elephant perceived him, as he came over (the hill- top). (Lich. ) t'^au, I 

t'^aua.Ex.: tire xa siq |aua where have you seen it ? a xa sig |au fkaiti ? --- have you seen gai| 

au, |auo, V. to be dead, s. ~|a. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: Ika-lgai e |au 
!nOrike is dead. 

the snake is dead. ! norike tsi |ai 

au, n. man, male. Slid. (Wu.) /ish. Ex.: ! gSin a jeiu 

lale lion. 

au, |aub, n. duiker buck, s. |ou. NI. & Nil. (Sh.) |aub. Nil. (Dk.) :)'?au (Wil.) |au. (LI.) |au, usuall 
|ou. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ! kum a ~gu |au the leopard catches a duiker. 

au, n. night adder. Nil. (Dk.) I'^au. 

au, old dirty. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |au tji-\\a. --- old kaross. Nil. (Dk.) T'^au:, dirty. 

au, |auo, n. language of the | auni tribe. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | hurabe ti ta "haija |au, "haije fkomaka -- 
jhurabe does not speak the | auni language, speaks the fkomani language. 


aua, |auwa, v. to give, show, doctor, s. |a, |a, |abbe. SI (LI.) |aua, |auwa. Ex.: |hu|hukan hat ka, 

" |ne [aua r) ||k"en ! khwum" the baboon said, "give my companion the ball" . wai gwai haf | ne ||ar| 

kili^ " |auwa ki ! khwa, ! khwa xa de ?"--- the male springbok went and said, " show me the child, where 
is the child?" r| |ke ta ! koir) sair) fkakka Ikoite, Ikoite safg |auwa ha --- I wish that grandfather 
should speak to grandmother, that grandmother should doctor him. 

aua ||e, n. a scented herb, Bouchea pinnatafida, Schauer, used for toilet and ceremonial purposes. NI. 
(D B.) 

auri, n. member of tribe resident on the Nossop, pi. |auni. SIV. (D. B. ) Ex.: ! gwara |auri ke the 

child is an |auni. |auni ki e |kam two |auni. |auni ke sa johanisbur the | auni have gone to 


au/a, n. blood, s. |au. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||naiaba k"aa, a xai, a xau, |au/a fna:, a fke a snake 

bites, it swells, cut it, blood flows, it is finished. 

aute, V. to milk. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: |aute gumi milk the cow. 

awa |areb, n. bushy-tailed mierkat. Nlla. (Sh.) 

awiane, n. grease, fat. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: koxane |ka a, |awaine kuru, a fku/ kwe |xa:, a ko ||nau:a t/o/a 
kuru game is killed, melt the fat, on the head smear (it), later make magic. 

a:ze, n. woman, s. |a:ti, ||a:si. SIII. (D.B.) 

'"^apaj V. to sharpen, s. \§., to cut. Nil. (Bk.) I'^ai'?^. 

a|a:, v. to pity, not to hurt. SI. (B. ) |a|a. Ex.: |nu: ! kwi 0wa we:, |afa ki au r) |na: o bad little 

' person, do not hurt me in my head. (LI.) |a|a. Ex.: ! gwitaksn ||kwatr) a:, k"au |a|a: ke au g ! hA^itukan 
the silver fox was one who did not pity me for my lameness. 

a_|aba, ~|e_|aba, v. to lie down, go into retirement. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |a ku sum, ~|a_aba ki ||An "fke 
the girl gets her period, lies down on the hut floor. 

i Ige, n. heart. SIVb. (St.) Ex.: n |a | ge --- my (?) heart. 

I llgau, to-day. 5IVb. (St.) 

, V. to enter, be in, go into, put in, set,, also used as prep, in, down, s. |ei. SI. (B. ) |e, |5ya. 
Ex.: har) |ne !u!u:xe |e: |kwa:g3n, au hag ! nou rukku ba:?i |kwa:gsn, ha sag d,rrukko |e:, ha ear) |e: 
|hir) ||e he (moon) running goes into the clouds, for he races up to the clouds, that he may quick- 
ly enter, that he may entering pass out. r) si |e: ti ! gwarra I will put in (sheathe) the knife. 

ha sar) |ne !ka:gan |hir), i, au ||o:injar) |ne |e:ja — he will m the dark come out, when the sun has 
set. (LI.) |e, |§, |eya. Ex.: ha |ku |e: ta ||neiri — she was in the house. !nwa:g |ne |e ! khe 

!nwa:-ka ||ho: the arrows stand in the arrows' bag. SII. (D.B.) |e:, |e, |e:ja. Ex.: ||koir) (e: 

the sun sets, r) |e: ||khai I enter the shade, ha |e kia: 0bo: he lies in the bushes. ||koir) 

|e:ja, rj ||a ||r) --- the sun has set, I go home. Sllb. (Mh. ) | 'e, to go in. SIII. |e, |e:, |ewa. Ex.: 
|i |e a ||nei, ha |ewa |i — the fire is in the hut, she goes into the fire. ||ur) ||e, har) a |e: si — 
the sun rises, it sets. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: na ||guwa ~kha, n _kau |e n ! go I dip up water, I fill in- 
to my pot. kuni hin |e k"eisi the wagon has gone into the riverbed, khora |e kie ~|a Khora is 

dead (entered into death). SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: a sa |e: sa fko ||nei he goes into the hut. NI. (D.B.) 

|e:, ~|e. Ex.: ka ~u ~|u ka |e: — (I) put it inside, dzau ! kauwa ~|e ko k"a: — the woman lay down 

on the ground. Nil. (LI.) |e. Ex.: | nu'^u | n'^uni ka ! kauwa mi |e: the ants were those that made me 

fall down. 

I, V. to have. SIVb. (St.) 

n. fire, s. |i. [Na. |ais.] SI. (LI.) in phrase bbS |5 — set on fire. Ex.: hir) | ne eu: |ki ||ke:i 
|i, hig |ne bu; |e: ! nabba ||kolk8n they blow making burn the fire, they set on fire the dry thorn- 
bushes. SIIc. (D.B.) Ex.: |e ga |lk"ai: --- the fire is warm. SIII. (D.B.) |e. CII. (Pa. )•!>■. Ex.: |e: 

|num, coals, embers. (D.B.) |e, |es, |e:/. Ex.: |e kuni/a ti ku mu govis kwe a fire wagon (motor) 

I have seen at Gobabis. k"Oxo^/a ko daue |e:J kwe the meat is burnt in the fire, xasa ko fku ( es 

kwe --- these roast in the fire. Cllb. (Sei). ^€, ^Si. (Wil.) ]e, |S tsame, smoke. 

I. |e, n. heart, s. \1: . SIIc. (D.B.) Is:, SIV. (D.B.) |s:, |e:SVIa. (Kr. ) |e. 

n. tongue, s. |enni. SII. (D.B.) |e, pi. |e:njsn. Ex.: g |e, i-ka |e:njan ! nai — my tongue, our 




many tongues. SIII. (D. B. ) |e. 

\e, self. Nil. (LI.) |^. Ex.: ha ti sir) ha |e — he sees himself (in the glass). 1 kya a |e, Am — 
clean thyself, eat. 

|e:, num. one. Nil. (V.) |5. 

\e, pron. indef. other, one, some. CII. masc. |eba. fern. |e/a, com. pi. |ead5i, |eakwe. Ex. ^ fnar/era kc 
||xai||xai, |e xiia l|xa||xa tama — dancing I learned, other things learned not. |eba gwedgi |kvra~|kwa, 
|eba ! geid3i |kwa~|kwa — one take the cows, the other take the bucks. Jeadsi ko xum/ kwe ||ai/a 

kuru, jeakwe ko hidgi kwe ||nai/a kuru some (birds) make nests on the ground, others make nests in 

the trees. 

leantsatn, n. mealies. SIII. ( D. B. ) Ex.: n !xeja |eantsa:n I cook mealies. 

Isbbuksn, n. a kind of mouse, Macrocelides edwardii. SI. (B. ) |ebbdken. (LI.) |ebbuken. ' 

|e§, V. to go out to collect. SIV. (D. B. ) Ex.: |ee ~khwe i _|kaa — let us go out to collect berries, j 

|ei, V. to go down, set, arrive, s. |e Slla. (Mg. ) I'^ei, |eija, |?eiha. Ex.: rj ||'?(8)n ||?en |*?eiha, xsn 
||na ll'^'ui 1*^61 I there arrive, (I) be there sun go down. 

|ei, n. fire, s. |e, |i. [Na. lais.] Slid. (Wu.) Aei. ai. (Sei.) ^ei. 

|ei, n. beads. SI. (B. early) 

|ei, n. axe. Nil. (Wil.) |ei. |ei, scraper for skins. 

jij leiki, n. girl, s. laiki, |ai:ti. SI. (B. early). 

|einki, v. to make a cut. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! haixu a ku |einki xuu ri — ! haixu made the cut on her 

10 head. 

■H" |eja^ V. to go out, s. |neja. Slle. (An.) Ex.: n !u |eja — I am going out. 

Hill |eja, jejako, often used after tan, ten, rope, leather band. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: tan |ejako ku t/i:ta 




popoko a rope it is to catch a buck. 


|eke, V. to rise, get up, s. |e. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: seta jeke hija — the moon rises there. |eke a_ kwa 
iJ*o gets up yonder the sun. 

|e:ki, n. wife, woman, s. |eiki, |aiki. SII. (D.B.) i 

|em:, n. point, tip. SI. (LI.) |eiBffi, pi. |S|Smmi. Ex.: ts'^a a: ha yken*?!: ~i a:, ha k"auki tAnt-se t/wai' 

t/wairja, ta: ha |em: |ku ||kho =^oro the thing which he stabs us with, it is not a little sharpen 

ed, for its point is like a bone needle, mama-guksn fkakka si S:, si kwarj (khau: |kum whai: |enni 

|em:, si se xu: tu he our mothers told us about it, we must cut off the springbok's tongue's tipj 

we must throw it away. |hau |e|enmi the points of the bow. 

|enni, v. to moan, s. |e|era. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: ha ti (enni it (lion) moans. 

|enni, |effi,n. tongue, s. |e. SI. (B. ) |^rPi. Ex. :n |erri |ku ||ko ||ko:i~ta — my tongue was dry insid 
(LI.) I^nni, |^KKi. Ex.: |xAm-ka ! k'^etan |ku fkaJcksn au hi | enni !kau:uksn, au | hu~ | hflrjaq |ne e: 
fkakkan au hi |enni |em: — Bushmen talk with the body of their tongue, while Europeans are those wh 
talk with their tongue tip. si kwSr) jkhau: |kum whai: |enni |em: — we must cut off the springbok's 
tongue' s tip. 

tare:, v. to roll, s. ~|eri. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r| [are: ha --- I roll it (paper). ' 

I ara |ge:, n. a herb, Epaltes gariepina, Steetz, used for toilet and ceremonial purposes. CII. (D.B.) 

~|eri, V. to squeeze. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe ko ||kai ||nau kwe, him kwe lama, a ko ||k"oba t/au, a ~|eri, e 

jnorro a man scrapes (a skin) with a knife, with a stick rolls it, a big lilly root digs, squeesi 

es it, rubs it in. 

|ari:, n. hip. SII. (D.B.) 


"■ - 

|esa, (e/a, s. |e, other. 

|e:saka, little, SIV. (D.B. ) Ex.:. ©pwo ma ta |e:saka --- the child is little (a baby). 

letenjetan, v. to set, s. |e:, |e|e. SI. (LI. )- e|^tfn|eten. Ex.: whai: |ke: si |xi:ja, o ||kSir) letanfetan 
the springbok yonder we had shot, when the sun was setting. 

|etsa, n. hut, home, nest. CIII. (D.B.) Ex.: |etsako ekek^lata akwitibe — a hut is built by women, hn 
|etsa ta hadzabi — that is a hut of Bushmen, misai a~khamo letsa na — Misai has gone home, kiggiko 
elata ko |etsako tseti tina — the .... bird builds its nest in a tree. 

|e:xa, n- chief, s. ||e:xa. CII & Clla. (Pa.) leSha. 

|e|e, V. to enter, be in, reduplication of |e:. SI. (B. ) |e|e. Ex.: ha ^rrukko |e:|e: 0ho:kan — he 

quickly enters the bushes. (LI.) |^|^. Ex.: |xAm-ka Ike ta !gwe: e: |e|^ ta ht er)er) the Bushmen's 

letters are in their bodies. 

|e|emmi, s. |em: . 

S|era, v. to complain, s. jenni. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: a si |g|Sra, ! ge:xa kum sa, ha sa ku ! kuri a — you 
are complaining, the doctor comes, he comes to anoint you. 

|e|Ani, V. to look at. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: api ki ! a, ke a kiSn |e|Ani txobaku — Api is left, walks about, 
' looks at Txobaku. 

|s !au, V. to catch. SIVb. CSt. ) 

e ||kai, n. aunt, mother's sister. SIV. (D.B.) 

ga:, v. to cut, pierce. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: r) xn |ga: rj |k"a — I have cut my hand. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: g |ga: 
j |koe Igabbi — I pierce sewing a dress. 

'ga, V. to wash. Nil. (Wil.) 

ga, Iga:, v. to be together, lie, stay, be here, come here, be with, also used as with, or to be married 

.Slla. (Mg.) Ex.: g kjan ||ku si ku, kei~ja, rj | ga I ... not shall say, yes, I be with (you). | ga 

tj'u:, Paikji, ''au | ga gka gjisi ? be together listen, woman, you girl say what ? SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: 

n |ki Iga n |k"An --- I hold it with my hand. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: sa re tsa r*e kwe |ga: si --- these two 

lay fefown together. 3usi a Ikaif ka ~u, | ga t/i people to the veld go out, stay there, ka kuwa ka 

tsi Iga: a — (you) will get up and come here. |kie |ga: kwike, 3U o nabbo the .... plants are 

here, people gather them. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: dau wa | ga Jove. Dau married /ove. 

.|gS:f, V. to visit. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: misis-tis ||ei/ kwe _|ga:f, ko debbi at Missis' house visited, 


ga, V. to put in, dip up in. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: ka !ha:a, | ga ku ke ^=Qi: go to water, dip up in the 

(ostrich) eggshell. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: a k"u/ kwe Inekesa | gS na tau — in the mortar seeds put and 

ga, r)|ga, pron. you, thou. Slla. (Mg. ) Ex.: a ||kei|ka ku:, ha:si kje r)|ga — girl say, horse is you. 
''au Iga gka gjisi ?--- you girl say what ? 

jga, old, bad, s. tga:, |lga:.SIIa. (Dk.) Ex.: |ga-kjuke --- an old man. NI. (D.B.) |ga:l. Ex.: t/i||a 

|ga:f, t/i||a a ~gauf an old kaross, a new kaross. 3U !na:, ha _|ga:l the big man, he is old. 

sgwaba _|gaf da tsia --- the Makoba are bad people. NIa. (Leb. ) m. sp. | ga, old. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 
!ku Iga — an old man. 

gaS, n. hard veld. Slla. (Dk.) 

ijga:, hippopotamus. SI. (LI.) |ga. (B. ) emph. jgSgen. Ex;: |ga:gsn |e: ta Ikhwa: — the hippopotamus in 

the water lies. 
3a, n. tiny bow and arrows used for magic purposes, made of grass and horn instead of reed and bone, s. 

Iga, grass. NI. (D.B.) 

3a, Iga, n. grass. [Na. Igab.] CII. (Schi.) |ga. (D.B.) | gS, _|gaba, |ga:ba, pi. |oai. Ex.: |ga:ba dau 
|e:/ kwe — the gras Durn with fire. ||gwe ko | ga f\i — the tortoise eats grass. | gai ~kei — the 











grasses are many. Various plants are so-called: Schidtia bulbosa, used for thatching, Panicum color 
tun, Aptosomum linare, Aristida congesta, Eragrostis auriculata. 

Iga:, n. belly. Cllb. (VVil.) | gk. 

_|ga:, n. wife, sometimes husband, s. | ga, to marry. NIII. (D. B. ) Ex.: mi _|ga wa |k3 my wife is | 

_|ga: a kavikiise a ! uma mi (my) husband Kavikise marked me. 

Iga, blind. NIa. (Leb. ) w. sp. 

I ga, I gaa, | gs'^a, n. eye, eyes. NI. (D. B. ) Ex.: 3U | ga tsike — a person's eye is this. | gasa tsi 3U 

|u:, ka /u ka o "ts'^a these eyes people shut, lie down and sleep. | ga ~Pu:si eyebrows. NIa 

(Leb.) m. sp. Igi. Nil. (Dk. )->-'^a, -^a'^a, -r^'^'a-, Ex. : J gs'^a |nowa ---^eyelid. | qa'^a ! ku — eyebrow 

(V.) Igy^. Ex.: _|gja ! gui eyelid. (LI.) | ga, | gSa, |g'^, pi- | g^a-ssin, Igl^ssin. Ex.: na ti | 

me I gasir) I shut my eyes. | g'^a !ko: eyeball. | g'^a tebbisir) lower eyelids. | g'^a ~!kusir) 

eyebrows, n a ||na | gaa ||gu I object to tears (eyes' water). NIII. (D.B.) | ga, pi. | gaa, |ga:sir 

Ex.: Iga !k"wi eyebrow. | gai |ga:sir) cut between the eyes given at boys' initiation ceremor 

d3U q _|ga'a a person's eyes, mi | gaa wa ! nava, mi jkwi sir) ||kha — my eyes are bad, I do not s 

game. | ga "[no eyelid, eye skin. 

gaa, v. to raise the head. CI. (Do.) 

gaa, v. to lean on. CI. (Do.) 

gaa, n. an effort. CI. (Do.) 

gaa, n. a peg of wood, a block. CI. (Do.) 

ga:'?ai, n. jackal. SIVb. (St.) 

gaa t/ware, n. an inheritance. CI. (Do.) | gaa chware. 

gaba, n. infant, little boy, s. |gwa. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: ha ||xe:g8n | gaba she suckles the infant. S 

(D.B.) Ex.: I gaba ko — a little boy it is. 

gaba, n. hat, cap, head-covering. CII. (Schi.) (Pa.) ^gaba. (D.B.) | gaba/a, pi. |gaba/i. 

gab'bi, n. dress, stuff. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: rj |ga: |koe | gabbi I pierce sewing a dress. 

gabi, n. green tortoise. CII. (Schi.) 

garden, n. cat. SI. (B. early) IgSden. 

ga:ha, n. brown hyena. Hyaena brunnea, s. |gui. Nil. (Sh.) 

gai, V. to dance, s. ~|gi. CII. (Schi.) 

gai, n. steenbok, s. |gi. SV. (D.B.) 

gai, Ige, n. heart, s. |gar). SII. (D.B.) pi. Igainjon. 

gai, n. thorn. NIa. (Leb.) ch. sp. 

gai, n. woman, female, s. |aiti, |gaiki, ||gai. SVI. (D.B.) Igal. Ex.: si | gal ||ke ||nei we women m; 

a house. NI. ( D.. B. ) Igai. Ex.: Oama I gai ma ku t/i the little baby girl was crying. CII. (D.B.)| 

Ex.: Igai |kwa---young woman. | gaisi tenne---the women are carrying. (Pa. ) ^gai kwe, woman. Igai -^gofj 


-Igs-i^^ green, s. | gau. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ka |ga:nate ka _|gail the leaves are green. | 

gai, ill. Nil. (Wil.) j 

gaie, v. .to aim at with a bow. CI. (Do.) I 

gaiki, |gaiti, n. woman, female, s. |aiti, |gai, ||gai, |ga:ke. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: a | gaiki ha e, a Igorji 

a: a woman it is, a man this is. kue | gaiki female ostrich. | gaiki Qpwa baby girl. ty'^J^ l9: 

- - female dog. 


gaitrib m. warthog. Nlla. (Sh.) 

gai t/ware, n. pi. strangers. CI. (Lo.) | gai chware. 

galjgai, n. pi ants, a small kind. NI. (C. B. ) 

gaka, interrog. what ? SII. ( D. B. ) Ex.: | gaka kissi ? what is that ? 

ga:ke, |ga:~kei, n. old woman, grandmother, s. | gaiki . SIV. (D. B. ) Ex.: ! wara |ga:~kei ti ~|aho — a 
maiden's grandmother tattoos her. 

gako:, n. man. Cllb. (Wil.) | gako. |gak^e:, woman. 

gam, v. to suck out. Nil. (V.) 

gam, v. to be hot, thirsty, s. sun, day, thirst, s. |kam. NI. (Schi.) | gam, sun. NIa. (Leb.) w. sp. | gam, 
I thirst. »• sp- mam^ I gam --- I am thirsty. | gam na, today. Nil. (V.) | g^m, sun, hot, thirsty, day.|qam-a, 
I to-day. (Wil.) Igam, thirsty, sun. Ex.: | gam dansan, by day. (Dk.) --^am, sun. day. -^am ka^e, to-day 1 
I (Schi.) Igam, sun. CII. & Clla. (Pa.) ^gam, sun. CII, Cllb. (Sei.) 19^^, sun.(Wil.) | gSm. | gam tse, warm. 

gam, at, on, s. |am. CII. (Pa.) ^gam. 

3am, ugly. CI. (Do.) 

^am, n. point, side. CI. (Do.) 

;a:m, | gam, n. cheek, jaw, s. |gar). NIa. (Leb.) w. sp. | gam, cheek. Nil. (Dk.) -ya:A, jaw. NIII. (D.B. ) 
j Ex.. : a ||ke a | gam is holding her cheek. 

]am, num. two, s. |kam. [Na. Igam.] CII. (Schi.) Ex.: Igam t/ou two hands, ten. 

a: ma, n. young woman, s. |ga.', SVI. (D.B.) 

ama:, to-day. Nil. (Wil.) IgSma. 

lamani, n. pi. certain vegetables eaten by Bushmen. CII. (D.B.) 

amee, n. a bow. CI. (Do.) 

am !na, n. waterbag. Nil. (Wil.) 

a.'^r^, V. to be tall. Nil. (LI.) |gS.'A. Ex.: fg^a ~! ku ti !k'H.o, ti /uwa fgwa:, ti ||ke||k^ja ' jantje' , 

|kua ~d30, Ikiia ! ga'^r) the Ash Bushmen are white, sleep m the ashes, resemble 'Jantje', are not 

black, are not tall. 

ar), yellowish green. Nil. (Dk.) ^Sr). (V.) |gSA. (Wil.) IgSn. 

a.:n, n. large white ant. SV. (D.B.) pi. |ga:ni. 

ir), n. heart, s . | gai. SVI. (D. B. ) 

il), n. grapes. CI. (Do.) |gan. 

m, n. bracelet. Nil. (Wil.) IgSn. 

lUa, don't. CI. (Do.) 

ina, n. leaf. SV. (D.B.) |ga:na, pi. |ga:nate. Ex.: ka |ga:nate ka _|gai^ — the leaves are green. CI. 
(Do.) Igana. CII. (D.B.) |ganaba. 

naa, n. husk, peel. CI. (Do.) CII. (D.B.) |ga:nna. Ex.: |ga:nna ko ||kae, a ko ykan/era turn — husks 
we gnaw, and the nuts swallow. 

110, V. to place across, one knee over another. Nil. (Dk.) -^ano. 

use, V. to run. CI. (Do. ) 











ga:n/a, n. burr (of grass), s. |qanaa,. SV. (C. B. ) 

gantwi, n. severe pain. CI. (Do.) 

gao i:, v. to chop wood. Qlb. (Wil.) | gao t. 

gao, V. to plough, dig, cultivate. CI. (Do.) 

gapp8m, down. SI. (LI.) l9^PP?m. Ex.: ||xau: |ke: !khe:, ha Hkwa^iQ !xo:wa, hi se ||k"oen | gappsm ||ko 
! k'^sfu the Brinkkop standing yonder is high, they shall look down upon the ground. 

gara, v. to scatter. CI. (Do.) 

gara, |ga:ra^ n. berries of the 'krieboom' ( ? kareeboom) . SI. (B.) IgSra. Ex.: |ga:ra |ku ewe:nja n 

||ku: |na: --- the berries are upon my shoulder. (LI.) |g^ra. Ex.: j gara tsx^itaksn |k"wai:ja', | gara 

|ke:g Ikwai: the 'krieboom' berries are numerous, the name of the berries is one. SII. (D.B. ) 

I garra. 

gara, n. letter, epistle. CI. (Do.) 

gara, n. fingernail. CI. (Do.) 

Igafre, n. wildebeest, s. !ga:. [Na. Igaob.] SVI. (D.B.) 

gare, Igari, n. mane. CII. (Schi.) Igari. (D.B.) Igareba. 

gariji, v. to roar, bellow. CI. (Do.) jgariyi. 

garo, n. ostrich, s. ! gano. CI. (Do.) | garo, cock ostrich. | garo ibi, ostrich egg. CII. (D.B.) | garobf 

cock ostrich. | garoja, hen ostrich. Ex.: | garo /a ko ! num ! gwim kwe the hen ostrich (I) catch wit 

a rope. Qlb, (Wil.) IgSrS. 

gafrritan, n. an insect, Phymateus norbillosus. SI. (LI.) |gd.rrit§n. 

garuba, n. wasp. [Na. Igerub.J CII. (D.B.) pi. |garud3i. 

gau, V. to be strong, hard, tall, s. Iga*?!). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: k'«, | gorru |gau, ke ma |ka ~guwa the 

earth surface is hard, here I cannot dig. Nil. (Dk.) -^&u. (LI.) |g^u. Ex.: sa kwonna |gau, ta /wi {- 

they two were not strong, and were light, ! kur) | gausir) strong Bushmen. NIII. (B. D. ) Ex.: ! ku a 

I gau a tall man. QI. Cllb. (Sei.) gau kwe, man. 

gau, dry. Nil. (Wil.) 

gau, n. air. SIV. (D.B.) 

gau, n. tail, s. |ka~u. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: ! xai | gau the dog's tail. Igari | gau 

tail), whisk for keeping flies off. SVI. (D.B.) 

gau:, n. wagon, usually kolui. SV. (D.B.) Ex.: |gau: Unum — two wagons. 

tail ( ? manes' s 

gau, n. 'goura', musical bow, s. |gou. SII. (D.B.) NI. (D.B.) a musical bow with string tied back, an 
shown m Stow' s Native Races of South Africa, plate 9, No. 5. Ex. : | gau ka, 3U O ~kuru ka, o jnAffl I 
a musical bow it is, people make it and play it. 

gau, n. buffalo, s. |kau. Nil. (Sh.) (Wil.) IgSu. Nlla. (Sh.) |gaub. Cllb. (Wil.) |gau. 

gau, n. axe. CII. (Pa.) ^gau. 

gau, yellow, pale blue, green, s. |kau, |gai. NI. (D. B. ) { 

gauba, | gau/a, n. snake, puffadder, s. |gauo. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gauba |nuk"_autama --- the puff addei; 
is not a wizard. 

gauka, | gauksn, v. to beg for, call on, pray. SI. (B. ) | g^ukf n, |gauka. Ex.: koroksn | gaukan, ha se 
tarj'^a ||kaue au wai:, ha se | gaukan | ga\ika ! gwe: sir) ||kaue — the jackal begs, he will ask the leo i 
pard for the springbok, he will begging sit opposite the leopard. (LI.) | gauken, |gauka. Ex.: tata jQ 


ta: ||ka ti e:, ha |ku e !gi:xa, ha |ku tu:i tata, o tata | gauka — lather believed that he was a sor- 
cerer, that he would hear father, if father called on him. rj ||xei |ha|k"e:ja tata, tata afro: | gaukan, 

hs se Ikditan hs-ka ! xoe my brother's wife said to father, father should just pray, that they 

might return to their place. 

gau kja, n. kidney. SIVb. (St.) 

gauo, n. snake, s. (gauba. CI. (Co.) 

gauri, v. to bark. SV. (D. B. ) 

gaulg^u, n. blind, s. | ga. SI. (LI.) |gau|gau . Ex.: r) |ku-g |ne ||kou: debbi |e: ha tsaxairtan, he ti 
hir) e:, ha |ku |ne |gau|gdu !khe, au har| k"auki |ne ||k"oen --- I kicking up dust covered up his eyes, 
therefore he did blind stand, for he did not see. 

ga:u-|gei, yesterday. Nil. (Wil.) |gau-|gei. 

gave:, n. Tswana. Nil. (Wil.)|gav5. 

gawi, n. water tortoise. SI. (B. early.) 

ga:xe, n. niece. SIV. (D.B. ) 

ga|gafrar), v. to disperse, scatter, s. |gara. SI. (LJ..) |ga|gannan. Ex.: wai |ne tatti, ti jne di kui 
ta |i, he tiksn e:, wai |ne |ga|garrar), i: the springbok feel that the place becomes warm, there- 
fore the springbok disperse on account of it. 

ge, V. to come, enter, travel, go, pass, used also as to be far. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: na dore a | ge |kanne u 
!kau|na — and these come passing to Naunas. ma uwa kurikwa, uwa |e|em, |e|em |ge: — I have been 
to Kurikwa, been to |e|em, |e|em is far. Nil. (Wil.) | ge,_ to come up. (Dk.) -yh:. (LI.) | g^, |gS. Ex.: 

ma "debbi ti | ge thou returning enterest. sa ti u, sa ti |ge: they two go out, they two come 

in. Igeja ~me — come to me. ta /u/u, ta sau, ta | ge ! xa fne~tnebbi tar)'?a kwe da^ — and (|xwe) con- 

I tinued to lie, and arose, and went to take out the wood-pigeon's body from the fire. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: 
!k2 I ge !kau kilika Bushmen come three to Kilika. kulika ma ~u, na tsi | ge after noon I go and 

I travel back. CI. (Do.) |gee, to pass. 

'ge:, v. to say. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: g |ge: a — I say to you. 


{Ige:, v. to swear at. Nil. (V.) |gi. 

'gS, V. to refuse. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: ||nwem Ikaula ti xud3i, xam xuu, xam kuru, a xa xuu kam ko | ge — the 
moon owns the things, his things he made, and the things he refuses. 

gS, tall, big, long, s. Iga'^r). NI. (D.B.) Ex.: _! gai ~|ge the tree is tall. ! num a | ge — 4 big 

stone. |ne k»'wisi |ge:ja — the head's hair is long. 

ge:, n. heart, s. |gai. SII. (D.B.) 

ge:, n. father, s. |ke:. SIV. (D.B.) 

|e, |ge:ba, n. blue wildebeest, s. !ga:, _!gafre. [Na. Igaob.] ai. (Sh.) |ge:ba. (D.B.) |ge:ba. Clla. 
1 (Pa.) Ige. 

■^ebbi, V. to be foolish, stupid, do foolishly, n. foolish person. SI. (B. ) |g6bbi, Ig^bbitfn. Ex.: a ka 
Igebbi — thou art foolish, a^-g ! nwa |ku ||kwar) |ne ||ka k"orok8n 1^ au ti e:, u ku di: | gebbitsn di 
--- thy foot did burn up, because you did stupid actions. (LI.) |g§bbi, pi. |gi|giten, 
|g§bb5;ten|gebbitfn. Ex.: he tikan e:, ha sir) k" wag: Igebbi, i: ta': ha k"auki ||kwalr| e |gebbi, ta: ha 

||kwatr) ||kwafkka that was why he had seemed stupid, but he had not been stupid, but he had been 

clever. Igebbi a: !kwai:, |gi|gitan e: |k"wai:ja a foolish person is one, foolish people are many. 

a doSa IgebbitenI gebbi:t8n a jkargsn — thou hast done foolishly to thy fellows. 

ebbi, V. to smooth by passing the finger along. | gebbi | gsbbi, n. smoothness. SI. (LI.) Igebbi. Ex.: 
.'nwa kag ||kwaJr) twai:i, ! nwa-ka | gebbi | gsbbi, au q | gsbbi ! nwa — the arrow is nice, the arrow's 
smoothness, when I pass my finger along the arrow. 

sbi, n. asparagus. Slla. (Ck.) 


gee:, v. to dance. Nil. (Wil.) |gee. 

gegsn, v. unusual pi. of | gwa, child. SII. (D. B. ) 

gei, n. pestle. Nil. (Wil.) 

gei, V. to commit adultery, s. Igeithi. CI. (Do.) 

gel, caterpillar, a food. Nil. (Wil.) 

gei, n. ear. CII. (Sei.) ^gei. Cllb. (Sei.) ■'■gei, ^ge. 

|ge:,i, n. ornament worn on forehead, s. Igs*?©. NIII. (D.B. ) 

geii, n. foot. Nil. (Wil.) |gej-i. 

geiki, v. to put, s. |kxei. Slla. ,(Mg.) Ex.: a ||geCi kjer) ku: | geiki |na' tu — wolf say: put it be witl 
(my) mouth. 

gain, when. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: | gein |ke se |a, se ^^kouke when the sun sets, (it) will arrive. 

geiios, n. antbear, s. |gi. Nlla. (Sh.) 

geithi, n. adulterer, s. |gei. CI. (Do.) 

ge:ki, n. woman, female, s. |aiti, jgaiki. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwe: fgo, kwe: |ge:ki — male ostrich, fe 
male ostrich. SIV. (D.B.) Ex.: |ge:ki,a !koeke, tuke ma |koo f^ui — women are clapping, men are 

dancing, o api ke |nau |kona |ge:ki, ha _||aruse ||r) Old y^i goes to fetch the woman, he returns 


geje, red. CI. (Do.) Igeye. 

Iger), v. to run, s. |ge. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: koro:, ha ~lger| ~|e, ha |kau murri 0pwa, ha e ha — the jac, 
al, he runs away, he carries off the little goat, he eats it. 

genee, n. fly, bee, s. denee. CI. (Do.) j 

gsniba, | gsnima, n. fly. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: | ganima a ko ||k"am, jkwaba ko kwe k"aa — flies lay eggs, t 

maggots bite people. I 


ga*?©, n. eggshell ornament worked in hair, s. ~|ge:i. Nil. (Dk.) 

geri:, i;. to beat. Nil. (Wxl.) Igeri. 

geri, v. to thatch, s. gari. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: kwene ko !nu:, kwe/i hid3i /e:, a ko 6axa, a ko !nu:, ai 
Igeri people build, women get sticks and bring and build, and pluck grass and thatch. 

gari, n. a plant, Coccinea sese Hi folia, of which the fruit is eaten. CII. (D.B.) 

geri, n. jackal, Canis mesomelas, s. Igira, |girib. [Na- Igeirab.] CII. (D.B.) Ex.: Igeri ko:ba jaj- 

al's skin. | gerid3i "keidsi ■ — many jackals. ~! gau-dama | gerima /e a Klipkafir catches the jack. 

geriku, n. tribal name. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: | geriku goba ti ! hobba the Igenku Makoba talk in a loose-' 

tongued fashion, (as do the Ovaherero and Ovambo). | geriku ~!ku ti |kda sa | geriku goba the 

I geriku Bushmen do not understand the | geriku Makoba. 

gerisa, n. long small cucumber. CII. (D.B.) j 

gerri, v. to lose one's balance. SI. (LI.) |gerri. Ex.: ^Ahif Ahd.*?!, au itsn tatti, i | gerri | gerri*?! -- 
slipping, while we are losing our balance. 

gerritan, v. to swing. SI. (B. ) | gerri ten. Ex.: ha |ku sir) ! hau Igsrritan au ha ||kur)||kur), au han tattf 
ha k"auki ! kanna ||ka he did go swinging his arms, for he did not hold in his hand a stick. 

garu, n. morning. SII. (D.B.) 

geru, n. wasp, s. Igaruba. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: | geru _gu ~t/u — the wasp makes a nest. | geru ~fkhi: ka ■'i.' 


ka ~u many wasps come and go. CII. (D.B. ) Ex.: | geruba ko k" a te the wasp has bitten me. 

Igeum, n. bowels. SI. (Lich. ) t'^geum. 

I gewa, v. to put into. CI. (Do.) 

Igewa:, n. unusual form of | gwa, child. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: Igewa: so:, ha |ki: |gewa:, |gewa: k"a, ha tiag 
the child sits, she hurts the child, the child cries, it is sore. 

I ge| g^rru:ka, v. to be stained with blood. SI. (LI.) |ge|g^rruka. Ex.: ha ka | gs| gerrurka^ au ha |ne 
||kwa:^ ~||a it (springbok) is stained with blood, as it trots away. 

I gi^ "Igi^ i;., to rise, come out, come up, swell, also used as up. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |kAin ~|gi, ka mihi 

~tsi the sun rose and I came, m ! gu | gija my stomach is swollen. Nil. (Wil.) | gi, |gi. (Dk.) 

-^i. (V.) Igi. (LI.) Igi, |gi. Ex.: |kAm |gi the sun rises, ha sad, ta ~|gi ha ! koro he heard 

and arose out of his earthen house. fne""fnebbi ! ka ~|gi the woodpigeon flew up. m ! nwerre, |kAin 

ti Igija, d3U ti !ko (in) my country, (when) the sun rises, people sit (by the fire.) NIII. (D.B.) 

Ex.: ||nwei na | gi the moon rises, mi ti |gi: luati I come up from the Luati. |kAm a kwe tsa n 

~|gi the second sun arises, the day after to-morrow. ||gu ka a |konu | gi the water bubbles up, 


Igi:, |gi:ja, v. to be strong. SI. (B.) | giya, (LI.) | gi , Igiya. | gi'| gi'. Ex.: ha l|kwafr) eirj fi:, ti e:, 

!hau: |gi: akka, o !ha~u: ola |ku k"aaki |gi: akka he had thought that the thong was strong enough, 

but the thong had not been strong enough, hag ^kakksn, ! khwa ||ki ha k"auki |gi:ja she said, the 

ram was not strong, ha se sa ||keri i,o ts'^a: |gi:ja, ta:, ha |ki ||a kwafbba |gi:|gi: ts'?a he will 

come to stab us with a strong thing, for he is wont to go to unwind a very strong thing ( ? sharpen 
making strong the thing. ) 

Igi, i;. to call, name. QI. (D.B.) Ex.: aum ka kwena ko ma, tira ka ~|gi si temme, eCiJ* ko mamasa ||xwi:, 

a ko ~|gi ta the father to the people says, I the name will call, the mother's mother contradicts 

and names it (the child). 

Igi, t;. to carry on the shoulder, as game. CII. (D.B.) 

Igi, ~|gi, v. to cut between eyebrows, n. tribal mark cut between eyebrows, ceremonial dance, when cut 
is made. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U gese o t/ai kause, a t/anne ~|gi people cut (him) between the eye- 
brows, and dance the ... dance. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: jfe jkwi ke |kum m |gi they did not cut my tri- 
bal mark. _||gau ma a |gi a |ko a little boy is cut on the forehead. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: we kwe | gi 

tama not all men dance the ... . tira ko ~|gi, tira m tama I danced the ..., I saw nothing. 

Igi/a, the ceremonial dance. |gi— ||kwa the dancers. 

gi, n. blue wildebeest, gnu, s. jge. CII. (Pa.) ■'^gi. 

gi:, n. steenbok, s. |gai. SVI. (D.B.) 

gi, n. 'aardwolf, Proteles cristatus. NI. (Sh.) | gi, |gi:Ei. Nil. (Sh.) jgi. CII. (Sh.) |gi:ba. 

gi, n. 'aardvark' , antbear, Orycteropus afer. Nil. (LI.) CII. (Schi.) 

gie, to-day, now. Q. (Do.) Nil. (Wil.) |gje. 

gie anao, seeing that. CI. (Do.) 

gii, V. to shave, cut one's hair. CI. (Do.) 

gilgitan, s. Igebbi. 

gina, n. fly. s. Igenee, Iganiba. CII. (Schi.) 

gira, n. jackal, s. Igirib, |gari, jgi. CII. (Schi.) 

gire, n. silver jackal, s. j gira. CI. (Do.) Ex.: | gire jkwa a young silver jackal. 

girib, |gi:ri:mi, n. blackbacked jackal, Cams mesomelas. NIa. (Sh.) |qirib. CII. (Sh. ) |qi:ri:mi. Nil. 
(Wil.) I girt, Ig^ri. 

Jisi, interrog. what ? s. kissi. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gisi xg !ka: tsaxu:ke ? -- what has hurt the eye ? 


Igisi ki e ? what is that ? 

Iqia:, v. to spread out, prepare a bed. Nil. (V.) |gy5. 

_|gja, n. eye, s. | ga, |gaa. Nil. (V.) |gy&. Ex.: _|gja | gui --- eyelid. 

xlgjam, n. cheek. Nil. (V.) | gy&m. 

Igje:, v. to come, go, s. |ge. Nil. (V.) |gyS. 

Igju:, n. day. Nil. (V.) | gyu. Ex.: |gju en hoese — «ill days, daily. 

"Igjui, neg. of future. Nil. (V.) Igydi. Ex.: na ~|gjui \ho: _ga I shall not receive it. 

Igna ||kheu, n. lion. SI. (B. early). 

_|go, V. to lie down. SIV. (D. B. ) Ex.: o api ko, " a _|go", |eja, a ka ! kauu, ha _|go — old Api says, 
" lie down" , goes in, beats her, she lies down. 

IgoJ, n. young, baby, s. | goa, |gwa. SI. (LI.) Ig^. Ex.: ! atta ki |gof koro canter for me, young 

jackal. Igo^ koro is the name for a quite young jackal who can neither see nor walk. 

|go:, n. bird. SIV. (D.B. ) 

I go, n. feather. CI. (Do.) 

"Igor, n. forehead, s. |ko:, ~|kho. Nil. (V.) | go. 

lgo> _l90> "• t)ead of ostrich eggshell, s. Ikoro. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: |no3i ka ! kwaka, ka kuru | go the 

eggshell break and make beads. _|go o tsike beads are these (a band of them). 

I go, n. fishbasket. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: da |ka | go da ta r| that is a fishbasket that lies there. 

I go:, n. antbear, Orycteropus afer. s. |gi. CII. (Sh. ) 

Igo:, n. cat. aib. (Wil.) |go. 

I go:, black. SII. (D.B.) 

Igoa, V. to sew, s. |koa. SVI. (D.B.) Ex.: e se | goa — he is sewing. 

Igoa, V. to live. Nil. (Wil.) 

_|goa, V. to wash. Nil. (V.) |g9a. (Wil.) |g5a. 

_|go^a, V. to close, meet. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U ~|ni tsi, 3U tsosi _|gola people bite this, people's 

teeth meet. 

_|goa, yesterday, s. | guwa, |gom'?a. Nil. (V.) | g9a. 

Igoa, n. breast, chest, s. |gu. NIa. (Leb. ) w. sp. 

Igoa, springbok. SVI. (D.B.) j 

Igoa, small, s. Igof, |gwa. CII. (Schi. CIIb.)(Wil.) | g^S, child, small. 

|goaa:ra, n. crow. Nil. (Wil.) IgoaSra. | 

|go:ab, n. blue wildebeest, Gorgon taurinus. [Na. |g5ob.] Nlla. (Sh.) 1 

I gSaea, n. spring of water in sand. CII. (D.B.) 

I goba/a, n. python, s. Igoma. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: |nau/as ko |ku a ko k"o|goba/a — the duiker is kille 
and eaten by the python. w 

_|gobe, V. to scrape. CII. (D.B.) Ex.: koba hiba _|gobe me, a ||xu me, me |o: a skin with a stick tllj 

scrape, they spread it out, they rub. 


Igobu t/waho, v. to foam at the mouth. CI. (Do.) | gobu chwaho. 

Igoe, n. quagga, zebra, s. | gwa, |gwe. Nil. (Schi.) zebra. NI. & CII. (Sh.) quagga. 

Igoe, n. great land tortoise, s. _!go:e, _l|gwe:ba. CII. (Schi.) 

I goga, before, forwards. CII. (Schi.) 

Igohe, V. to kill oneself, v. |goo. CI. (Do.) 

I gokho, V. to become mad. CI. (Do.) 

Igokwa, v. to open a body. CIII. (D. B. ) 

Igom:, |golm:, v. to scoop up, dip up, take out in both hands. SI. (B. ) | gom. Ex.: hag | ne |gom: ! Ahf 

||ko: ||xe: au to:i-ta ||gorru she scoops up, placing 'Bushman rice' on an ostrich breastbone. (LI.) 

I gomm, Igoifim. Ex.: ha haf |ne ta, ha se ~|kAm ||e ha xoa, ha xoa se ||a |gom: |ha ha she said she 

would go to her mother, that her mother might dip out (food) for her. har) |ku— g |ne |goJm: ho !hwir), 
au I i-ta ~!kuitsn ||na !hwir), hag |ku | ne ! golm: ho ! hwirj, har) |ku-g |ne ~||kou ki ||kai:tan hi — she 
took up in both hands the .... roots, with the fire' s ashes on the . . . roots, she took up the .... 
roots, she threw them up above. 

"Igom^ V. to cut, carve, s. ~|kum. Nil. (V.) | gom. 


Mgom^ n. knee, s. _gom. NIII. (L.B. ) 

I gom, n. the soul. CI. (Do.) 

jgom'^a, I gOQia, yesterday, early morning, s. _|goa. Nil. (Wil.) |g5ma. (V.) | gom-a, yesterday, (Dk.) 
-v-oma ri^a, early morning. 

goma, n. python, s. jgoba/a. CI. (Do.) 

gomase, v. to snatch. CI. (Do.) 

gomme, v. to whistle. SV. (D. B. ) 

goni, V. to follow spoor. Nil. (Ck.) -^oni. 

goo, V. to hollow out. SI. (LI.) Igoo. Ex.: ! nabba !kwa:-ka barri Hkwafr) e, i ta |kau |kAjm hi, he i |ne 
||kwirri hi, i |ne ||kwirri kili akksn ||wei hi, he i |ne | goo hi, he i |ne |ki |e: hi au pwa: ! khwi — 
the driedoorn branch's twig it is, we cut it off, and we pare it, we pare it very nicely, and we 
hollow it out, and we put into it the fox's tail. 

goo, V. to murder, kill, defeat, conquer, drive away, n. war, slaughter, conquest, murder, an enemy, s. 
Igoothi. a. (Do. ) 

go:o, n. a Bushman game, in which the men imitate the call of the male ostrich. SI. (LI.) | g5o. Ex.: 

jkagsn se ||gwita he, o Ikarksn |ne !kau:enja, [kagan se ||xAm ! hoa he |go:o, hi se ! gum: — the women 

will play for them (men), when the women are satisfied, the women will also arrange the (game of) ... 
for them, that they may roar. 

goo nja, v. to trust. CI. (Do.) Igoo nya. 

goothi, n. murderer, s. |goo. CI. (Do.) 

jlgora, | goraba, n. baboon. NI. ( D. B. ) _|gora. Ex.: _|gora ku m 3U |nwa, 3U |nwa ~|kwa m _|gora, xau- 
dama a |ne~e m _|gora baboons eat Bushmen, Bushmen do not eat Baboons, Berg-damaras alone eat ba- 
boons. CII. (D.B. ) I goraba. 

gore, v. to pray, tattoo. [Na. | gore, to pray.] n. prayer, tattoomark. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: 3U o | gore ! nwi 

ma ~ze, ! gwa ka | gore people pray to the little new moon, at evening pray, hi/e ~|kwa kuru 3U, a 

I gore hi/e, hi/e k"ause: ! nau ! na a | gore — Hi/e does not make people, (they) tattoo for Hi/e, 
Hi/e's cuts (between eyebrows), old men tattoo. CII. (Schi.) | gore, tattoomark. (D.B.) prayer. Ex.: 
||kur| farom kweba ko "mil, | gore tu ma /e, na k"we, na !ku, tam ko mi: ! xum-dis xu/ii | gore /a — an 
old man said, a prayer you send up, and live, and walk, so they say^ heaven's things are prayers. 
kweba | gore ma /e ||nweba — a man says a prayer to the moon. 


I goren, | gori, n. baboon, s. _|gora. SI. (B. early) |goren. SVI. (D.B. ) Igori. 

Igori, V. to tan. Nil. (Wil.) 

Igorisa, n. a certain yellow bird. NI. (D.B.) 

|go:ro, | goro^ n. moth, Celvena renisigma, Walker. SI. (B. ) Igoro. Ex.: |go:ro e ka ||ka||kd sir) te'^oar-ka 

! ei-ta |i, au ts'^oor-ka lei ga s'^ar) |ka wa:i au ! gaue moths are wont to burn themselves in the 

Bushmen's fire, when the Bushmen shall kill springbok on the morrow. (LI.) | g6ro, emph. |goroken. Ex. 
I gorokan ||nau:, i ola se |kha ||k'"hwi, Igoro e: jhoaika, hir) ""! kau i-ka |i — moths do this, (when) 
our father will kill a quagga, black moths fly to our fire. 

Igoro, n. dead leaves, s. |k"oro. Nil. (LI.) Ex.: jxwe e fneko tsema, ta Ugabba | goro, ~!kar) ! gwasir), 

~!kag |nu |ne ||a jxwe was a little bird, and went into the dead leaves, a tree's leaves, a great 


Igorothi, n. tanner. CI. (Do.) 

I goru, V. to pour out slowly. CI. (Do.) 

Igorusi, n. cucumber, s. jkoro. SII. (D.B.) 

Igothi, n. a silent person. CI. (Do.) t 


I gou, Igo:, n. bow, s. jhou. SII. (D.B.) Ex.: | gou ha sir) k"uni 0bo the bow is made of wood. ' 

|go:qsn !u — two bows. 

Cm Igova, n. backdress of skin (of girl). SIV. (D.B.) 

« Igowe, big, large, s. |gau. CI. (Do.) 

ij"' Igowi, n. leg. NIa. (Leb. ) w. sp. 

jgolgoksn, n. water tortoise, Chersina angulata. s. | goe, !go:e. SI. (LI.) |g6|g5kfn. 

Igu:, t;. to hide, stick in, cover. SI. (LI.) |gu. Ex.: r) k"auki sair] ordko tai:&, o ka-g | ne |k"wS:lri 

!koar-ka jjho:, g se |gu: tg hs, r) se or6ko tai:f I cannot go quickly if I am carrying the bag of 

.... roots, I will hide it, I will go quickly. ( B. ) j gH , Ex.: ha se ! ham jne: |gu: ! ho |k"Q:g3n au 
■' 0ho he will first stick the knobkerrie into the bush 

■ '" 



81" I gu, n. Cape hunting dog, Lycaon pictus. Temminck, s. | gwa. NI. & Nil. (Sh.) Nil. (LI.) | gu, a certain 

^' wild beast that eats the buck and is ridden by |xwe. 


Igu:, n. bruise, blister. SI. (LI.) Igu. Ex.: ! kou kag dola koa ku, au g-ka ti e, he tiksn e:, |gu: |ii'[ 
|hir) hi a stone strikes a blow on this part of me, then a bruise comes out. i 

~j gu, n. name, s. !gu:. Nil. (Dk.) -yU. ] 

~|gu, n. camel (ridden by police), s. | gum. NI. (D.B.) i 

Ig^^ ~\5^> n. night, dark, s. jguwa. NI. (D.B.) Ex.: jkAm toa, ku _tnau, | gu ~t/i the sun finishes,] 

sets, night comes. 3usa o ! kai daa, t/i khauwi ~|gu ka many people carry firewood, this burns atj 

night, a |kwa se, |gu: ka (I) cannot see, it is dark. NIa. (Leb.: m. sp. | gu. w.sp. jngu. NII.(Bk.) --'■ 

(LI.) Igu, Igu. Ex.: d3U ti /u, ! nwerre ti d30, ~]gu --- people sleep, the place is black, night. |c 

d30 |nu |ne \\d the night was very black. ! kar) ||ir) ha ! khoa kwe ~|gu a stick pierced his kncfi 

in the dark. NIII. (D.B.) Ex.: ~|gu ki d30 --- night is dark. ~|gu ||ga~ua t/i --- at night the spiritj 
comes. i 


Igu, n. chest, s. |goa, |gubu. SVI. (D.B.) | 

Igu, n. head, s. !ku. Cllb. (Wil.) jgu.CII. & Clla. (Pa.) ^gu . NI. (Sei.) Ignui.CIIb. (Sei.) jgu. I 

Igu, near. CII. (Schi. ) 

Igu, n. hut. Cllb. (Wil.) 

I gua, n. plant, fokea an